Conura

Chalcis myrifex, copyright H. Dumas.

Belongs within: Chalcididae.

Conura is a genus of chalcidid wasps whose species mostly attack the pupae of Lepidoptera, though some develop on other insects such as Coleoptera. Molecular analysis (Heraty et al. 2013) suggests that this genus is paraphyletic to other members of the Chalcidini, a group of Chalcididae with a distinctly petiolate gaster and apically acute hind tibia. Members of the genus Chalcis are parasitoids of stratiomyiid fly larvae (Bouček 1988).

Characters (from Bouček 1988, for Chalcidini): Apex of hind tibia tapering into a strong spine extended far beyond insertion of tarsus; gaster attached at coxae; petiole distinctly longer than broad, not longitudinally striate; propodeal spiracle elongate in almost vertical direction; postmarginal vein several times longer than stigmal vein.

<==Conura [Chalcidariae, Chalcidinae, Chalcidini, Smicrini]
    |  i. s.: C. delumbisMH11
    |         C. debilisMH11
    |         C. miniataHB13
    |--C. xanthostigmaHB13
    `--+--C. flavicansHB13
       `--+--C. immaculataHB13
          `--+--Melanosmicra variventrisHB13
             `--Chalcis Fabricius 1787HB13, B88 [=Smicra Spinola 1837B88, Smiera Spinola 1811B88]
                  |--*C. sispesB88 [=Sphex sispesB88, *Smiera sispesB88; incl. Chalcis clavipesRD77]
                  |--C. amenoclesD07
                  |--C. annulataC97
                  |--C. australiensis (Girault 1936) [=Smicra australiensis; incl. S. chinchillae Girault 1936]B88
                  |--C. barbaraBS23
                  |--C. columbiana Howard 1885GM79
                  |--C. cornigeraR26
                  |--C. flavipes Fabricius 1793MS01, B88
                  |--C. flebilisHB13
                  |--C. louisiana Girault 1917G17
                  |--C. myrifexHB13
                  |--C. rufipesR26
                  `--C. spinosaR26

Nomen nudum: Chalcis anna Girault 1937B88

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BS23] Blaimer, B. B., B. F. Santos, A. Cruaud, M. W. Gates, R. R. Kula, I. Mikó, J.-Y. Rasplus, D. R. Smith, E. J. Talamas, S. G. Brady & M. L. Buffington. 2023. Key innovations and the diversification of Hymenoptera. Nature Communications 14: 1212.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C97] Cuvier, G. 1797. Note sur une nouvelle espèce de guépe cartonnière. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 1 (8): 57–58.

[D07] Desjardins, C. A. 2007. Phylogenetics and classification of the world genera of Diparinae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Zootaxa 1647: 1–88.

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. Descriptiones stellarum novarum. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 80–101).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[HB13] Heraty, J. M., R. A. Burks, A. Cruaud, G. A. P. Gibson, J. Liljeblad, J. Munro, J.-Y. Rasplus, G. Delvare, P. Janšta, A. Gumovsky, J. Huber, J. B. Woolley, L. Krogmann, S. Heydon, A. Polaszek, S. Schmidt, D. C. Darling, M. W. Gates, J. Mottern, E. Murray, A. D. Molin, S. Triapitsyn, H. Baur, J. D. Pinto, S. van Noort, J. George & M. Yoder. 2013. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics 29: 466–542.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MH11] Munro, J. B., J. M. Heraty, R. A. Burks, D. Hawks, J. Mottern, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus & P. Jansta. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PloS One 6 (11): e27023.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

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