Diphyes dispar, photographed by R. Hopcroft.

Belongs within: Medusozoa.

The Codonophora is a clade within the siphonophores characterised by the presence of nectosomes, bell-shaped zooids specialised for swimming, and gelatinous shield-like bracts (these latter lost in some subgroups) (Dunn et al. 2005).

<==Codonophora [Brachystelia, Physonectae]
    |  i. s.: Lychnagalma utricularia [incl. L. vesicularia]DPH05
    |         Discolabe quadrigataH04
    |         Strobalia cupolaH04
    |--ApolemaDPH05 [ApolemidaeDB07]
    `--+--Cordagalma cordiformeDPH05
       |--Stephalia [Rhodaliidae]DPH05
       |    `--S. dilataDPH05
       |    |--S. amphytridis [=Halistemma amphytridis, S. amphitridis (l. c.)]DPH05
       |    |--S. bijugaB26
       |    |--S. caraB26
       |    `--S. uvariaR26
       |    |--Pyrostephos vanhoeffeniPO99
       |    `--BargmanniaDPH05
       |         |--B. amoenaDPH05
       |         `--B. elongataDPH05
       |--+--+--Physophora [Physophoridae]DPH05
       |  |  |    |--P. borealisM06
       |  |  |    |--P. hydrostaticaDPH05
       |  |  |    `--P. musonemaG20
       |  |  `--Forskalia [Forskaliidae]DPH05
       |  |       |--F. tholoidesDPH05
       |  |       `--+--F. edwardsiDPH05
       |  |          `--+--F. asymmetricaDPH05
       |  |             `--F. formosaDPH05
       |  `--AgalmatidaeDPH05
       |       |--NanomiaDPH05
       |       |    |--N. bijugaDPH05
       |       |    `--N. caraIF02
       |       `--+--Halistemma rubrumDPH05
       |          `--AgalmaDPH05
       |               |--A. clausiDPH05
       |               `--+--A. elegansDPH05
       |                  `--+--A. okeniDPH05
       |                     `--Athorybia [Athorybiidae]DPH05
       |                          `--A. rosaceaDPH05
       `--Calycophorae [Calyconectae]DPH05
            |--+--Praya [Prayidae]DPH05
            |  |    |--P. dubiaDPH05
            |  |    `--P. galeaH04
            |  `--+--Nectadamas diomedeaeDPH05
            |     `--Nectopyramis natansDPH05
            `--+--Craseoa latheticaDPH05
               |--+--+--Gymnopraia lapislazulaDPH05
               |  |  `--Rosacea flaccidaDPH05
               |  `--Vogtia Kölliker 1853DPH05
               |       |--V. pentacanthaDPH05
               |       `--+--V. glabraDPH05
               |          `--Hippopodius Quoy & Gaimard 1827 [Hippopodiidae]DPH05
               |               `--H. hippopusDPH05
               `--+--+--Chuniphyes multidentataDPH05
                  |  `--Clausophyes [Clausophyidae]DPH05
                  |       `--C. ovataDPH05
                  `--+--Sphaeronectes [Sphaeronectidae]DPH05
                     |    |--S. fragilisPO99
                     |    |--S. gracilisDPH05
                     |    `--S. irregularisPO99
                          |--+--Muggiaea atlanticaDPH05
                          |  `--+--Lensia conoideaDPH05
                          |     `--Sulculeolaria quadrivalvisDPH05
                          `--+--Chelophyes appendiculataDPH05
                                |    |--Abylopsis tetragonaDPH05
                                |    `--Bassia obeliscusH04
                                     |--D. appendiculataB26
                                     |--D. arcticaB26
                                     |--D. bojaniB26
                                     |--D. chamissonisZS10
                                     |--D. disparDPH05
                                     |--D. spiralisB26
                                     `--D. truncataB26

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[DB07] Daly, M., M. R. Brugler, P. Cartwright, A. G. Collins, M. N. Dawson, D. G. Fautin, S. C. France, C. S. McFadden, D. M. Opresko, E. Rodriguez, S. L. Romano & J. L. Stake. 2007. The phylum Cnidaria: a review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa 1668: 127–182.

[DPH05] Dunn, C. W., P. R. Pugh & S. H. D. Haddock. 2005. Molecular phylogenetics of the Siphonophora (Cnidaria), with implications for the evolution of functional specialization. Systematic Biology 54 (6): 916–935.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[IF02] Ivantsov, A. Yu., & M. A. Fedonkin. 2002. Conulariid-like fossil from the Vendian of Russia: a metazoan clade across the Proterozoic/Palaeozoic boundary. Palaeontology 45 (6): 1219–1229.

[M06] Maas, O. 1906. Die arktischen Medusen (ausschliesslich der Polypomedusen). In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 479–526. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[PO99] Pagès, F., & C. Orejas. 1999. Medusae, siphonophores and ctenophores of the Magellan region. Scientia Marina 63 (Suppl. 1): 51–57.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[ZS10] Zhang, G.-T., S. Sun, Z.-L. Xu & Q.-L. Zhang. 2010. Unexpected dominance of the subtropical copepod Temora turbinata in the temperate Changjiang River estuary and its possible causes. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 100–102. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

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