Coleolus tenuicinctus, copyright Alan Goldstein.

Belongs within: Mollusca.

The Coleolidae are a group of elongate tubular shells of uncertain affinities known from the Lower Cambrian to the Carboniferous (Fisher 1962).

Characters (from Fisher 1962; Yochelson & Hlavin 1985): Tubuliform calcium-carbonate shells, extremely elongate-conical, almost cylindrical, commonly slightly curved toward apex; cross section circular to elliptical; comparatively thin-walled; laminated, interior surface smooth. Exterior surface smooth or with oblique or longitudinal ornamentation. Opercula and septa unknown. Length 0.5–75 mm; diameter 0.5–2.5 mm at aperture.

<==Coleolidae [Coleolida]
    |    |--C. billingsiLM80
    |    `--C. differo Lendzion 1972WS93
    |--Coleoloides Walcott 1889F62
    |    `--*C. typicalis Walcott 1890F62, KB09 [incl. C. trigeminatus Missarzhevsky in Rozanov et al. 1969KB09]
    |--Coleoprion Sandberger 1847F62
    |    `--*C. gracilis Sandberger 1847F62
    |--Paoshanella Yin 1937F62
    |    `--*P. flexuosa Yin 1937F62
    |--Salopiella Cobbold 1921F62
    |    `--*S. obliqua Cobbold 1921F62
    |--Spirodentalium Walcott 1890F62
    |    `--*S. osceola Walcott 1890F62
    `--Coleolus Hall 1876YH85 [incl. Coleoprion Hall 1876 non Sandberger 1847F62]
         |--*C. tenuistriatusYH85
         |--C. aciculatum Hall 1879 [=Dentalium aciculatum]YH85
         |--C. clintonensis [=Orthoceras (Coleolus) clintonensis]P68
         |--C. curvatus Kindle 1912YH85
         |--C. missouriensis Howell 1952WS93
         |--C. tenuicinctus (Hall 1876) [=*Coleoprion tenuicinctum]F62
         `--C. trigonus Sysoiev 1962WS93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[F62] Fisher, D. W. 1962. Small conoidal shells of uncertain affinities. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W98–W143. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[KB09] Kouchinsky, A., S. Bengtson, W. Feng, R. Kutygin & A. Val’kov. 2009. The Lower Cambrian fossil anabaritids: affinities, occurrences and systematics. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 7 (3): 241–298.

[LM80] Lowenstam, H. A., & L. Margulis. 1980. Evolutionary prerequisites for early Phanerozoic calcareous skeletons. BioSystems 12: 27–41.

[P68] Purnell, L. R. 1968. Catalog of the type specimens of invertebrate fossils. Part I: Paleozoic Cephalopoda. United States National Museum Bulletin 262: 1–198.

[WS93] Wills, M. A., & J. J. Sepkoski Jr. 1993. Problematica. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 543–554. Chapman & Hall: London.

[YH85] Yochelson, E. L., & W. J. Hlavin. 1985. Coleolus curvatus Kindle (“Vermes”) from the Cleveland Member of the Ohio Shale, late Devonian (Famennian) of Ohio. Journal of Paleontology 59 (5): 1298–1304.

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