Clypeaster

Clypeaster reticulatus, from here.

Belongs within: Clypeasteroida.

Clypeaster is a higly diverse genus of sand dollars, with over 400 named taxa in the literature, known from the Upper Eocene to the present (Durham 1966).

Characters (from Durham 1966): Medium-sized to large, test flattened to highly campanulate, margin rounded to flattened and inflated; peristome usually in deep infundibulum; oral surface flat to concave; petals variable, closed and rounded to open or sublyrate, with outer pores elongate, inner ones rounded, commonly connected by groove; periproct usually inframarginal, rarely marginal, situated between third and fourth, or fourth and fifth, pair of coronal plates; buccal membrane naked, with imbedded irregular spicules; internal supports variable in abundance, consisting of thin laminae and pillars; wall of test sometimes double, separated by pillars.

<==Clypeaster Lamarck 1801M89 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*C. (Clypeaster) rosaceus (Linnaeus 1758)M89 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. (Coronanthus Lambert 1913)D66
    |    |--C. (*C.) microstoma Lambert 1914D66
    |    |--C. (C.) latissimus (Lamarck 1816)SM15
    |    `--C. (C.) telurus Clark 1914SM15
    |--C. (Rhaphidoclypus Agassiz 1863) [=Rhaphydoclypus Checchia-Rispoli 1925]D66
    |    `--C. (R.) reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758)SM15 (see below for synonymy)
    `--C. (Stolonoclypus Agassiz 1863)D66
         |--C. humilis (Leske 1778) [=Echinanthus humilis; incl. *Stolonoclypus placunarius Agassiz 1863]D66
         `--C. (S.) virescens Döderlein 1885SM15
Clypeaster incertae sedis:
  C. aegyptiacusO75
  C. altus (Leske 1778) [=Echinanthus altus, *Miophyma altum]D66
    |--C. a. altusD66
    `--C. a. alticostatusD66
  C. annandalei Koehler 1922 [=*Leptoclypus annandalei]D66
  C. atlas Pomel 1887 [=*Pliophyma atlas]D66
  C. australasiaeD66
  C. breunigi Laube 1868 [=*Laubeanthus breunigi, *Paleanthus breunigi]D66
  C. confusus Pomel 1887 [=*Paratina confusa, *Paratinanthus confusus]D66
  C. corwini Pavay 1874 [=*Pavaya corwini]D66
  C. doma Pomel 1887 [=*Oxclypeina doma, *Oxypleura doma]D66
  C. duchassaingi Michelin 1861 [=*Eurypleura duchassaingi, *Tholeopelta duchassaingi]D66
  C. euclastus Clark 1941 [=*Orthanthus euclastus]D66
  C. europacificusD66
  C. fervensD66
  C. hernandezi [=*Rojasaster hernandezi]D66
  C. intermedius Desmoulin 1837 [=*Eurycoila intermedia]D66
  C. japonicusD66
  C. lamprusD66
  *Alexandria’ magnifica Pfeffer 1881 [=*Alexandraspis magnifica]D66
  C. marbellensis (Boussac 1911)SG93 [=*Biarritzella marbellensisD66]
  C. marginatus Lamarck 1816 [=*Platyclypeina marginata, *Platypleura marginata]D66
  C. ochrusD66
  C. priscus Oppenheim 1901 [=*Guebhardanthus priscus]D66
  C. profundus Agassiz 1840D66
  C. ‘profundus’ Sánchez Roig 1949 non Agassiz 1840 [=*Herrerasia profunda]D66
  C. prostratusD66
  C. rangianusD66
  C. rarispinusD66
  C. raveneliiD66
  C. rotundusD66
  C. scillae Desmoulins 1837 [=*Bunactus scillae]D66
  C. scutellaeformis Pomel 1885 [=*Laganidea scutellaeformis]D66
  C. speciosusMD66
  C. subdepressusM89
  ‘Echinanthus’ testudinarius Gray 1851 [=*Plesianthus testudinarius]D66
  ‘Echinanthus’ tumidus Woods 1878 [=*Anomalanthus tumidus]D66
  *Zanolettia’ zanoletti Sánchez Roig 1951D66

Clypeaster Lamarck 1801M89 [=Scutum Schumacher 1817D66, Diplothecanthus Duncan 1889D66, Echinanthus Gray 1825 non Leske 1778D66, Echinorodorum Pomel 1883D66, Nyctimene Gistl 1848 nec Bechstein 1800 nec Morris 1837D66; incl. Alexandraspis Lambert & Thiéry 1914D66, Alexandria Pfeffer 1881D66, Anomalanthus Bell 1884D66, Biarritzella Boussac 1911D66, Bunactus Pomel 1887D66, Dactylanthus Lambert 1912 nec Hooker 1859 (ICBN) nec Carlgren 1911D66, Eurycoila Lambert 1912D66, Eurypleura Lambert 1912 non Kaup 1858D66, Guebhardanthus Lambert 1914D66, Herrerasia Sánchez Roig 1952D66, Laganidea Pomel 1887D66, Laubeanthus Lambert 1914D66, Leptoclypus Koehler 1922D66, Miophyma Pomel 1887D66, Orthanthus Mortensen 1948D66, Oxclypeina Lambert & Thiéry 1913D66, Oxypleura Pomel 1887 non Amyot & Serville 1843D66, Paleanthus Lambert 1912D66, Paratina Pomel 1887 non Mik 1874D66, Paratinanthus Lambert & Thiéry 1913D66, Pavaya Pomel 1883D66, Platyclypeina Lambert & Thiéry 1913D66, Platypleura Pomel 1887 non Amyot & Serville 1843D66, Plesianthus Duncan 1889D66, Pliophyma Pomel 1887D66, Rojasaster Sánchez Roig 1952D66, Tholeopelta Lambert & Thiéry 1913D66, Zanolettia Sánchez Roig 1951D66; Clypeasteridae]

*Clypeaster (Clypeaster) rosaceus (Linnaeus 1758)M89 [=Echinus rosaceusM89, *Diplothecanthus rosaceusD66, *Echinanthus rosaceusD66, *Echinorodorum rosaceumD66, *Nyctimene rosaceaD66, *Scutum rosaceumD66]

Clypeaster (Rhaphidoclypus) reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758)SM15 [=Echinus reticulatusD66; incl. *Rhaphidoclypus scutiformis Agassiz 1863D66, *Rhaphydoclypus scutiformisD66]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[D66] Durham, J. D. 1966. Clypeasteroids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U450–U491. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[MD66] Melville, R. V., & J. W. Durham. 1966. Echinoids—skeletal morphology. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 1 pp. U220–U251. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[M89] Mooi, R. 1989. Living and fossil genera of the Clypeasteroida (Echinoidea: Echinodermata): an illustrated key and annotated checklist. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 488: 1–51.

[O75] Owen, R. 1875. On fossil evidences of a sirenian mammal (Eotherium aegyptiacum, Owen) from the nummulitic Eocene of the Mokattam cliffs, near Cairo. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 31: 100–105.

[SM15] Sampey, A., & L. M. Marsh. 2015. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: echinoderms. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 207–246.

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