Colubraria muricata, copyright G. & Ph. Poppe.

Belongs within: Buccinoidea.

The Colubrariidae, dwarf tritons, are a group of small gastropods found in warm, shallow waters. Members of the genus Colubraria lack a radula though a minute rachiglossate radula is present in the genus Metula, at least in M. africana. The radula of this species has a narrow basal plate and three long, slender cusps on each of the central and lateral teeth (Bouchet 1988). Colubraria species use their long and thin proboscis to feed on the blood of resting or slow-moving fish.

Characters (from Wilson & Gillett 1971): Shell long, narrow, fusiform, with strong varices, granulose or nodulose sculpture, and usually a calloused and reflected columella. Anterior canal short and up-turned; posterior canal represented by weak notch only at posterior end of aperture. Operculum horny, with terminal nucleus.

    |--+--Kanamarua Kuroda 1951KF22, BR05 [Kanamariidae, Kanamaruidae]
    |  |    `--*K. adonis (Dall 1919)BR17 [=Colus adonisBR17, C. (Anomalosipho) adonisO27]
    |  `--+--Bartschia Rehder 1943KF22, B88
    |     |    |--*B. significans (Rehder 1943) [=Metula significans]B88
    |     |    `--B. guppyi (Olsson & Bayer 1972)KF22
    |     `--Metula Adams & Adams 1853KF22, B88 [incl. Acamptochetus Cossmann 1901W94, Antemetula Rehder 1943W94]
    |          |--*M. clathrata (Adams & Reeve 1850) [=Buccinum clathratum, M. knudseni Kilburn 1975]B88
    |          |--M. africana Bouchet 1988B88
    |          |--M. amosi Vanatta 1913B88
    |          |--M. boswellae Kilburn 1975ES88
    |          |--M. calvertana (Martin 1904)P12
    |          |--M. crosnieri Bouchet 1988B88
    |          |--M. cumingi (Adams 1853)B88
    |          |--M. inflata (Houbrick 1984)KF22
    |          |--*Antemetula’ metulaW94
    |          `--M. mitraeformis (Brocchi 1814)B88 [=*Acamptochetus mitraeformisW94]
    `--+--Colubraria Schumacher 1817KF22, BR05 [incl. Epidromus Mörch 1852W94, Obex Iredale 1925W94; Colubrariinae]
       |    |--C. muricata (Lightfoot 1786)KF22 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--C. antiquata (Hinds 1844) [=Triton antiquata]H09
       |    |--C. castanea Kuroda & Habe 1952 [incl. C. comptus Sowerby 1874, C. fantomei Garrard 1961]W94
       |    |--C. mulveyana Iredale 1925 [=*Obex mulveyana]W94
       |    |--C. myuna Garrard 1961W94
       |    |--C. nitidula (Sowerby 1833)W94
       |    |--C. obscuraZLK11
       |    |--C. reticulataZLK11
       |    |--C. siphonata (Reeve 1844)PP78
       |    |--C. tenera (Gray 1839)WBS-S15
       |    |--C. tessellata (Reeve 1844) [=Triton tessellata]H09
       |    `--C. tortuosa Reeve 1844WG71 [incl. *Epidromus distortusW94, C. strepta Cossmann 1903W94]
       `--Cumia Bivona-Bernardi 1838KF22 [incl. Fusus Helbling 1779 (nom. rej.)KF22, Ratifusus Iredale 1929W94; Fusidae]
            |--C. reticulata (Blainville 1829)KF22 [=Fusus reticulatus P61; incl. *C. decussata Bivona-Bernardi 1838KF22]
            |--*Ratifusus’ adjunctus Iredale 1929 [=Fusus adjunctus]W94
            |--‘Fusus’ ambustusC64
            |--‘Fusus’ baerii [=Tritonium (Fusus) baerii]C64
            |--‘Fusus’ bednalli (Brazier 1875)W94 [=Ratifusus bednalliM54; incl. F. bednalli volaticus Iredale 1925W94]
            |--‘Fusus’ behringii [=Tritonium (Fusus) behringii]C64
            |--‘Fusus’ brazieri (Angas 1869)MG-H11
            |--‘Fusus’ cancellatus Mighels & Adams 1842J49
            |--‘Fusus’ cancellinusC64
            |--‘Fusus’ clavatusC64
            |--‘Fusus’ corrugatus Reeve 1848F27
            |--‘Fusus’ despectus [incl. F. despectus var. fornicatus]N79
            |--‘Fusus’ exilis Menke 1843F27
            |--‘Fusus’ fenestratusN79
            |--‘Fusus’ fragosusC64
            |--‘Fusus’ gracilisN79
            |--‘Fusus’ hexagonalis Tate 1888F27
            |--‘Fusus’ ino Tenison-Woods 1879F71
            |--‘Murex’ intertextus Helbling 1779 [=*Fusus intertextus]BR17
            |--‘Fusus’ islandicusN79
            |--‘Fusus’ jeffreysianusN79
            |--‘Fusus’ lapillusC64
            |--‘Fusus’ latericeus [incl. Tritonium incarnatum]J64
            |--‘Fusus’ legrandi Tenison Woods 1876TW76
            |--‘Fusus’ longicaudaH04
            |--‘Fusus’ magellanicus [incl. Murex peruvianus]C64
            |--‘Fusus’ marmoratusP71
            |--C. mestayerae (Iredale 1915)KF22 [=Fusus mestayeraeP61]
            |--‘Fusus’ moebii [incl. F. ebur]N79
            |--‘Fusus’ norvegicusN79
            |--‘Fusus’ ovumL64
            |--‘Fusus’ pagodusR43
            |--‘Fusus’ propinquusN79
            |--‘Fusus’ sarsiiN79
            |--‘Fusus’ schoutanicus (May 1910) [incl. F. schoutanicus conterminus Iredale 1925]W94
            |--‘Fusus’ spinifer Bellardi 1873F27
            |--‘Fusus’ styliformis Tenison-Woods 1879F71
            |--‘Fusus’ tasmianiensisTW76
            |--‘Fusus’ thouarsii [incl. F. novaehollandiae Rve. 1848]C64
            |--‘Fusus’ tortuosusN79
            |--‘Fusus’ turrisC64
            |--‘Fusus’ turtoniN79
            `--‘Fusus’ veneratusK79
Colubrariidae incertae sedis:
  Axifex Huang & Lin 2019KF22
    `--*A. retis Huang & Lin 2019KF22
  Cyclimetula Huang & Lin 2019KF22
    `--*C. hsui Huang & Lin 2019KF22
  Iredalula Finlay 1926KF22
    |--*I. striata (Hutton 1873)P61 [=Bela striataP61, Daphnella striataH86]
    |--I. alticincta (Murdoch & Suter 1906)P61
    `--I. venusta Powell 1934P61
  Minibraria Sarasúa 1984KF22
    `--*M. monroei (McGinty 1962) [=Colubraria monroei]KF22
Nomen nudum: Fusus albus Jeffreys 1841H22

Colubraria muricata (Lightfoot 1786)KF22 [incl. *C. granulata Schumacher 1817KF22, C. maculatum Röding 1798W94, C. maculosa Gmelin 1791W94]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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