Colubrariidae

Colubraria muricata, copyright G. & Ph. Poppe.

Belongs within: Buccinoidea.

The Colubrariidae, dwarf tritons, are a group of small gastropods found in warm, shallow waters. Members of the genus Colubraria lack a radula though a minute rachiglossate radula is present in the genus Metula, at least in M. africana. The radula of this species has a narrow basal plate and three long, slender cusps on each of the central and lateral teeth (Bouchet 1988). Colubraria species use their long and thin proboscis to feed on the blood of resting or slow-moving fish.

Characters (from Wilson & Gillett 1971): Shell long, narrow, fusiform, with strong varices, granulose or nodulose sculpture, and usually a calloused and reflected columella. Anterior canal short and up-turned; posterior canal represented by weak notch only at posterior end of aperture. Operculum horny, with terminal nucleus.

<==Colubrariidae
    |--+--Kanamarua Kuroda 1951KF22, BR05 [Kanamariidae, Kanamaruidae]
    |  |    `--*K. adonis (Dall 1919)BR17 [=Colus adonisBR17, C. (Anomalosipho) adonisO27]
    |  `--+--Bartschia Rehder 1943KF22, B88
    |     |    |--*B. significans (Rehder 1943) [=Metula significans]B88
    |     |    `--B. guppyi (Olsson & Bayer 1972)KF22
    |     `--Metula Adams & Adams 1853KF22, B88 [incl. Acamptochetus Cossmann 1901W94, Antemetula Rehder 1943W94]
    |          |--*M. clathrata (Adams & Reeve 1850) [=Buccinum clathratum, M. knudseni Kilburn 1975]B88
    |          |--M. africana Bouchet 1988B88
    |          |--M. amosi Vanatta 1913B88
    |          |--M. boswellae Kilburn 1975ES88
    |          |--M. calvertana (Martin 1904)P12
    |          |--M. crosnieri Bouchet 1988B88
    |          |--M. cumingi (Adams 1853)B88
    |          |--M. inflata (Houbrick 1984)KF22
    |          |--*Antemetula’ metulaW94
    |          `--M. mitraeformis (Brocchi 1814)B88 [=*Acamptochetus mitraeformisW94]
    `--+--Colubraria Schumacher 1817KF22, BR05 [incl. Epidromus Mörch 1852W94, Obex Iredale 1925W94; Colubrariinae]
       |    |--C. muricata (Lightfoot 1786)KF22 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--C. antiquata (Hinds 1844) [=Triton antiquata]H09
       |    |--C. castanea Kuroda & Habe 1952 [incl. C. comptus Sowerby 1874, C. fantomei Garrard 1961]W94
       |    |--C. mulveyana Iredale 1925 [=*Obex mulveyana]W94
       |    |--C. myuna Garrard 1961W94
       |    |--C. nitidula (Sowerby 1833)W94
       |    |--C. obscuraZLK11
       |    |--C. reticulataZLK11
       |    |--C. siphonata (Reeve 1844)PP78
       |    |--C. tenera (Gray 1839)WBS-S15
       |    |--C. tessellata (Reeve 1844) [=Triton tessellata]H09
       |    `--C. tortuosa Reeve 1844WG71 [incl. *Epidromus distortusW94, C. strepta Cossmann 1903W94]
       `--Cumia Bivona-Bernardi 1838KF22 [incl. Fusus Helbling 1779 (nom. rej.)KF22, Ratifusus Iredale 1929W94; Fusidae]
            |--C. reticulata (Blainville 1829)KF22 [=Fusus reticulatus P61; incl. *C. decussata Bivona-Bernardi 1838KF22]
            |--*Ratifusus’ adjunctus Iredale 1929 [=Fusus adjunctus]W94
            |--‘Fusus’ ambustusC64
            |--‘Fusus’ baerii [=Tritonium (Fusus) baerii]C64
            |--‘Fusus’ bednalli (Brazier 1875)W94 [=Ratifusus bednalliM54; incl. F. bednalli volaticus Iredale 1925W94]
            |--‘Fusus’ behringii [=Tritonium (Fusus) behringii]C64
            |--‘Fusus’ brazieri (Angas 1869)MG-H11
            |--‘Fusus’ cancellatus Mighels & Adams 1842J49
            |--‘Fusus’ cancellinusC64
            |--‘Fusus’ clavatusC64
            |--‘Fusus’ corrugatus Reeve 1848F27
            |--‘Fusus’ despectus [incl. F. despectus var. fornicatus]N79
            |--‘Fusus’ exilis Menke 1843F27
            |--‘Fusus’ fenestratusN79
            |--‘Fusus’ fragosusC64
            |--‘Fusus’ gracilisN79
            |--‘Fusus’ hexagonalis Tate 1888F27
            |--‘Fusus’ ino Tenison-Woods 1879F71
            |--‘Murex’ intertextus Helbling 1779 [=*Fusus intertextus]BR17
            |--‘Fusus’ islandicusN79
            |--‘Fusus’ jeffreysianusN79
            |--‘Fusus’ lapillusC64
            |--‘Fusus’ latericeus [incl. Tritonium incarnatum]J64
            |--‘Fusus’ legrandi Tenison Woods 1876TW76
            |--‘Fusus’ longicaudaH04
            |--‘Fusus’ magellanicus [incl. Murex peruvianus]C64
            |--‘Fusus’ marmoratusP71
            |--C. mestayerae (Iredale 1915)KF22 [=Fusus mestayeraeP61]
            |--‘Fusus’ moebii [incl. F. ebur]N79
            |--‘Fusus’ norvegicusN79
            |--‘Fusus’ ovumL64
            |--‘Fusus’ pagodusR43
            |--‘Fusus’ propinquusN79
            |--‘Fusus’ sarsiiN79
            |--‘Fusus’ schoutanicus (May 1910) [incl. F. schoutanicus conterminus Iredale 1925]W94
            |--‘Fusus’ spinifer Bellardi 1873F27
            |--‘Fusus’ styliformis Tenison-Woods 1879F71
            |--‘Fusus’ tasmianiensisTW76
            |--‘Fusus’ thouarsii [incl. F. novaehollandiae Rve. 1848]C64
            |--‘Fusus’ tortuosusN79
            |--‘Fusus’ turrisC64
            |--‘Fusus’ turtoniN79
            `--‘Fusus’ veneratusK79
Colubrariidae incertae sedis:
  Axifex Huang & Lin 2019KF22
    `--*A. retis Huang & Lin 2019KF22
  Cyclimetula Huang & Lin 2019KF22
    `--*C. hsui Huang & Lin 2019KF22
  Iredalula Finlay 1926KF22
    |--*I. striata (Hutton 1873)P61 [=Bela striataP61, Daphnella striataH86]
    |--I. alticincta (Murdoch & Suter 1906)P61
    `--I. venusta Powell 1934P61
  Minibraria Sarasúa 1984KF22
    `--*M. monroei (McGinty 1962) [=Colubraria monroei]KF22
Nomen nudum: Fusus albus Jeffreys 1841H22

Colubraria muricata (Lightfoot 1786)KF22 [incl. *C. granulata Schumacher 1817KF22, C. maculatum Röding 1798W94, C. maculosa Gmelin 1791W94]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B88] Bouchet, P. 1988. Two new species of Metula (Gastropoda: Buccinidae) with a description of the radula of the genus. Nautilus 102 (4): 149–153.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[ES88] Emerson, W. K., & W. E. Sage III. 1988. A new species of Vasum (Gastropoda: Turbinellidae) from off Somalia. Nautilus 102 (1): 36–39.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H22] Hedley, C. 1922. A revision of the Australian Turridae. Records of the Australian Museum 13 (6): 213–359, pls 42–56.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[J64] Jeffreys, J. G. 1864. The Upper Tertiary fossils at Uddevalla, in Sweden. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 73–79.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[KF22] Kantor, Y. I., A. E. Fedosov, A. R. Kosyan, N. Puillandre, P. A. Sorokin, Y. Kano, R. Clark & P. Bouchet. 2022. Molecular phylogeny and revised classification of the Buccinoidea (Neogastropoda). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 194 (3): 789–857.

[K79] Kauffman, E. G. 1979. Cretaceous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A418–A487. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[L64] Leckenby, J. 1864. Abstract of the report of a three-weeks’ dredging-cruise off Scarborough. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 105.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P12] Petuch, E. J. 2012. Miocene asteroid impacts: proposed effects on the biogeography and extinction patterns of eastern North American gastropods. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 967–981. Springer.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P71] Por, F. D. 1971. One hundred years of Suez Canal—a century of Lessepsian migration: retrospect and viewpoints. Systematic Zoology 20 (2): 138–159.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[R43] Reeve, L. 1843. On new species of Conus, Pleurotoma, Pectunculus, and Cardita. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 168–197.

[TW76] Tenison Woods, J. E. 1876. Description of new Tasmanian shells. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 1875: 134–162.

[WBS-S15] Willan, R. C., C. Bryce & S. M. Slack-Smith. 2015. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: molluscs. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 287–343.

[W94] Wilson, B. 1994. Australian Marine Shells vol. 2. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part Two (Neogastropods). Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

[ZLK11] Zou, S., Q. Li & L. Kong. 2011. Additional gene data and increased sampling give new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda, within the caenogastropod phylogenetic framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 425–435.

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