Chinese herring Ilisha elongata, copyright J. E. Randall.

Belongs within: Otomorpha.
Contains: Clupeidae, Stolephorus, Anchovia, Coilia, Thryssa.

The Clupeiformes, herring, anchovies and related taxa, are a cosmopolitan group of mostly marine fishes that usually bear silvery deciduous scales.

Characters (from Bond 1996): Scales cycloid, usually silvery, deciduous, often modified into posteriorly directed scutes along mid-line of belly; fins with soft rays, pelvics abdominal; part of sensory canal system extending over opercle and subopercle; gas bladder extended forward in two branches that enter the skell and terminate in small vesicles within ossified bullae, forming otophysic connection with utriculus of ear; caudal fin with urostyle composed of centrum of terminal vertebrae and first uroneural, first hypural separated from urostyle.

<==Clupeiformes [Clupei]
    |  i. s.: Spratticeps W79
    |–Denticipitidae [Denticipitoidei] B-RB13
    |    |–Denticeps clupeoides B96
    |    `–Palaeodenticeps tanganikae Greenwood 1960 P93
    `–Clupeoidei B-RB13
         |  i. s.: Sundasalanx B96 [Sundasalangidae B-RB13]
         |         Dussumieriidae [Dussumieriinae] B-RB13
         |           |–Dussumieria M58
         |           |    |–D. acuta Valenciennes 1847 (see below for synonymy) MWN99b
         |           |    `–D. elopsoides Bleeker 1849 [incl. D. productissima Chabanaud 1933] MWN99b
         |           `–Spratelloides M58
         |                |–S. delicatulus (Bennett 1832) MWN99b (see below for synonymy)
         |                |–S. gracilis (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) (see below for synonymy) MWN99b
         |                |–S. japonicus (Houttuyn 1782) [=Atherina japonica] M58
         |                |–S. lewisi Wongratana 1983 MWN99b
         |                `–S. robustus Ogilby 1897 MWN99b
         |–Clupeoidea P93
         |    |–Clupeidae B-RB13
         |    `–Chirocentrus [Chirocentridae, Chirocentroidei] P93
         |         |–C. dorab (Forsskål 1775) MNW99 [=Clupea dorab M58; incl. Ch. hypselosoma Bleeker 1852 MNW99]
         |         |–C. exilis Stinton 1977 P93
         |         `–C. nudus Swainson 1839 MNW99
         |–Pristigasteridae [Pellonidae, Pristigasteroidea] P93
         |    |–Raconda russeliana Gray 1831 (see below for synonymy) MWN99a
         |    |–Ramnogaster MWN99a
         |    |–Pellona ditchela Valenciennes 1847 (see below for synonymy) MWN99a
         |    |–Gasteroclupea branisai Signeux 1964 P93
         |    |–Pristigaster G66
         |    |    |–P. argenteus G66
         |    |    `–P. macrops G66
         |    |–Opisthopterus MWN99a
         |    |    |–O. tardoore (Cuvier 1829) (see below for synonymy) MWN99a
         |    |    `–O. valenciennesi Bleeker 1872 MWN99a
         |    `–Ilisha MWN99a
         |         |–I. africana EA03
         |         |–I. elongata (Bennett 1830) (see below for synonymy) MWN99a
         |         |–I. filigera (Valenciennes 1847) [incl. Pellona xanthopterus Bleeker 1851, I. xanthopterus] MWN99a
         |         |–I. hoevenii JR10
         |         |–I. kampeni (Weber & de Beaufort 1913) [incl. I. whiteheadi Seshagiri Rao 1974] MWN99a
         |         |–I. lunula Kailola 1986 MWN99a
         |         |–I. macrogaster Bleeker 1866 [=Pellona macrogaster] MWN99a
         |         |–I. megaloptera (Swainson 1839) [incl. Pellona dussumieri Valenciennes 1847] MWN99a
         |         |–I. melastoma (Bloch & Schneider 1801) (see below for synonymy) MWN99a
         |         |–I. pristigastroides (Bleeker 1852) (see below for synonymy) MWN99a
         |         |–I. sirishai Seshagiri Rao 1975 MWN99a
         |         `–I. striatula Wongratana 1983 MWN99a
         `–Engraulidae [Coiliidae, Engrauloidea] P93
              |–Thrissocles purava (Hamilton-Buchanan 1822) [=Clupea purava; incl. Engraulis samam Thiollière 1857] M58
              |–Stolephorus M58
              |–Anchovia JR10
              |–Lycothrissa crocodilus (Bleeker 1851) WMN99
              |–Papuengraulis micropinna Munro 1964 WMN99
              |–Coilia WMN99
              |–Thryssa WMN99
              |–Anchoa M02a
              |    |–A. delicatissima AS09
              |    |–A. hepsetus (Linnaeus 1758) M02a
              |    |–A. mitchilli (Valenciennes 1848) M02a
              |    `–A. nitida Schwarzhans 1980 P93
              |–Setipinna M58
              |    |–S. breviceps (Cantor 1849) (see below for synonymy) WMN99
              |    |–S. melanochir (Bleeker 1849) WMN99
              |    |–S. paxtoni Wongratana 1987 WMN99
              |    |–S. taty (Valenciennes 1848) [=Engraulis taty] M58
              |    `–S. tenuifilis (Valenciennes 1848) (see below for synonymy) WMN99
              |–Encrasicholina WMN99
              |    |–E. devisi (Whitley 1940) WMN99 [=Amentum devisi M58, Stolephorus devisi WMN99]
              |    |–E. heteroloba (Rüppell 1837) WMN99 (see below for synonymy)
              |    |–E. oligobranchus (Wongratana 1983) [=Stolephorus oligobranchus] WMN99
              |    |–E. punctifer (Fowler 1938) [=Stolephorus punctifer; incl. S. buccaneeri Strasburg 1960] WMN99
              |    `–E. purpurea (Fowler 1900) WMN99 [=Anchovia purpurea M58, Stolephorus purpureus WMN99]
              `–Engraulis M02a
                   |–E. australis (White 1790) (see below for synonymy) WMN99
                   |–E. capensis JB05
                   |–E. clupeoides F16
                   |–E. encrasicholus CH97
                   |–E. eurystole M02a
                   |–E. japonicus Temminck & Schlegel 1846 [incl. Stolephorus celebicus Hardenberg 1933] WMN99
                   |–E. mordax CH97
                   |–E. mysticetus G66
                   |–E. ringens CH97
                   `–E. tethensis Grande & Nelson 1985 P93

Dussumieria acuta Valenciennes 1847 [incl. Etrumeus albulina Fowler 1934, D. hasselti Bleeker 1851] MWN99b

Encrasicholina heteroloba (Rüppell 1835) WMN99, M58 [=Engraulis heterolobus M58, Anchoviella heteroloba M58, Stolephorus heterolobus WMN99; incl. S. pseudoheterolobus Hardenberg 1933 WMN99]

Engraulis australis (White 1790) [incl. E. antarcticus Castelnau 1872, E. encrasicholus var. antipodum Günther 1868, E. australis antipodum, E. australis fraseri Blackburn 1950] WMN99

Ilisha elongata (Bennett 1830) [=Pellona elongata; incl. I. abnormis Richardson 1846, I. affinis (Gray 1830)] MWN99a

Ilisha melastoma (Bloch & Schneider 1801) [incl. Pellona brachysoma Bleeker 1852, Pe. ditchoa Valenciennes 1847, Ilisha indica (Swainson 1839), Platygaster indica, Clupanodon motius Hamilton 1822] MWN99a

Ilisha pristigastroides (Bleeker 1852) [incl. Pellona amblyuropterus Bleeker 1852, Ilisha amblyuroptera] MWN99a

Opisthopterus tardoore (Cuvier 1829) [incl. Pristigaster elongata Swainson 1838, P. indicus Swainson 1839, Opisthopterus macrognathus Bleeker 1866, P. tartoor Valenciennes 1847, O. tartoor, O. tartur Zugmayer 1913] MWN99a

Pellona ditchela Valenciennes 1847 [incl. P. hoevenii Bleeker 1852, P. natalensis Gilchrist & Thompson 1908] MWN99a

Raconda russeliana Gray 1831 [incl. Apterygia hamiltoni Valenciennes 1847, A. ramcarata Gray 1835] MWN99a

Setipinna breviceps (Cantor 1849) [=Heterothrissa breviceps; incl. Engraulis pfeifferi Bleeker 1852] WMN99

Setipinna tenuifilis (Valenciennes 1848) [incl. S. gilberti Jordan & Starks 1905, S. godavari Babu Rao 1962, S. lighti Wu 1929, S. papuensis Munro 1964] WMN99

Spratelloides delicatulus (Bennett 1832) MWN99b [=Clupea delicatula M58, Stolephorus delicatulus M58; incl. Alosa alburnus Kner & Steindachner 1867 MWN99b, Clupea macassariensis Bleeker 1849 MWN99b]

Spratelloides gracilis (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) [incl. Clupea argyrotaeniata Bleeker 1849, C. (Leptogaster) argyrotaenia, Spratelloides atrofasciatus Schultz 1943] MWN99b

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS09] Alfaro, M. E., F. Santini, C. Brock, H. Alamillo, A. Dornburg, D. L. Rabosky, G. Carnevale & L. J. Harmon. 2009. Nine exceptional radiations plus high turnover explain species diversity in jawed vertebrates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (32): 13410–13414.

[B-RB13] Betancur-R., R., R. E. Broughton, E. O. Wiley, K. Carpenter, A. López, C. Li, N. I. Holcroft, D. Arcila, M. Sanciangco, J. C. Cureton, II, F. Zhang, T. Buser, M. A. Campbell, J. A. Ballesteros, A. Roa-Varon, S. Willis, W. C. Borden, T. Rowley, P. C. Reneau, D. J. Hough, G. Lu, T. Grande, G. Arratia & G. Ortí. 2013. The tree of life and a new classification of bony fishes. PLoS Currents Tree of Life April 18 2013. doi: 10.1371/currents.tol.53ba26640df0ccaee75bb165c8c26288.

[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[CH97] Castro, P., & M. E. Huber. 1997. Marine Biology 2nd ed. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[EA03] Écoutin, J.-M., & J.-J. Albaret. 2003. Relation longueur-poids pour 52 espèces de poissons des estuaires et lagunes de l’Afrique de l’Ouest. Cybium 27 (1): 3–9.

[F16] Fowler, H. W. 1916. The fishes of Trinidad, Grenada, and St. Lucia, British West Indies. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (3): 520–548.

[G66] Günther, A. 1866. Memoir on the fishes of the states of Central America collected by Messrs. Salvin and Godman and Capt. Dow. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 600–604.

[JB05] Johnston, S. J., & D. S. Butterworth. 2005. Evolution of operational management procedures for the South African west coast rock lobster (Jasus lalandii) fishery. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 39 (3): 687–702.

[JR10] Jordan, D. S., & R. E. Richardson. 1910. Check-list of the species of fishes known from the Philippine archipelago. Bureau of Printing: Manila.

[M58] Munro, I. S. R. 1958. The fishes of the New Guinea region: a check-list of the fishes of New Guinea incorporating records of species collected by the Fisheries Survey Vessel “Fairwind” during the years 1948 to 1950. Papua and New Guinea Agricultural Journal 10 (4): 97–369 (reprinted 1958. Territory of Papua and New Guinea Fisheries Bulletin no. 1).

[M02] Munroe, T. A. 2002. Anchovies. Family Engraulidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 105–111. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[MNW99] Munroe, T. A., M. S. Nizinski & T. Wongratana. 1999. Chirocentridae. Wolf-herrings. In: Carpenter, K. E., & V. H. Niem (eds) The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae) pp. 1771–1774. FAO: Rome.

[MWN99a] Munroe, T. A., T. Wongratana & M. S. Nizinski. 1999a. Pristigasteridae. Ilishas, pellonas. In: Carpenter, K. E., & V. H. Niem (eds) The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae) pp. 1754–1770. FAO: Rome.

[MWN99b] Munroe, T. A., T. Wongratana & M. S. Nizinski. 1999b. Clupeidae. Herrings (also, sardines, shads, sprats, pilchards, and menhadens). In: Carpenter, K. E., & V. H. Niem (eds) The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae) pp. 1775–1821. FAO: Rome.

[P93] Patterson, C. 1993. Osteichthyes: Teleostei. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 621–656. Chapman & Hall: London.

[W79] Wiley, E. O. 1979. An annotated Linnean hierarchy, with comments on natural taxa and competing systems. Systematic Zoology 28 (3): 308–337.

[WMN99] Wongratana, T., T. A. Munroe & M. S. Nizinski. 1999. Engraulidae. Anchovies. In: Carpenter, K. E., & V. H. Niem (eds) The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae) pp. 1698–1753. FAO: Rome.

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