Codium spongiosum, copyright Philippe Bourjon.

Belongs within: Bryopsidales.

Codium is a cosmopolitan genus of marine algae with spongy thalli (Norris 2010).

Characters (from Norris 2010): Algae spongy, non-calcareous macrothalli of definite shapes, either prostrate or repent globose or pulvinate forms, or erect branching cylindrical, compressed, or complanate forms. Internally, thalli composed of branched filaments organised into medulla of longitudinal, densely intertwined, colorless coenocytic filaments (medullary siphons) and outer surface layer of inflated, cylindrical or clavate, photosynthetic utricles with apical wall usually thickened and often ornamented in characteristic pattern. Utricles developed primarily by enlargement of sympodial branches of medullary siphons, secondarily by budding or by production of additional utricle-forming medullary siphons from basal portion of existing utricles. Rhizoidal filaments (siphons), which grow into the medulla, also produced from basal portion of utricles. Colorless hairs produced along sides of utricles, with basal plug remaining as prominent scar after hair falls off. Asexual reproduction by parthenogenesis, fragmentation, or cutting off of modified aborted gametangia. Monoecious or dioecious. Gametangia cylindrical or fusiform to ovate above short pedicel with basal plug and borne laterally on utricles. Biflagellate anisogametes extruded in gelatinous masses upon rupture of apices of gametangia. Male gametes very small with one or two chloroplasts; female gametes much larger with numerous chloroplasts. Life histories not fully known. Zygote develops into amorphous, prostrate vesicle that produces erect elongate vesicles; these, in turn, initiate primary utricle-producing siphons that eventually consolidate into multiaxial thallus. Occasionally with filamentous derbesioid or vaucherioid stage in life history.

<==Codium Stackhouse 1797 [Codiaceae, Codieae]N10
    |--C. adhaerens Agardh 1824L27
    |--C. amphibiumG64
    |--C. amplivesiculatum Setchell & Gardner 1924 [incl. C. longiramosum Setchell & Gardner 1924, C. magnum Dawson 1950]N10
    |--C. arabicum Kützing 1856HL09
    |--C. brandegeei Setchell & Gardner 1924 (see below for synonymy)N10
    |--C. bursaM62
    |--C. cylindricum Holmes 1896N10
    |--C. decorticatum (Woodward) Howe 1911N10
    |--C. dichotomum (Hudson) Gray 1821N10
    |--C. difformePP64
    |--C. duthieaeHK90
    |--C. dwarkense Børgesen 1947HL09
    |--C. fernandezianum Setchell 1937N10
    |--C. fragile (Suringar) Hariot 1889 [=Acanthocodium fragile Suringar 1868]N10
    |    |--C. f. ssp. fragileW03
    |    `--C. f. ssp. tomentosoidesW03
    |--C. geppiorum Schmidt 1923HS14
    |--C. harveyiHK90
    |--C. isabelae Taylor 1945N10
    |--C. latumN10
    |    |--C. l. ssp. latumN10
    |    `--C. l. ssp. palmeri (Dawson) Silva 1962 [=C. palmeri Dawson 1945]N10
    |--C. mamillosumG05
    |--C. mucronatum Agardh 1886L27
    |    |--C. m. var. mucronatumL27
    |    `--C. m. var. novae-zelandiae Agardh 1886L27
    |--C. muelleri Kuetz 1856L27
    |--C. picturatum Pedroche & Silva 1996N10
    |--C. platylobiumG63
    |--C. repens Crouan & Crouan 1905HS14
    |--C. ritteri Setchell & Gardner 1903S57
    |--C. setchellii Gardner 1919S57
    |--C. simulans Setchell & Gardner 1924 (see below for synonymy)N10
    |--C. spongiosum Harvey 1855HS14
    |--C. tomentosum Stackhouse 1797N10 [=Fucus tomentosusBS-V28, Spongodium tomentosumBS-V28]
    |--C. vermilaraPP64
    `--C. yesoenseL10

Codium brandegeei Setchell & Gardner 1924 [incl. C. anastomosans Setchell & Gardner 1924, C. cervicorne Setchell & Gardner 1924, C. macdougalii Dawson 1944, C. reductum Setchell & Gardner 1924]N10

Codium simulans Setchell & Gardner 1924 [incl. C. conjunctum Setchell & Gardner 1924, C. cuneatum Setchell & Gardner 1924, C. unilaterale Setchell & Gardner 1924]N10

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BS-V28] Bory de Saint-Vincent, J. B. 1828. Voyage Autour du Monde, Exécuté par Ordre du Roi, Sur la Corvette de Sa Majesté, La Coquille, pendant les années 1822, 1823, 1824 et 1825. Botanique. Cryptogamie. Arthus Bertrand: Paris.

[G63] Giffen, M. H. 1963. Contributions to the diatom flora of South Africa. I. Diatoms of the estuaries of the eastern Cape Province. Hydrobiologia 21: 201–265.

[G05] Goldberg, N. A. 2005. Temporal variation in subtidal macroalgal assemblages at Black Island, Recherche Archipelago. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (2): 65–71.

[G64] Gray, J. E. 1864. Handbook of British Water-weeds or Algae. R. Hardwicke: London.

[HK90] Huisman, J. M., G. A. Kendrick, D. I. Walker & A. Couté. 1990. The marine algae of Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 89–100. Western Australian Museum.

[HL09] Huisman, J. M., F. Leliaert, H. Veerbruggen & R. A. Townsend. 2009. Marine benthic plants of Western Australia’s shelf-edge atolls. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 50–87.

[HS14] Huisman, J. M., & A. Sampey. 2014. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: marine plants. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 45–67.

[JLG03] Jacobsen, S., K. Lüning & F. Goulard. 2003. Circadian changes in relative abundance of two photosynthetic transcripts in the marine macroalga Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 39: 888–896.

[L27] Laing, R. M. 1927. A reference list of New Zealand marine algae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 126–185.

[L10] Levenets, I. R. 2010. Macroalgae of fouling, scallop epibiosis and benthos in the southern Primorye, Sea of Japan. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 208–213. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[N10] Norris, J. N. 2010. Marine algae of the northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: 1–276.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

[W03] Womersley, H. B. S. 2003. The Marine Benthic Flora of southern Australia. Rhodophytapart IIID. CeramialesDelesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 18. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra, and the State Herbarium of South Australia: Adelaide.

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