Electric blue hermit Calcinus elegans, copyright Fafner.

Belongs within: Anomala.
Contains: Calcinus, Clibanarius.

The Coenobitoidea are a group of crab-like decapods that mostly live as hermit crabs, though the large coconut crab Birgus latro abandons the use of a protective shell as it grows to maturity.

Characters (from McLaughlin & Lemaitre 2001): Mandible with incisor process calcareous, lacking acute teeth; third maxillipeds generally approximate basally; chelipeds equal, subequal or unequal, left frequently largest; fourth pereopods not developed as walking legs; sternite XI fused to sternite XII.

    |--Pylochelidae [Pomatochelidae]ML01
    |    |--Pylocheles mortensenii Boas 1926MG-H11
    |    |--Parapylocheles Alcock 1901ML01
    |    |--Cancellocheles Forest 1987ML01
    |    `--Mixtopagurus Milne-Edwards 1880ML01
    |         `--M. paradoxus Milne-Edwards 1880ML01
    |    |--Birgus Leach 1815GT03
    |    |    `--B. latro (Linnaeus 1758)H86
    |    `--Coenobita Latreille 1829B55
    |         |--C. brevimanus Dana 1852DAS03
    |         |--C. cavipes Stimpson 1858HS15
    |         |--C. clypeatus (Fabricius 1787)ML01
    |         |--C. diogenes (Fabricius 1775) [=Pagurus diogenes, Cenobita (l. c.) diogenes]B55
    |         |--C. perlatus Milne Edwards 1837TSH09
    |         |--C. rugosus Milne-Edwards 1837TSH09 [incl. C. compressa Milne-Edwards 1837B55, C. compressusB55]
    |         |--C. spinosus Milne Edwards 1837HS15 [incl. C. spinosa var. olivieriH09]
    |         `--C. variabilis McCulloch 1909HS15
    `--Diogenidae [Diogeninae]ML01
         |    |--C. parfaitiL95
         |    `--C. typaM90
         |--Aniculus ursus (Olivier 1811)TSH09
         |    |--S. elongatus Forest 1995MG-H11
         |    `--S. strigimanus (White 1847)HS15
         |    |--D. avarus Heller 1865HS15
         |    |--D. biramus Morgan 1987HS15
         |    |--D. custosH15
         |    |--D. gardineri Alcock 1905HS15
         |    |--D. granulatus Miers 1880J90
         |    |--D. pugilator (Roux 1829)KK03
         |    |--D. rectimanus Miers 1884HS15
         |    |--D. serenei Forest 1956HS15
         |    `--D. stenops Morgan & Forest 1991HS15
         |    |--C. shebae (Lewinsohn 1969)MG-H11
         |    `--C. strigatus (Herbst 1804)TSH09
         |--Petrochirus Stimpson 1858L95, B55
         |    |--P. diogenes (Linnaeus 1758)M88
         |    |--P. granulatusB55
         |    |    |--P. g. granulatusB55
         |    |    `--P. g. californiensis Bouvier 1895B55
         |    `--P. pustulatusM90
         |--Dardanus Paulson 1875MG-H11, H14
         |    |--D. arrosor (Herbst 1796)KK03
         |    |--D. calidus (Risso 1827)CCS04
         |    |--D. crassimanus (Milne Edwards 1836)TSH09
         |    |--D. deformis (Milne Edwards 1836)TSH09
         |    |--D. gemmatus (Milne Edwards 1848)TSH09
         |    |--D. guttatus (Olivier 1811)TSH09
         |    |--D. imbricatus (Milne Edwards 1848)J90
         |    |--D. lagopodes (Forskal 1775)TSH09
         |    |--D. megistos (Herbst 1804)TSH09
         |    |--D. pedunculatus (Herbst 1804)TSH09
         |    |--D. scutellatus (Milne Edwards 1848)TSH09
         |    |--D. setifer (Milne Edwards 1836)J90
         |    `--D. vulnerans (Thalwitz 1892)HS15
         |    |--P. aciculus Grant 1905MG-H11
         |    |--P. alegrias Morgan 1987HS15
         |    |--P. barbatusHS01
         |    |--P. brevirostris Baker 1905TSH09
         |    |--P. eremita (Linnaeus 1767)KK03
         |    |--P. kimberleyensis Morgan & Forest 1991HS15
         |    |--P. longisetosus Morgan 1987MG-H11
         |    |--P. monoporus Morgan 1987HS15
         |    |--P. oxyophthalmus Holthuis 1959M88
         |    |--P. pilosusHS01
         |    |--P. puncticepsL95
         |    |--P. purpureantennatus Morgan 1987MG-H11
         |    |--P. runyanaeW01
         |    |--P. syrtensis De Saint Laurent 1971KK03
         |    |--P. tortugae Schmitt 1933M88
         |    `--P. whitteni Bishop 1983BWW93
         |--Paguropsis typicaM90

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B55] Bott, R. 1955. Dekapoden (Crustacea) aus El Salvador. 2. Litorale Dekapoden, außer Uca. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 45–70.

[BWW93] Briggs, D. E. G., M. J. Weedon & M. A. Whyte. 1993. Arthropoda (Crustacea excluding Ostracoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 321–342. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CCS04] Calado, R., P. Chevaldonné & A. dos Santos. 2004. A new species of the deep-sea genus Bresilia (Crustacea: Decapoda: Bresiliidae) discovered from a shallow-water cave in Madeira. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 84: 191–199.

[DAS03] Dixon, C. J., S. T. Ahyong & F. R. Schram. 2003. A new hypothesis of decapod phylogeny. Crustaceana 76: 935–975.

[GT03] Guinot, D., & M. Tavares. 2003. A new subfamilial arrangement for the Dromiidae de Haan, 1833, with diagnoses and descriptions of new genera and species (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura). Zoosystema 25 (1): 43–129.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H15] Hedley, C. 1915. Presidential address. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (1): 1–77, pls 1–7.

[H86] Holthuis, L. B. 1986. Decapoda. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 589–615. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[H14] Hosie, A. M. 2014. Review of the stalked barnacle genus Koleolepas (Cirripedia: Thoracica: Koleolepadidae), with new records from Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 29 (1): 1–9.

[HS15] Hosie, A. M., A. Sampey, P. J. F. Davie & D. S. Jones. 2015. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: crustaceans. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 247–285.

[KK03] Kocataş, A., & T. Katağan. 2003. The decapod crustacean fauna of the Turkish seas. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 63–74.

[L95] Lemaitre, R. 1995. A review of the hermit crabs of the genus Xylopagurus A. Milne Edwards, 1880 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Paguridae), including descriptions of two new species. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 570: 1–27.

[M88] Markham, J. C. 1988. Descriptions and revisions of some species of Isopoda Bopyridae of the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Zoologische Verhandelingen 246: 1–63.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[ML01] McLaughlin, P. A., & R. Lemaitre. 2001. A new family for a new genus and new species of hermit crab of the superfamily Paguroidea (Decapoda: Anomura) and its phylogenetic implications. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 (4): 1062–1076.

[M90] Morgan, G. J. 1990. Environmentally induced subsymmetry in the hermit crab, Calcinus dapsiles Morgan (Decapoda, Diogenidae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 14 (4): 657–659.

[PB06] Poupin, J., & J. M. Bouchard. 2006. The eastern Pacific species of the genus Calcinus Dana, 1851, with description of a new species from Clipperton Island (Decapoda, Anomura, Diogenidae). Zoosystema 28 (2): 465–486.

[TSH09] Titelius, M. A., A. Sampey & C. G. Hass. 2009. Crustaceans of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, north Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 145–176.

[W01] Williams, J. D. 2001. Polydora and related genera associated with hermit crabs from the Indo-West Pacific (Polychaeta: Spionidae), with descriptions of two new species and a second polydorid egg predator of hermit crabs. Pacific Science 55 (4): 429–465.

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