Clostridium

Clostridium botulinum, from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Belongs within: Firmicutes.
Contains: Lachnospiraceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Eubacterium.

Clostridium is a genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacteria forming resistant endospores.

<==Clostridium
    |--+--C. oroticumPHK96
    |  `--C. sporosphaeroidesPHK96
    |--+--C. paradoxumPH03
    |  `--+--C. glycolicumPH03
    |     `--C. irregularisPH03
    |--+--+--C. halophilumPH03
    |  |  `--Caminicella sporogenesPH03
    |  `--+--TindalliaPH03
    |     |    |--T. californiensis Pikuta, Hoover et al. 2003VP PH03
    |     |    `--T. magadiensisPH03
    |     `--+--Natronoincola histidinovoransPH03
    |        `--+--C. felsineumPH03
    |           `--C. formicoaceticumPH03
    `--+--C. gasigenesGG03
       `--+--+--+--C. novyiPHK96
          |  |  |--C. uliginosumGG03
          |  |  `--+--C. botulinumGG03
          |  |     `--+--C. kluyveriPHK96
          |  |        `--C. pasteurianumPHK96
          |  `--+--*C. butyricumGG03
          |     |--C. perfringensPHK96
          |     |--+--C. beijerinckiiGG03
          |     |  `--C. puniceumGG03
          |     `--SarcinaPHK96
          |          |--S. luteaPS57
          |          |--S. maximaDw92
          |          |--S. ureaeDw92
          |          `--S. ventriculiPHK96
          `--+--+--+--C. aurantibutyricumGG03
             |  |  `--C. chartatabidumGG03
             |  `--+--C. paraputrificumGG03
             |     `--C. vincentiiGG03
             `--+--C. colicanis Greetham, Gibson et al. 2003GG03
                `--+--LachnospiraceaeKZ03
                   |--+--+--C. acidiuriciBW02
                   |  |  `--C. purinolyticumBW02
                   |  `--+--Sedimentibacter Breitenstein, Wiegel et al. 2002BW02
                   |     |    |--*S. hydroxybenzoicus (Zhang et al.) Breitenstein, Wiegel et al. 2002 (see below for synonymy)BW02
                   |     |    `--S. saalensis Breitenstein, Wiegel et al. 2002BW02
                   |     `--+--Helcococcus kunziiBW02
                   |        `--+--PeptostreptococcaceaeBW02
                   |           `--+--Finegoldia magnaBW02
                   |              `--Micromonas microsBW02
                   `--+--C. mangenotiiBW02
                      `--+--C. lituseburenseBW02
                         `--+--C. sordelliiBW02
                            `--EubacteriaceaeLK01
                                 |--EubacteriumGG03
                                 |--PseudoramibacterGH01
                                 `--AcetobacteriumGH01
                                      |--A. carbinolicumDi92
                                      |--A. malicumDi92
                                      |--A. wieringaeDi92
                                      `--A. woodiiPK03
Clostridium incertae sedis:
  C. aceticumPK03
  C. acetireducensBW02
  C. acetobutylicumPK03
  C. aminovalericumBS02
  C. arcticumE92
  C. autotrophicumCM92
  C. barkeriPHK96
  C. butylicumE92
  C. cellobioparumCM92
  C. cellulolyticumCM92
  C. cellulovoransCM92
  C. clostridioformePH03
  C. coccoidesBS02
  C. cylindrosporumDi92
  C. difficilePHK96
  C. felsiniumE92
  C. hathewayi Steer, Collins et al. 2002VP IJSEM02
  C. herbivoransBS02
  C. histolyticumWGJ98
  C. hungatei Monserrate et al. 2001JC08
  C. josuiCM92
  C. lactoacetophilumE92
  C. leptumBS02
  C. litoralePH03
  C. lochheadiiSJ92
  C. longisporumPF99
  C. madisoniiE92
  C. magnumPK03
  C. nexileBS02
  C. papyrosolvensCM92
  C. pectinovorumPHK96
  C. pfennigiiDi92
  C. phytofermentans Warnick et al. 2002JC08
  C. polysaccharolyticumDC03
  C. populetiBS02
  C. propionicumGP92
  C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum Keis et al. 2001JC08
  C. septicumPHK96
  C. sporogenesPHK96
  C. stercorarium Madden 1983JC08
    |--C. s. ssp. stercorariumJC08
    |--C. s. ssp. leptospartum (Toda et al. 1989) Fardeau et al. 2001JC08
    `--C. s. ssp. thermolacticum (Le Ruyet et al. 1988) Fardeau et al. 2001JC08
  C. sticklandiiPH03
  C. symbiosumBS02
  C. tetaniPHK96
  C. tetanomorphumSJ92
  C. thermoautotrophicumDi92
  C. thermocellumSJ92
  C. thermocopriaeCM92
  C. thermohydrosulfuricumCM92
  C. thermosaccharolyticumCM92
  C. tyrobutylicumE92
  C. ultunensePK03

*Sedimentibacter hydroxybenzoicus (Zhang et al.) Breitenstein, Wiegel et al. 2002 [=Clostridium hydroxybenzoicum Zhang et al. 1994]BW02

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BS02] Bonnet, R., A. Suau, J. Doré, G. R. Gibson & M. D. Collins. 2002. Differences in rDNA libraries of faecal bacteria derived from 10- and 25-cycle PCRs. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52: 757–763.

[BW02] Breitenstein, A., J. Wiegel, C. Haertig, N. Weiss, J. R. Andreesen & U. Lechner. 2002. Reclassification of Clostridium hydroxybenzoicum as Sedimentibacter hydroxybenzoicus gen. nov., comb. nov., and description of Sedimentibacter saalensis sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52: 801–807.

[CM92] Coughlan, M. P., & F. Mayer. 1992. The cellulose-decomposing bacteria and their enzyme systems. In: Balows, A., H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K.-H. Schleifer (eds) The Prokaryotes: A handbook on the biology of bacteria: Ecophysiology, isolation, identification, applications 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 460–516. Springer-Verlag: New York.

[Di92] Diekert, G. 1992. The acetogenic bacteria. In: Balows, A., H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K.-H. Schleifer (eds) The Prokaryotes: A handbook on the biology of bacteria: Ecophysiology, isolation, identification, applications 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 517–533. Springer-Verlag: New York.

[DC03] Duan, Y. P., H. F. Castro, T. E. Hewlett, J. H. White & A. V. Ogram. 2003. Detection and characterization of Pasteuria 16S rRNA gene sequences from nematodes and soils. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 105–112.

[Dw92] Dworkin, M. 1992. Prokaryotic diversity. In: Balows, A., H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K.-H. Schleifer (eds) The Prokaryotes: A handbook on the biology of bacteria: Ecophysiology, isolation, identification, applications 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 48–74. Springer-Verlag: New York.

[E92] Eady, R. R. 1992. The dinitrogen-fixing bacteria. In: Balows, A., H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K.-H. Schleifer (eds) The Prokaryotes: A handbook on the biology of bacteria: Ecophysiology, isolation, identification, applications 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 534–553. Springer-Verlag: New York.

[GH01] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001. The road map to the Manual. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 119–166. Springer.

[GP92] Gottschalk, G., & S. Peinemann. 1992. The anaerobic way of life. In: Balows, A., H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K.-H. Schleifer (eds) The Prokaryotes: A handbook on the biology of bacteria: Ecophysiology, isolation, identification, applications 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 300–311. Springer-Verlag: New York.

[GG03] Greetham, H. L., G. R. Gibson, C. Giffard, H. Hippe, B. Merkhoffer, U. Steiner, E. Falsen & M. D. Collins. 2003. Clostridium colicanis sp. nov., from canine faeces. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 259–262.

[IJSEM02] IJSEM. 2002. Validation list no. 85: Validation of publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSEM. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52: 685–690.

[JC08] Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. 2008. Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58: 1755–1763.

[KZ03] Kopečný, J., M. Zorec, J. Mrázek, Y. Kobayashi & R. Marinšek-Logar. 2003. Butyrivibrio hungatei sp. nov. and Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans sp. nov., butyrate-producing bacteria from the rumen. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 201–209.

[LK01] Ludwig, W., & H.-P. Klenk. 2001. Overview: a phylogenetic backbone and taxonomic framework for procaryotic systematics. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 49–65. Springer.

[PK03] Parshina, S. N., R. Kleerebezem, J. L. Sanz, G. Lettinga, A. N. Nozhevnikova, N. A. Kostrikina, A. M. Lysenko & A. J. M. Stams. 2003. Soehningia saccharolytica gen. nov., sp. nov. and Clostridium amygdalinum sp. nov., two novel anaerobic, benzaldehyde-converting bacteria. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1791–1799.

[PF99] Philippe, H., & P. Forterre. 1999. The rooting of the universal tree of life is not reliable. Journal of Molecular Evolution 49: 509–523.

[PH03] Pikuta, E. V., R. B. Hoover, A. K. Bej, D. Marsic, E. N. Detkova, W. B. Whitman & P. Krader. 2003. Tindallia californiensis sp. nov., a new anaerobic haloalkaliphilic, spore-forming acetogen isolated from Mono Lake in California. Extremophiles 7: 327–334.

[PS57] Preobrazhenskaya, T. P., & M. A. Sveshnikova. 1957. Characteristics of antagonistic actinomycetes of the lavendulae-roseus series. In: Gauze, G. F. (eds) Voprosy Klassifikacii Aktinomicetov-Antagonistov pp. 31–50. State Publishing House for Medical Literature: Moscow (translated: Problems in the Classification of Antagonistic Actinomycetes pp. 21–37. American Institute of Biological Sciences: Washington, D.C.)

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[SJ92] Schlegel, H. G., & H. W. Jannasch. 1992. Prokaryotes and their habitats. In: Balows, A., H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K.-H. Schleifer (eds) The Prokaryotes: A handbook on the biology of bacteria: Ecophysiology, isolation, identification, applications 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 75–125. Springer-Verlag: New York.

[WGJ98] Wright, D. S., L. D. Graham & P. A. Jennings. 1998. Cloning of a Lysobacter enzymogenes gene that encodes an arginyl endopeptidase (endoproteinase Arg-C). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1443: 369–374.

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