Clitellata

Blackworm Lumbriculus variegatus, copyright Malcolm Storey.

Belongs within: Annelida.
Contains: Dinophilidae, Tubificida, Haplotaxidae, Opisthopora.

The Clitellata are a group of annelid worms characterised by the absence of parapodia and the presence of a clitellum, a distinct collar near the anterior end of the body that secretes a cocoon into which ova are deposited during reproduction. Clitellates have traditionally been divided between the free-living Oligochaeta (including earthworms) and parasitic Hirudinea (leeches) but phylogenetic studies have established that the former is paraphyletic to the latter.

<==Clitellata (see below for synonymy)
    |--Randiellidae [Randiellata, Randiellida]J88
    `--+--+--DinophilidaeRP07
       |  `--Capilloventer [Capilloventridae]RP07
       |       `--C. australis Erséus 1983RP07
       `--+--TubificidaJ88
          `--DiplotesticulataJ88
               |--HaplotaxidaeJ88
               `--+--Tiguassu [Tiguassuidae]J88
                  |    `--T. reginae Righi et al. 1978J88
                  `--Metagynophora [Megadrili]J88
                       |--OpisthoporaJ88
                       `--Moniligastridae [Moniligastrida, Moniligastrina]J88
                            |--Moniligaster troyi Jamieson 1977J88
                            |--Desmogaster doriae Rosa 1890J88
                            `--DrawidaR71
Clitellata incertae sedis:
  Calliobdella vividaM02
  Platybdella buccalisK-MC02
  Teleudrilus ragazziiG89
  PerichaetaR89
    |--P. armataF86a
    |--P. australis Fletcher 1886F86a
    |--P. austrina Fletcher 1886F86b
    |--P. barronensis Fletcher 1886F86b
    |--P. coxii Fletcher 1886F86a
    |--P. darnleiensis Fletcher 1886F86b
    |--P. dorsalis Fl. 1887F90
    |--P. fecundaF90
    |--P. gracilis Fletcher 1886F86b
    |--P. hamiltoniF90
    |--P. macquariensis Fletcher 1890F90
    |--‘Lampito’ mauritiiF86b
    |--P. modiglianii Rosa 1889R89
    |--P. peregrina Fletcher 1886F86b
    |--P. stirlingi Fl. 1887F90
    `--P. sumatranaF86b
  Quistadrilus multisetosusKA01
  Lumbricopsis Fritsch 1907H62
    `--*L. permicus Fritsch 1907H62
  Protoscolex Ulrich 1878W93, H62
    |--*P. covingtonensis Ulrich 1878H62
    `--P. batheriW93
  Narapa Righi & Varela 1983 [Narapidae]RV83
    `--*N. bonettoi Righi & Varela 1983RV83
  Ozobranchus [Ozobranchidae]BS17
Nomen nudum: Perichaeta gippslandicaF86a

Clitellata [Euclitellata, Haplotaxida, Haplotaxidea, Microdrili, Monotesticulata, Oligochaeta, Prosopora, Lumbriculina, Phreoryctina]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BS17] Bryce, C., & A. Sampey. 2017. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: additional phyla (Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Annelida, Platyhelminthes, Sipuncula, Cnidaria and Chordata). Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 345–361.

[F86a] Fletcher, J. J. 1886a. Notes on Australian earthworms. Part I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 523–574, pls 8–9.

[F86b] Fletcher, J. J. 1886b. Notes on Australian earthworms. Part II. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (3): 943–973, pl. 13.

[F90] Fletcher, J. J. 1890. Notes on Australian earthworms. Part VI. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (3): 987–1019.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso “Esploratore” dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[H62] Howell, B. F. 1962. Worms. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W144–W177. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[J88] Jamieson, B. G. M. 1988. On the phylogeny and higher classification of the Oligochaeta. Cladistics 4: 367–402.

[KA01] Kent, M. L., K. B. Andree, J. L. Bartholomew, M. El-Matbouli, S. S. Desser, R. H. Devlin, S. W. Feist, R. P. Hedrick, R. W. Hoffmann, J. Khattra, S. L. Hallett, R. J. G. Lester, M. Longshaw, O. Palenzuela, M. E. Siddall & C. Xiao. 2001. Recent advances in our knowledge of the Myxozoa. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 48: 395–413.

[K-MC02] Klein-MacPhee, G., & B. B. Collette. 2002. Eelpouts. Family Zoarcidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 466–474. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[M02] Musick, J. A. 2002. Sturgeons. Family Acipenseridae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 83–88. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[R71] Righi, G. 1971. Sôbre a família Glossoscolecidae (Oligochaeta) no Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 20 (1): 1–95.

[RV83] Righi, G., & M. E. Varela. 1983. Narapa bonettoi, gen. nov. sp. nov. (Oligochaeta, Narapidae, fam. nov.) de agua doce da Argentina. Rev. Asoc. Cienc. Nat. Litoral 14: 7–15.

[R89] Rosa, D. 1889. I lombrichi raccolti nell’isola Nias dal Signor E. Modigliani e descritti dal Dott. Daniele Rosa, Assistente al R. Museo Zoologico di Torino. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 125–136.

[RP07] Rousset, V., F. Pleijel, G. W. Rouse, C. Erséus & M. E. Siddall. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of annelids. Cladistics 23: 41–63.

[W93] Wills, M. A. 1993. Annelida. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 271–278. Chapman & Hall: London.

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