Commelinales

Monochoria vaginalis, copyright Yercaud-elango.

Belongs within: Commelinidae.
Contains: Commelinaceae, Haemodoraceae.

The Commelinales are a clade of monocotyledonous plants supported primarily by molecular data (Davis et al. 2004).

Characters (from Angiosperm Phylogeny Web): Mycorrhizae absent; vessel elements with scalariform perforation plates; cuticle waxes not as aggregated rodlets; seed coat testal and tegmic; endosperm abundant, helobial, cell wall formation in small chalazal chamber precedes that in large micropylar chamber; collar rhizoids present.

<==Commelinales
    |  i. s.: Hanguana [Hanguanaceae, Hanguanales]DS04
    |           `--H. malayanaDS04
    |--+--CommelinaceaeSR07
    |  `--PhilydraceaeDS04
    |       |--Philydrella Caruel 1878DS04, Ad87 (see below for synonymy)
    |       |    |--*P. pygmaea (Br.) Caruel 1878 (see below for synonymy)Ad87
    |       |    |    |--P. p. ssp. pygmaeaAd87
    |       |    |    `--P. p. ssp. minima Adams 1987Ad87
    |       |    `--P. drummondii Adams 1987Ad87
    |       `--+--Philydrum Banks & Sol. ex Gaertner 1788SR07, Ad87
    |          |    `--*P. lanuginosum Banks & Sol. ex Gaertner 1788Ad87
    |          `--Helmholtzia Muell. 1866DS04, Ad87 (see below for synonymy)
    |               |--*H. acorifolia Muell. 1866Ad87
    |               `--H. glaberrima (Hook.) Caruel in de Candolle & de Candolle 1881 (see below for synonymy)Ad87
    `--+--HaemodoraceaeSR07
       `--PontederiaceaeDS04
            |--+--+--Pontederia L. 1753DS04, As87
            |  |  |    `--*P. cordata L. 1753As87
            |  |  |         |--P. c. var. cordataAs87
            |  |  |         `--P. c. var. lancifolia (Muhlenb.) Torrey 1824 (see below for synonymy)As87
            |  |  `--Eichhornia Kunth 1842 (nom. cons.)DS04, As87 [=Eichornia (l. c.)As87]
            |  |       |--*E. azurea (Sw.) Kunth 1842As87
            |  |       |--E. crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach in A.L.P.P. & de Candolle 1883 (see below for synonymy)As87
            |  |       `--E. natansGC05
            |  `--Monochoria Presl 1827DS04, As87
            |       |  i. s.: M. korsakowiiDS04
            |       |--M. sect. Monochoria (see below for synonymy)As87
            |       |    |--M. hastata (L.) Solms-Laub. in A.L.P.P. & de Candolle 1883 (see below for synonymy)As87
            |       |    `--M. vaginalis (Burman) Presl ex Kunth 1843 [=Pontederia vaginalis Burman 1768]As87
            |       `--M. sect. Limnostachys (Muell.) Backer 1951 [=Limnostachys Muell. 1858]As87
            |            |--M. cyanea (Muell.) Muell. 1873 [=*Limnostachys cyanea Muell. 1858]As87
            |            `--M. australasica Ridley 1918As87
            `--+--‘Eichhornia’ paniculataDS04
               `--+--Hydrothrix gardneriSR07
                  `--HeterantheraDS04
                       |--H. dubia [=Zosterella dubia]V72
                       |    |--H. d. f. dubiaV72
                       |    `--H. d. f. terrestrisV72
                       |--H. limosaH93
                       `--H. rotundifoliaDS04

Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach in A.L.P.P. & de Candolle 1883 [=Pontederia crassipes Martius 1823; incl. E. speciosa Kunth 1843]As87

Helmholtzia Muell. 1866DS04, Ad87 [=Philydrum sect. Helmholtzia (Muell.) Baillon 1894Ad87; incl. Orthothylax (Hook.) Skottsb. 1932Ad87]

Helmholtzia glaberrima (Hook.) Caruel in de Candolle & de Candolle 1881 [=Philydrum glaberrimum Hook. 1873, *Orthothylax glaberrimus (Hook.) Skottsb. 1932]Ad87

Monochoria hastata (L.) Solms-Laub. in A.L.P.P. & de Candolle 1883 [=Pontederia hastata L. 1753, M. (sect. *Deutomonochoria) hastata, M. (sect. *Eumonochoria) hastata; incl. *M. hastifolia Presl 1827 (nom. illeg.)]As87

Monochoria sect. Monochoria [incl. M. sect. Deutomonochoria Schwartz 1927 (nom. illeg.), M. sect. Eumonochoria Backer 1951]As87

Philydrella Caruel 1878DS04, Ad87 [=Hetaeria Endl. 1836 non Blume 1828Ad87, Pritzelia Muell. 1875 non Walp. 1843Ad87, Philydrum sect. Pritzelia Baillon 1894Ad87]

*Philydrella pygmaea (Br.) Caruel 1878 [=Philydrum pygmaeum Br. 1810, *Hetaeria pygmaea (Br.) Endl. ex Kunth 1841, *Pritzelia pygmaea (Br.) Muell. ex Benth 1878 (nom. illeg.)]Ad87

Pontederia cordata var. lancifolia (Muhlenb.) Torrey 1824 [incl. P. lanceolata Nutt. 1818, P. cordata var. lanceolata (Nutt.) Griseb. 1866]As87

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[Ad87] Adams, L. G. 1987. Philydraceae. Flora of Australia 45: 40–46.

[As87] Aston, H. I. 1987. Pontederiaceae. Flora of Australia 45: 46–55.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[GC05] Granjon, L., J.-F. Cosson, E. Quesseveur & B. Sicard. 2005. Population dynamics of the multimammate rat Mastomys huberti in an annually flooded agricultural region of central Mali. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 997–1008.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[SR07] Saarela, J. M., H. S. Rai, J. A. Doyle, P. K. Endress, S. Mathews, A. D. Marchant, B. G. Briggs & S. W. Graham. 2007. Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. Nature 446: 312–315.

[V72] Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium.

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