Colobognatha

Head of Siphonophora barberi, from Chamberlin (1922).

Belongs within: Helminthomorpha.

The Colobognatha are a clade of millipedes characterised by the presence of elongate, sucking mouthparts. They are divided between three orders, among which the Platydesmida have the pleurites fused to the tergites (Sierwald et al. 2003) and a well-defined median longitudinal suture along the metaterga (Hoffman 1990). The Polyzoniida and Siphonophorida can be distinguished by the presence (Polyzoniida) or absence (Siphonophorida) of ocelli.

Synapomorphies (from Sierwald et al. 2003): Mouthparts elongate, with gnathochilarial palps absent; adult males with ninth leg modified into an accessory gonopod, tenth leg into a functional gonopod; adults curl protectively around eggs; first larval instar with four leg pairs.

<==Colobognatha [Typhlogena]
    |--PlatydesmidaSS03
    |    |--Platydesmus Lucas 1843 [Platydesmidae]K54b
    |    |    |--P. lankesteri Brölemann 1905K54b
    |    |    `--P. marmoreus Pocock 1903K54b
    |    `--AndrognathidaeH90
    |         |--AndrognathusH90
    |         |--IschnocybeH90
    |         |--MitocybeH90
    |         |--GosodesmusH90
    |         `--Brachycybe lecontiiH90
    `--+--SiphonophoridaSS03
       |    |--SiphonorhinidaeH90
       |    |    |--Illacme plenipesH90, GE05
       |    |    `--SiphonorhinusH90
       |    `--SiphonophoridaeH90
       |         |--SiphonacmeH90
       |         |--SiphonocybeRB93
       |         `--Siphonophora Newport 1845K54a
       |              |--S. andecola Kraus 1954K54a
       |              |--S. barberiK54b
       |              |--S. gracilicornisK54a
       |              |--S. hoffmaniP92
       |              |--S. lafloridae Kraus 1955K55
       |              |--S. porcullae Kraus 1954K54a
       |              |--S. progressorK54b
       |              |--S. sabachanaK54b
       |              `--S. trifini Kraus 1954K54b
       `--Polyzoniida [Ommatophora, Polyzoniidea]SS03
            |  i. s.: Petaserpes Cope 1870W05
            |--Siphonotus [Siphonotidae]H90
            |    `--S. purpureus [=Rhinotus purpureus]H90
            |--Siphonocryptus [Siphonocryptidae]S96
            |    `--S. latiorS96
            |--Polyzoniidae [Polyzonidae]H90
            |    |--BdellozoniumH90
            |    |--BuzoniumH90
            |    |--CalzoniumH90
            |    |--PizoniumH90
            |    |--Polyzonium Brandt 1837W05
            |    |    `--P. germanicumRS10
            |    `--Angarozonium Shelley 1998MG00
            |         `--A. amurense (Gerstfeldt 1859) (see below for synonymy)MG00
            `--HirudisomatidaeH90
                 |--EuzoniumH90
                 |--HypozoniumH90
                 |--OctoglenaH90
                 |--HirudisomaS96
                 |--MexiconiumS96
                 |--OrsiboeS96
                 |--KiusiozoniumS96
                 `--Nepalozonium Shelley 1996S96
                      `--*N. trimaculatum Shelley 1996S96

Angarozonium amurense (Gerstfeldt 1859) [=Platydesmus amurensis, Polyzonium amurense; incl. Po. cyathiferum Mikhaljova 1981]MG00

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H90] Hoffman, R. L. 1990. Diplopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 835–860. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[K54a] Kraus, O. 1954a. Myriapoden aus Peru, II. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 17–55.

[K54b] Kraus, O. 1954b. Myriapoden aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (5–6): 293–349.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Myriapoden aus Peru, III. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 173–200.

[MG00] Mikhaljova, E. V., & S. I. Golovatch. 2000. A review of the millipede fauna of Siberia (Diplopoda). Arthropoda Selecta 9: 103–118.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079–1083.

[RB93] Ross, A. J., & D. E. G. Briggs. 1993. Arthropoda (Euthycarcinoidea and Myriapoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 357–361. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S96] Shelley, R. M. 1996. Nepalozonium trimaculatum, n. gen., n. sp. (Diplopoda: Polyzoniida: Hirudisomatidae): first record of the order and family from central Asia. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (4): 677–680.

[SS03] Sierwald, P., W. A. Shear, R. M. Shelley & J. E. Bond. 2003. Millipede phylogeny revisited in the light of the enigmatic order Siphoniulida. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 41: 87–99.

[W05] Wilson, H. M. 2005. Zosterogrammida, a new order of millipedes from the Middle Silurian of Scotland and the Upper Carboniferous of Euramerica. Palaeontology 48 (5): 1101–1110.

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