Colubridae

Collared reed snake Calamaria pavimentata, copyright Rushenb.

Belongs within: Colubriformes.
Contains: PseudorabdionLampropeltisColuberElaphe.

The Colubridae are a cosmopolitan group of snakes, including both non-venomous and rear-fanged venomous species, characterised by the presence of solid teeth on the maxilla, palatine, pterygoid and dentary, but never on the premaxilla.

Colubridae [Colubrinae]
|--+--AhaetullaBG20
| | |--A. nasutusS72
| | `--A. prasinaBG20
| `--Dendrelaphis Boulenger 1890BG20, C18
| |--D. calligastra (Günther 1867)C18
| |--D. caudolineatusVH02
| |--D. modestusB28
| |--D. pictusVH02
| `--D. punctulatus (Gray 1826)C18
`--+--+--Rhynchocalamus melanocephalusBG20
| |--Gonyosoma oxycephalumBG20
| `--Tantilla melanocephalaVK00
`--+--+--LampropeltisBG20
| `--+--+--Gastropyxis smaragdinaVK00
| | `--OxybelisBG20
| | |--O. aeneusVK00
| | `--O. fulgidusVK00
| `--+--ColuberBG20
| |--Simophis rhinostomaBG20
| `--ChironiusVK00
| |--C. carinatusVK00
| |--C. cochranae Hoge & Romano 1969DS86
| |--C. exoletus [incl. C. pyrrhopogon]DS86
| |--C. flavolineatusRC02
| |--C. fuscusDS86
| |--C. laevicollisDS86
| |--C. multiventrisDS86
| `--C. scurrulusDS86
`--+--+--Dasypeltis scabraBG20
| |--ElapheK00
| `--Boiga Fitzinger 1826BG20, C18
| |--B. angulataBG20
| |--B. cynodonVK00
| |--B. dendrophilaVH02
| `--B. irregularis (Merrem 1802) [incl. B. fusca]C18
`--+--OligodonBG20
| |--O. cyclurusBG20
| |--O. octolineatusVH02
| `--O. trilineatusM89
|--DinodonVK00
| |--D. semicarinatumVH02
| `--D. septentrionalisI92
| |--D. s. septentrionalisI92
| |--D. s. multifasciatus Maki 1931I92
| `--D. s. ruhstratiI92
`--Lycodon Boie in Fitzinger 1826BG20, SP01
|--L. aulicusSP01
|--L. capucinus Boie 1827SB12
|--L. fasciatusSP01
|--L. jaraSP01
|--L. kunduiSP01
|--L. laoensisSP01
|--L. tiwariiSP01
|--L. travancoricusSP01
`--L. zawi Slowinski, Pawar et al. 2001SP01

Colubridae incertae sedis:
Dendrophidion dendrophisDS86
Drymarchon coraisDS86
Drymobius rhombiferDS86
Drymoluber dichrousDS86
LeptophisDS86
|--L. abaetullaDS86
| |--L. a. abaetullaDS86
| `--L. a. nigromarginatusDS86
|--L. cupreusDS86
`--L. mexicanusM86
PseustesDS86
|--P. poecilonotusDS86
| |--P. p. poecilonotusDS86
| `--P. p. polylepisDS86
|--P. sexcarinatusDS86
`--P. sulphureusDS86
Spilotes pullatusDS86
Xenopholis scalarisDS86
PsomophisC07
CoronellaBB03
|--C. austriaca Laurenti 1768BB03 [=Coluber austriacusK08]
|--C. punctataW06
`--C. triangulaW06
Texasophis Holman 1977RB05
|--*T. fossilis Holman 1977SH96
|--T. bohemiacusRB05
|--T. galbreathi Holman 1984SH96
`--T. meini Rage & Holman 1984RB05
DromicusH81
|--D. cursor (Lacépède 1789) [=Leimadophis cursor]H81
`--D. ornatus Garman 1887 [=Leimadophis ornatus]H81
PhalotrisJK08
|--P. cuyanus (Cei 1984)JK08
|--P. lemniscatus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril 1854)JK08
|--P. matogrossensis Lema, D’Agostini & Cappellari 2005JK08
|--P. mertensi (Hoge 1955)JK08
|--P. nasutus (Gomes 1915)JK08
|--P. sansebastiani Jansen & Köhler 2008JK08
`--P. tricolor (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril 1854) [incl. P. punctatus (Lema 1979)]JK08
DendrophisR13
|--D. calligasterR13
|--D. caudolineataM89
`--D. pictaM89
Trimorphodon biscutatusN10
PituophisGWN71
|--P. cateniferOB11
`--P. melanoleucusGWN71
ApostolepisG11
Lytorhynchus diadema [incl. L. kennedyi Schmidt 1939]A-O00
Aspidura trachyproctaCD88
Stegonotus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril 1854C18
|--S. cucullatus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril 1854)C18
`--S. parvus (Meyer 1874)C18
Tropidonophis Jan 1863C18
`--T. mairii (Gray 1841)C18
|--T. m. mairiiC18
`--T. m. brongersmaiC18
Pantherophis guttataC18
ZamenisSBM01
|--Z. andreanaSBM01
|--Z. constrictorW06
`--Z. dipsasB28
Ninia sebaeM86
PseudorabdionIL61
Macroprotodon cucullatusVH02
Hapsidophrys smaragdinaVH02
Dispholidus typusVH02
Phyllorhynchus decurtatusVH02
Chilomeniscus cinctusVH02
Rhinobothryum lentiginosumVK00, VH02
MastigodryasVK00
|--M. boddaertiVK00
`--M. heathiiC07

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A-O00] Al-Oran, R. M. 2000. Notable herpetological records from central and southern Jordan. Zoology in the Middle East 21: 31–36.

[B28] Betrem, J. G. 1928. Monographie der Indo-Australischen Scoliiden mit zoogeographischen Betrachtungen. H. Veenman & Zonen: Wageningen.

[BB03] Blain, H.-A., & S. Bailon. 2003. Les amphibiens et les reptiles des couches du Pléistocène supérieur ancien du gisement d’Artenac (Charente, France). Quaternaire 14 (1): 85–95.

[BG20] Burbrink, F. T., F. G. Grazziotin, R. A. Pyron, D. Cundall, S. Donnellan, F. Irish, J. S. Keogh, F. Kraus, R. W. Murphy, B. Noonan, C. J. Raxworthy, S. Ruane, A. R. Lemmon, E. M. Lemmon & H. Zaher. 2020. Interrogating genomic-scale data for Squamata (lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians) shows no support for key traditional morphological relationships. Systematic Biology 69 (3): 502–520.

[C07] Cadle, J. E. 2007. The snake genus Sibynomorphus (Colubridae: Dipsadinae: Dipsadini) in Peru and Ecuador, with comments on the systematics of Dipsadini. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 158 (5): 183–284.

[C18] Cogger, H. G. 2018. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia updated 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[CD88] Crusz, H., & D. M. A. K. Daundasekera. 1988. Parasites of the relict fauna of Ceylon. IX. Helminths from burrowing scincine lizards. Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparee 63: 439–447.

[DS86] Dixon, J. R., & P. Soini. 1986. The Reptiles of the Upper Amazon Basin, Iquitos Region, Peru. Milwaukee Public Museum: Milwaukee.

[GWN71] Gorman, G. C., A. C. Wilson & M. Nakanishi. 1971. A biochemical approach towards the study of reptilian phylogeny: evolution of serum albumin and lactic dehydrogenase. Systematic Zoology 20 (2): 167–185.

[G11] Guadanucci, J. P. L. 2011. Cladistic analysis and biogeography of the genus Oligoxystre Vellard 1924 (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 320–326.

[H81] Honegger, R. E. 1981. List of amphibians and reptiles either known or thought to have become extinct since 1600. Biological Conservation 19: 141–158.

[IL61] Inger, R. F., & A. E. Leviton. 1961. A new colubrid snake the genus Pseudorabdion from Sumatra. Fieldiana: Zoology 44 (5): 45–47.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JK08] Jansen, M., & G. Köhler. 2008. A new species of Phalotris from the eastern lowlands of Bolivia (Reptilia, Squamata, Colubridae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 103–110.

[K08] Korsós, Z. 2008. History of the herpetological collection of the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 37–93.

[M86] McCoy, C. J. 1986. Results of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History expeditions to Belize. I. Systematic status and geographic distribution of Sibon neilli (Reptilia, Serpentes). Annals of Carnegie Museum 55 (6): 117–123.

[M89] Modigliani, E. 1889. Materiali per la fauna erpetologica dell’isola Nias. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 113–124.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

[OB11] Orenstein, R. I., & D. Brewer. 2011. Family Cardinalidae (cardinals). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 330–427. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[RB05] Rage, J.-C., & S. Bailon. 2005. Amphibians and squamate reptiles from the late early Miocene (MN 4) of Béon 1 (Montréal-du-Gers, southwestern France). Geodiversitas 27 (3): 413–441.

[RC02] Rasmussen, P. C., & N. J. Collar. 2002. Family Bucconidae (puffbirds). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & J. Sargatal (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 7. Jacamars to Woodpeckers pp. 102–138. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[R13] Roux, J. 1913. Les reptiles de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 2 pp. 79–160. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[SBM01] Schätti, B., I. Baran & P. Maunoir. 2001. Taxonomie, Morphologie und Verbreitung der Masken-Schlanknatter Coluber (s. l.) collaris (Müller, 1878). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 108 (1): 11–30.

[SP01] Slowinski, J. B., S. S. Pawar, H. Win, T. Thin, S. W. Gyi, S. L. Oo & H. Tun. 2001. A new Lycodon (Serpentes: Colubridae) from northeast India and Myanmar (Burma). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 52 (20): 397–405.

[SB12] Smith, M. J., C. R. J. Boland, D. Maple & B. Tiernan. 2012. The Christmas Island blue-tailed skink (Cryptoblepharus egeriae): a survey protocol and an assessment of factors that relate to occupancy and detection. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (1): 40–44.

[S72] Soderberg, P. S. 1972. Cannibalism and feeding in two snakes, Trimeresurus albolabris and Ahaetulla nasutus. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (1): 192–193.

[SH96] Sullivan, R. M., & J. A. Holman. 1996. Squamata. In: Prothero, D. R., & R. J. Emry (eds) The Terrestrial Eocene–Oligocene Transition in North America pp. 354–372. Cambridge University Press.

[VH02] Vidal, N., & S. B. Hedges. 2002. Higher-level relationships of caenophidian snakes inferred from four nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Comptes Rendus Biologies 325: 987–995.

[VK00] Vidal, N., S. G. Kindl, A. Wong & S. B. Hedges. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships of xenodontine snakes inferred from 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 14: 389–402.

[W06] Werner, F. 1906. Die nördlichsten Reptilien und Batrachier. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 527–544. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

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