Betuline cone Conus betulinus, copyright Pengchao-BGI.

Belongs within: Conidae.
Contains: Conus (Plicaustraconus), Conus (Stephanoconus), Conus (Strategoconus), Conus (Turriconus), Conus (Dauciconus), Conus (Floraconus), Conus (Splinoconus), Conus (Rhizoconus), Conus (Pionoconus), Conus (Textilia), Conus (Phasmoconus), Conus (Virroconus), Conus (Lividoconus), Conus (Virgiconus), Conus (Lautoconus), Conus (Leptoconus), Conus (Darioconus), Conus (Cylinder).

Conus, the cone shells, is a genus of cone-shaped predatory gastropods in which the radula has been modified into a venom delivery apparatus via the expansive proboscis. In some species, the venom is strong enough to harm or even kill humans that harrass live individuals. The circumscription of this genus has varied significantly between authors, from the entirety to only a small part of the Conidae. As recognised by Puillandre et al. (2014), Conus corresponds to a clade supported by molecular data that includes the majority of conid species, divided between close to sixty subgenera.

The Indo-West Pacific Conus distans is placed in its own basal subgenus Fraterconus; this species has a pale yellow-brown or olive-green shell with a low, coronated spire and marked with two indistinct white spiral bands (Wilson 1994).

Characters (from Wilson & Gillett 1971): Shells usually covered by thick periostracum, outline a straight-sided inverted cone (obconical), spire low and pointed, aperture long, narrow and straight. Columella without plaits. Tiny chitinous operculum sometimes present. Venom apparatus present with long coiled secretory duct running between muscular venom storage sac and proboscis (venom a neurotoxin); radula consisting of series of single hollow barbed shafts constructed in radular sac, individual shafts extended as necessary into proboscis cavity and bathed in venom coming from secretory duct before delivering venom to prey; proboscis very elastic and able to be extended and expanded for prey location and capture.

Conus Linnaeus 1758BK11 (see below for synonymy)
|--C. (Fraterconus Tucker & Tenorio 2013)PD14
| `--C. (*F.) distans Hwass in Bruguière 1792PD14 (see below for synonymy)
`--+--C. (Stephanoconus)PD14
`--+--C. (Strategoconus)PD14
`--+--+--C. (Klemaeconus Tucker & Tenorio 2013) [incl. Continuconus Tucker & Tenorio 2013]PD14
| | |--C. (*K.) klemae (Cotton 1953)PD14 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--C. (K.) estivali Moolenbeek & Richard 1995PD14
| | |--C. (K.) plinthis Richard & Moolenbeek 1988 [=*Continuconus plinthis]PD14
| | |--C. (K.) rufimaculosus Macpherson 1959PD14
| | `--C. (K.) sugimotonis Kuroda 1928PD14 [incl. C. whiteheadae da Motta 1985BC01]
| `--+--C. (Turriconus)PD14
| `--+--+--C. (Dauciconus)PD14
| | `--+--C. (Ductoconus da Motta 1991) [incl. Arubaconus Petuch 2013]PD14
| | | |--C. (*D.) princeps Linnaeus 1758PD14
| | | `--C. (D.) hieroglyphus Duclos 1833 [=*Arubaconus hieroglyphus]PD14
| | `--C. (Pyruconus Olsson 1967)PD14, BK11
| | |--C. (*P.) patricius Hinds 1843PD14
| | `--C. (P.) fergusoni Sowerby 1873PD14
| `--+--C. (Monteiroconus da Motta 1991) [incl. Gladioconus Tucker & Tenorio 2009]PD14
| | |--C. (*M.) ambiguus Reeve 1844PD14
| | |--C. (M.) bellocqae van Rossum 1996PD14
| | |--C. (M.) gladiator Broderip 1833 [=*Gladioconus gladiator]PD14
| | |--C. (M.) mus Hwass in Bruguière 1792PD14
| | `--C. (M.) tabidus Reeve 1844PD14
| `--+--C. (Floraconus)PD14
| `--+--C. (Splinoconus)PD14
| `--C. (Leporiconus Iredale 1930)PD14, BK11
| |--C. (*L.) glans Hwass in Bruguière 1792PD14
| |--C. (L.) coffeae Gmelin 1791PD14 [incl. C. fabulaB79, C. scabriusculus Dillwyn 1817W94]
| |--C. (L.) granum Röckel & Fischöder 1985PD14
| |--C. (L.) luteus Sowerby 1833PD14
| `--C. (L.) tenuistriatus Sowerby 1858PD14
`--+--+--C. (Rhizoconus)PD14
| `--C. (Sciteconus da Motta 1991)PD14, BK11
| |--C. (*S.) algoensis Sowerby 1834PD14
| |--C. (S.) bairstowi Sowerby 1889PD14
| |--C. (S.) brianhayesi Korn 2001PD14
| |--C. (S.) gradatulus Weinkauff 1875PD14
| |--C. (S.) infrenatus Reeve 1848PD14
| `--C. (S.) pictus Reeve 1843PD14
`--+--C. (Puncticulis Swainson 1840)PD14
| |--C. (*P.) arenatus Hwass in Bruguière 1792PD14
| |--C. (P.) caracteristicus Fischer von Waldheim 1807PD14
| |--C. (P.) pulicarius Hwass in Bruguière 1792PD14
| |--C. (P.) vautieri Kiener 1847PD14
| `--C. (P.) zeylanicus Gmelin 1791PD14
`--+--+--+--+--C. (Pionoconus)PD14
| | | `--+--C. (Textilia)PD14
| | | `--C. (Afonsoconus Tucker & Tenorio 2013)PD14
| | | |--C. (*A.) kinoshitai Kuroda 1956PD14
| | | `--C. (A.) bruuni Powell 1958PD14
| | `--C. (Asprella Schaufuss 1869)PD14, BK11 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--C. (A.) sulcatus Hwass in Bruguière 1792PD14 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--C. (A.) fijisulcatus Moolenbeek, Röckel & Bouchet 2008PD14
| | |--C. (A.) gigasulcatus Moolenbeek, Röckel & Bouchet 2008PD14
| | |--C. (A.) grangeri Sowerby 1900PD14
| | |--C. (A.) helgae Blöcher 1992PD14
| | |--C. (A.) iodostoma Reeve 1843PD14
| | |--C. (A.) rolani Röckel 1986PD14
| | `--C. (A.) sulcocastaneus Kosuge 1981PD14
| `--+--C. (Phasmoconus)PD14
| `--+--C. (Embrikena Iredale 1937)PD14, BK11
| | |--C. (*E.) pergrandis (Iredale 1937) [=*Embrikena pergrandis]PD14
| | |--C. (E.) darkini Röckel, Korn & Richard 1993PD14
| | |--C. (E.) kostini Filmer, Monteiro et al. 2012PD14
| | |--C. (E.) moncuri Filmer 2005PD14
| | `--C. (E.) tisii Lan 1978PD14
| `--C. (Gastridium Modeer 1793) (see below for synonymy)PD14
| |--C. (*G.) geographus Linnaeus 1758 [=*Rollus geographus, *Utriculus geographus]PD14
| |--C. (G.) cuvieri Crosse 1858PD14
| |--C. (G.) eldredi Morrison 1955PD14
| |--C. (G.) fragilissimus Petuch 1979PD14
| |--C. (G.) obscurus Sowerby 1833 [=*Protostrioconus obscurus]PD14
| `--C. (G.) tulipa Linnaeus 1758 (see below for synonymy)PD14
`--+--+--C. (Virroconus)PD14
| `--C. (Chelyconus Mörch 1852)PD14, BK11
| |--C. (C.) ermineus Born 1778 (see below for synonymy)PD14
| `--C. (C.) purpurascens Sowerby 1833PD14 [incl. C. regalitalisC64]
`--+--C. (Dendroconus Swainson 1840) [incl. Cleobula Iredale 1930]PD14
| |--C. (*D.) betulinus Linnaeus 1758PD14
| |--C. (D.) buxeus (Röding 1798)PD14
| |--C. (D.) figulinus Linnaeus 1758 [=*Cleobula figulina]PD14
| |--C. (D.) glaucus Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--C. (D.) medoci Lorenz 2004PD14
| `--C. (D.) suratensis Hwass in Bruguière 1792PD14
`--+--+--+--+--C. (Elisaconus Tucker & Tenorio 2013)PD14
| | | | `--C. (*E.) litteratus Linnaeus 1758PD14
| | | `--C. (Hermes Montfort 1810)PD14, BK11 [incl. Theliconus Swainson 1840BK11]
| | | `--C. (*H.) nussatella Linnaeus 1758 [=*Theliconus nussatella]PD14
| | `--+--C. (Lithoconus Mörch 1852)PD14, BK11
| | | |--C. (L.) leopardus Röding 1798 (see below for synonymy)PD14
| | | `--‘Lithoconus’ dennantiBRW98
| | `--+--C. (Lividoconus)PD14
| | `--C. (Virgiconus)PD14
| `--+--C. (Lautoconus)PD14
| `--C. (Kalloconus da Motta 1991) (see below for synonymy)PD14
| |--C. (*K.) pulcher Lightfoot 1786PD14
| |--C. (K.) ateralbus Kiener 1850PD14
| |--C. (K.) atlanticoselvagem Afonso & Tenorio 2004PD14
| |--C. (K.) byssinus (Röding 1798)PD14
| |--C. (K.) genuanus Linnaeus 1758 [=*Genuanoconus genuanus]PD14
| |--C. (K.) pseudonivifer Monteriro, Tenorio & Poppe 2004PD14
| |--C. (K.) trochulus Reeve 1844PD14
| `--C. (K.) venulatus Hwass in Bruguière 1792 [=*Trovaoconus venulatus]PD14
`--+--+--C. (Lindaconus Petuch 2002)PD14, BK11 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--C. (*L.) lindae Petuch 1987PD14
| | |--C. (L.) bahamensis Vink & Röckel 1995PD14
| | |--C. (L.) spurius Gmelin 1791PD14 (see below for synonymy)
| | `--C. (L.) therriaulti (Petuch 2013)PD14
| `--C. (Harmoniconus da Motta 1991)PD14
| |--C. (*H.) musicus Hwass in Bruguiere 1792PD14 [incl. C. ceylanensis Hwass 1792W94]
| |--C. (H.) mcbridei Lorenz 2005PD14
| |--C. (H.) nanus Broderip 1833PD14
| |--C. (H.) nux Broderip 1833PD14
| |--C. (H.) parvatus Walls 1979PD14
| |--C. (H.) paukstisi (Tucker, Tenorio & Chaney 2011)PD14
| `--C. (H.) sponsalis Hwass in Bruguiere 1792PD14
`--+--C. (Tesselliconus da Motta 1991)PD14, BK11
| |--C. (*T.) tessulatus Born 1778PD14
| |--C. (T.) eburneus Hwass in Bruguière 1792PD14
| |--C. (T.) edaphus Dall 1910PD14
| |--C. (T.) sandwichensis Walls 1978PD14
| `--C. (T.) suturatus Reeve 1844PD14
`--+--C. (Quasiconus Tucker & Tenorio 2009)PD14, BK11
| |--C. (*Q.) melvilli Sowerby 1879PD14
| `--C. (Q.) tuticorinensis Röckel & Korn 1990PD14
`--+--C. (Conus) [incl. Coronaxis Swainson 1840]PD14
| |--*C. (C.) marmoreus Linnaeus 1758PD14 (see below for synonymy)
| |--C. (C.) araneosus Lightfoot 1786PD14
| |--C. (C.) bandanus Hwass in Bruguière 1792 [=*Coronaxis bandanus]PD14
| |--C. (C.) nocturnus Lightfoot 1786PD14
| `--C. (C.) vidua Reeve 1843PD14
`--+--C. (Leptoconus)PD14
`--+--+--C. (Darioconus)PD14
| `--C. (Calibanus da Motta 1991) (see below for synonymy)PD14
| |--C. (*C.) furvus Reeve 1843PD14 (see below for synonymy)
| `--C. (C.) thalassiarchus Sowerby 1834 (see below for synonymy)PD14
`--+--C. (Cylinder)PD14
`--C. (Eugeniconus da Motta 1991)PD14, BK11
|--C. (*E.) nobilis Linnaeus 1758PD14
|--C. (E.) cordigera Sowerby 1866PD14 (see below for synonymy)
`--C. (E.) marchionatus Hinds 1843PD14

Conus incertae sedis:
C. abruptus Marshall 1918F27a
C. affinis Gmelin 1791F27b
C. archetipus Crosse 1865S11
C. archiepiscopusR43c
C. architalassus Lightfoot 1786 [=C. archithalassus ms]K65a
C. arcuatusC64
C. armoricus Suter 1917F27b
C. beddomei Sowerby 1901 [incl. C. mayaguensis Usticke 1968]BC01
C. bertarollae Costa & Simone 1997S11
C. bicolor Sowerby 1833 [=C. albomaculatus Sowerby 1841, C. albimaculatus (l. c.)]ES88
C. bifasciatus Gmelin 1791BC01 [incl. C. fasciatus Adams 1853 nec Meuschen 1787 nec Kiener 1848F27b]
C. bozzettii Lauer 1991BC01
C. brasiliensisMT68
C. castus Reeve 1843R43c
C. cholmondeleyi Melvill 1900WG71
C. clavus Linnaeus 1758L58
C. clytospiraM01
C. columbaR43c
C. connectens Adams 1855 [incl. C. cinctus Swainson 1822 (preoc.), C. pulchellus Swainson 1822 (preoc.)]W94
C. crepusculum Reeve 1843R43c
C. deperditus Bruguiere 1798F27b
C. deshayesi Reeve 1844H09
C. elegans Sowerby 1895W94
|--C. e. elegansW94
`--C. e. ramalhoi Coomans, Moolenbeck & Wils 1986W94
C. elongatus Reeve 1843R43c
C. emersoni Hanna 1963BC01
C. episcopus Hwass in Bruguière 1792WG71
C. exaratus Reeve 1843R43c
‘Utriculus’ expansusN79
C. fasciatus Meuschen 1787F27b
C. floridanusD88
|--C. f. floridanusD88
`--C. f. floridensis Sowerby 1870 [incl. C. spurius atlanticus Clench 1942]D88
C. fulgetrumSP72
C. fulmineus Gmelin 1791 [=C. fulgurans Hwass 1792; incl. C. optabilis Adams 1853, C. selectus Adams 1855]T77
C. fuscatus Lightfoot 1786K65a
C. fusellinus Suter 1917F27a
C. gabrielae Rolán & Röckel 2000BC01
C. grayi Reeve 1843R43c
C. grueneri Reeve 1843R43c
‘Utriculus’ hyalinusN79
C. ichinoseana (Kuroda 1956)W94
C. incarnatus Reeve 1843R43c
‘Utriculus’ incultus (Gould 1855) [=Bulla (Tornatina) inculta]C64
C. incurvusC64
C. intermedius Reeve 1843R43c
C. interruptusC64
C. juliaeMT68
C. lacteusR43c
C. lautus Reeve 1843R43c
C. lignarius Reeve 1843R43a [incl. C. fasciatus Kiener 1848 non Meuschen 1787F27b]
C. lineatus Bruguière 1792H09
C. liratus Reeve 1843F27b
C. lorenzianusC64
C. loroisiKR75
C. magnus Linnaeus 1758 [incl. C. cernohorskyi da Motta 1983, C. fulvobullatus da Motta 1982]BC01
‘Utriculus’ mammillatusN79
C. mauryi Finlay 1927 [=C. ornatus Maury 1919 non Hutton 1873]F27b
C. metcalfii Reeve 1843R43c
C. minimus Linnaeus 1758L58
C. minutus Reeve 1843R43c
C. ‘neglectus’ Pease 1861 non Adams 1854K65b
C. nemocanusSP72
C. nicobaricusR43b
C. nitidus Reeve 1843R43c
C. nivosusR43c
C. novaehollandiae Adams 18543W94
C. nussatellataB79
‘Utriculus’ obtususN79
C. ommaria Hwass in Bruguière 1792 [incl. C. patonganus da Motta 1982]BC01
C. orbitatus Reeve 1843R43c
C. parvulus Link 1807 [incl. C. imperator Woolacott 1956]WG71
C. parvus Lea 1833F27b
C. peasei (Brazier 1877) [=Lithoconus peasei]H09
C. piperatus Reeve 1843R43c
C. plumbeus Reeve 1843R43c
C. proteusR43c
C. pseudoarmoricus M. & M. 1918F27a
C. pseudoaustini Usticke 1968BC01
C. pullulascens Tenison-Woods 1879F71
C. purus Pease 1863K65b
C. pustulosus [incl. C. mauritianus]C64
C. pygmaeus Reeve 1843R43c
C. ralphii Tenison-Woods 1878F71
C. rivertonensis Finlay 1926F27a
C. rusticus Linnaeus 1758L58
C. sannio Finlay 1927 [=C. affinis Martin 1879 non Gmelin 1791]F27b
C. sculleti Marsh 1962WG71
C. selenae Van Mol, Tursch & Kempf 1967S11
C. senator Linnaeus 1858L58
C. sindon Reeve 1843R43c
C. sowerbii Reeve 1849WG71
C. spinosus Linnaeus 1758L58
C. stainforthii Reeve 1843R43a
C. superstes Hedley 1911 (n. d.) [=*Mamiconus superstes]PD14
C. tahuensis Allan 1926F27a [=Conospira tahuensisA27]
C. teramachii (Kuroda 1956)W94
C. triangularis Finlay 1924F27a
C. tristis Reeve 1843R43c
C. tropicensis Coomans & Filmer 1985 [=C. lischkeanus tropicensis]W94
‘Utriculus’ truncatulusN79
C. undulatus Lightfoot 1786K65a
C. ustickei Miller in Usticke 1959 [incl. C. bifasciatus Sowerby 1857-1858 non Gmelin 1791]BC01
C. verriculum Reeve 1843R43c
C. vicariusR43c
C. victor Broderip 1842B42
C. yemanjae Van Mol et al. 1967ES88
C. (Atlanticonus Petuch & Sargent 2012)PD14
|--C. (*A.) granulatus Linnaeus 1758PD14
|--C. (A.) cuna Petuch 1998PD14
|--C. (A.) glenni Petuch 1993PD14
`--C. (A.) ritae Petuch 1995PD14
C. (Attenuiconus Petuch 2013)PD14
|--C. (*A.) attenuatus Reeve 1844PD14
|--C. (A.) aureonimbosus Petuch 1987PD14 [=Dauciconus aureonimbosusPMB15]
|--C. (A.) eversoni Petuch 1987PD14
|--C. (A.) honkeri Petuch 1988PD14
`--C. (A.) poulosi Petuch 1993PD14
C. (Austroconus Tucker & Tenorio 2009)PD14
|--C. (*A.) cyanostoma Adams 1855PD14 (see below for synonymy)
|--C. (A.) clarus Smith 1881PD14 [incl. C. segravei Gatliff 1891W94]
`--C. (A.) sydneyensis Sowerby 1887PD14
C. (Bermudaconus Petuch 2013)PD14
`--C. (*B.) lightbourni Petuch 1986PD14
C. (Brasiliconus Petuch 2013)PD14
`--C. (*B.) scopulorum Van Mol, Tursch & Kempf 1971PD14
C. (Eremiconus Tucker & Tenorio 2009)PD14
|--C. (*E.) minnamurra (Garrard 1961)PD14
|--C. (E.) albellus Röckel & Korn 1990PD14
|--C. (E.) colmani Röckel & Korn 1990PD14
|--C. (E.) limpusi Röckel & Korn 1990PD14
`--C. (E.) lizardensis Crosse 1865PD14 [incl. C. sibogae Sowerby 1857W94]
C. (Kellyconus Petuch 2013)PD14
|--C. (*K.) patae Abbott 1971PD14 [incl. C. rudiae Magnotte 1971BC01]
|--C. (K.) binghamae Petuch 1987PD14
`--C. (K.) ignotus Cargile 1998PD14
C. (Lamniconus da Motta 1991)PD14
|--C. (*L.) clerii Reeve 1844PD14
|--C. (L.) carcellesi Martins 1945PD14
|--C. (L.) lemniscatus Reeve 1849PD14
|--C. (L.) patriceae (Petuch & Myers 2014)PD14
|--C. (L.) tostesi Petuch 1986PD14
`--C. (L.) xanthocinctus Petuch 1986PD14
C. (Papyriconus Tucker & Tenorio 2013)PD14
`--C. (*P.) sculletti Marsh 1962PD14
C. (Plicaustraconus)PD14
C. (Pseudolilliconus Tucker & Tenorio 2009)PD14
|--C. (*P.) boschorum Moolenbeek & Coomans 1993PD14
|--C. (P.) korni Raybaudi Massilia 1993PD14 [=C. (Leptoconus) korniBC01]
|--C. (P.) kuiperi Moolenbeek 2006PD14
|--C. (P.) levis (Bozzetti 2012)PD14
|--C. (P.) scalarispira (Bozzetti 2012)PD14
|--C. (P.) traillii Adams 1855PD14
|--C. (P.) visseri Delsaerdt 1990PD14
`--C. (P.) wallacei (Lorenz & Morrison 2004)PD14
C. (Pseudonoduloconus Tucker & Tenorio 2009)PD14
`--C. (*P.) carnalis Sowerby 1879PD14
C. (Pseudopterygia Tucker & Tenorio 2013)PD14
`--C. (*P.) terryni Tenorio & Poppe 2004PD14
C. (Rubroconus Tucker & Tenorio 2013)PD14
`--C. (*R.) coccineus Gmelin 1791PD14
C. (Sandericonus Petuch 2013)PD14
|--C. (*S.) sanderi Wils & Moolenbeek 1979PD14
|--C. (S.) carioca Petuch 1986PD14
`--C. (S.) ednae (Petuch 2013)PD14

Conus Linnaeus 1758BK11 [=Conulus Rafinesque 1815 non Leske 1778BR05, Cucullus Röding 1798BK11; incl. Cucullites Herrmannsen 1847BK11, Mamiconus Cotton & Godfrey 1932PD14; Conianae, Coninae, Textiliinae, Textilinae]

Conus (Asprella Schaufuss 1869)PD14, BK11 [=Cylindrella Swainson 1840 (nom. rej.) non Pfeiffer 1840PD14; incl. Sulciconus Bielz 1869PD14]

Conus (Asprella) sulcatus Hwass in Bruguière 1792PD14 [=*Sulciconus sulcatusPD14; incl. Conus asper Lamarck 1810PD14, *Asprella asperaPD14, *Cylindrella asperaPD14, Conus samiae da Motta 1982BC01]

Conus (*Austroconus) cyanostoma Adams 1855PD14 [incl. C. coxeni Brazier 1875W94, C. cuneiformis Smith 1877W94, C. illawarra Garrard 1961W94, C. innotabilis Smith 1892W94]

Conus (Calibanus da Motta 1991 non Rose 1906 [ICBN]) [incl. Thalassiconus Tucker & Tenorio 2013]PD14

Conus (*Calibanus) furvus Reeve 1843PD14 [incl. C. nivalis da Motta 1985BC01, C. turritinus da Motta 1985BC01]

Conus (Calibanus) thalassiarchus Sowerby 1834 [=*Thalassiconus thalassiarchus]PD14

Conus (Chelyconus) ermineus Born 1778 [incl. Conus testudinarius Hwass 1792, *Chelyconus testudinarius]PD14

*Conus (Conus) marmoreus Linnaeus 1758PD14 [=*Cucullus marmoreusPD14; incl. Conus crosseanus Bernardi 1861BC01]

Conus (Eugeniconus) cordigera Sowerby 1866PD14 [incl. C. bitleri da Motta 1984BC01]

Conus (*Fraterconus) distans Hwass in Bruguière 1792PD14 [incl. C. kenyonae var. arrowsmithensis Brazier 1896B96, C. kenyonae Brazier 1896W94]

Conus (Gastridium Modeer 1793) [=Rollus Montfort 1810, Utriculus Schumacher 1817; incl. Tuliparia Swainson 1840, Protostrioconus Tucker & Tenorio 2009]PD14

Conus (Gastridium) tulipa Linnaeus 1758 [incl. Coronaxis nebulosa Swainson 1840, *Tuliparia nebulosa]PD14

Conus (Kalloconus da Motta 1991) [incl. Genuanoconus Tucker & Tenorio 2009, Trovaoconus Tucker & Tenorio 2009]PD14

Conus (*Klemaeconus) klemae (Cotton 1953)PD14 [=Rhizoconus klemaePD14; incl. Rhizoconus coralinus Habe & Kosuge 1970W94]

Conus (Lindaconus Petuch 2002)PD14, BK11 [incl. Calusaconus Petuch 2003BK11, Spuriconus Petuch 2003BK11]

Conus (Lindaconus) spurius Gmelin 1791PD14 [=*Spuriconus spuriusPD14; incl. C. spurius arubaensis Usticke 1968BC01]

Conus (Lithoconus) leopardus Röding 1798 [incl. C. millepunctatus Lamarck 1822, *Lithoconus millepunctatus]PD14

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A27] Allan, R. S. 1927. The geology and palaeontology of the Lower Waihao Basin, south Canterbury, New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 265–309.

[BRW98] Beesley, P. L., G. J. B. Ross & A. Wells (eds) 1998. Fauna of Australia vol. 5. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Part A. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[BK11] Bouchet, P., Y. I. Kantor, A. Sysoev & N. Puillandre. 2011. A new operational classification of the Conoidea (Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 273–308.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[B79] Brazier, J. 1879. List of marine shells collected on Fitzroy Island, north coast of Australia; with notes on their geographical range. Journal of Conchology 2: 186–199.

[B96] Brazier, J. 1896. A new genus and three new species of Mollusca from New South Wales, New Hebrides, and Western Australia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (3): 345–347.

[B42] Broderip, W. J. 1842. Descriptions of new species of shells, from the collection of H. Cuming, Esq. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 53–55.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[D88] D’Asaro, C. N. 1988. Micromorphology of neogastropod egg capsules. Nautilus 102 (4): 134–148.

[ES88] Emerson, W. K., & W. E. Sage III. 1988. Conus baccatus G. B. Sowerby III, 1877: a Panamic faunal constituent. Nautilus 102 (3): 110–114.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[K65a] Kay, E. A. 1965a. The Reverend John Lightfoot, Daniel Solander, and the Portland Catalogue. Nautilus 79 (1): 10–19.

[K65b] Kay, E. A. 1965b. Marine molluscs in the Cuming collection, British Museum (Natural History) described by William Harper Pease. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Zoology Supplement 1: 1–96, 14 pls.

[KR75] Kohn, A. J., & A. C. Riggs. 1975. Morphometry of the Conus shell. Systematic Zoology 24 (3): 346–359.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M01] Melville, J. C. 1901. A few further remarks upon the Erythrean molluscan fauna, with descriptions of seven species from Aden, in the collection of Commander E. R. Shopland, R.I.M. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 550–556.

[MT68] Mol, J.-J. van, & B. Tursch. 1968. Distinction between Conus juliae, C. daucus and C. brasiliensis. Nautilus 82 (1): 5–6.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[PMB15] Petuch, E. J., R. F. Myers & D. P. Berschauer. 2015. The Living and Fossil Busycon Whelks: Iconic Mollusks of Eastern North America. San Diego Shell Club, Inc.

[PD14] Puillandre, N., T. F. Duda, C. Meyer, B. M. Olivera & P. Bouchet. 2014. One, four or 100 genera? A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies 81: 1–23.

[R43a] Reeve, L. 1843a. Descriptions of four new species of Conus. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 12–13.

[R43b] Reeve, L. 1843b. On new species of Conus and Pectunculus. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 79–81.

[R43c] Reeve, L. 1843c. On new species of Conus, Pleurotoma, Pectunculus, and Cardita. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 168–197.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[SP72] Smythe, K. R., & W. W. A. Phillips. 1972. Some observations on the fauna of the Maldive Islands (Indian Ocean) part VIII. Marine shells. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (2): 290–296.

[T77] Tucker, J. K. 1977. The identity of Conus fulmineus Gmelin. Veliger 20 (2): 180–181.

[W94] Wilson, B. 1994. Australian Marine Shells vol. 2. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part Two (Neogastropods). Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *