Copepoda

 Specimen of Ridgewayia, from here.

Belongs within: Euarthropoda.
Contains: Podoplea, Pseudocyclops, Calanus, Temoridae, Diaptomidae, Centropagidae, Pontellidae, Candaciidae, Euchaetidae, Spinocalanoidea, Epacteriscidae.

The Copepoda are an abundant group of minute aquatic crustaceans, including both free-living and parasitic lineages. The body is divided by a mobile joint across the thorax; in the basal groups Platycopiidae and Calanoida, this joint is between the sixth and seventh trunk segments so that all swimming legs are anterior to the joint (Ax 2000).

Characters (from Ax 1999): Body divided between head, ten trunk segments and furca-bearing telson. Head lacking compound eyes; single nauplius eye with three pigment-cups retained in adult. First trunk segment fused with head to form cephalothorax, first thoracopods forming maxillipeds; second to sixth segments bearing thoracopods; seventh segment with genital apparatus; eighth to tenth segments without appendages. Intercoxal plate between coxae of thoracopods of a segment. Body divided into two sections by a mobile joint between fifth and sixth or sixth and seventh trunk segments. First antennae in male forming grasping organ for clasping females in transfer of spermatophores via tube-shaped sperm container at end section of sperm ducts; female with paired seminal receptacles alongside genital pores; eggs deposited in egg-sacs formed through gland secretions of oviducts, carried on body. Development originally with twelve (six nauplius, five copepodite and adult) instars.

<==Copepoda
    |--Platycopiidae [Platycopioida, Progymnoplea]HD03
    |    |--Platycopia inornataA99
    |    |--NanocopiaMD01
    |    |--SarsicopiaMD01
    |    `--AntrisocopiaMD01
    `--NeocopepodaMD01
         |--PodopleaHD03
         `--Calanoida [Gymnoplea]HD03
              |  i. s.: PseudocyclopsFBI01
              |         Metridia [Metridinidae]FBI01
              |           |--M. brevicaudaB26
              |           |--M. longaB26
              |           |--M. lucensB26
              |           `--M. princepsB26
              |         Paramisophria galapagensisFBI01
              |         MetacalanusFBI01
              |         ExumellaFBI01
              |         Miostephos Bowman 1976 [Stephidae]B86
              |           |--M. cubrobex Bowman 1976B86
              |           `--M. leamingtonensis Yeatman 1980B86
              |         CalanidaeB64
              |           |--CalanusW81
              |           |--Cetochilus septentrionalisB64
              |           |--Ichthyophorba hamataB64
              |           |--Dias longiremisB64
              |           |--Pontellina brevicornisB64
              |           `--AnomaloceraB64
              |                |--A. ornataMu02
              |                `--A. pattersoniB26
              |         ChiridiellaMK01
              |           |--C. abyssalisMK01
              |           |--C. gibbaMK01
              |           `--C. ovataMK01
              |         TemoridaeMD01
              |         PseudocalanusK-M02c
              |           |--P. elongatusMu02
              |           |--P. minutusMu02
              |           `--P. newmaniZS10
              |         DiaptomidaeS-MR03
              |         EudiaptomusB01
              |           |--E. hadzici (Brehm 1939)B01
              |           `--E. vulgarisB68
              |         Sulcanus Nicholls 1945 [Sulcanidae]N45
              |           `--*S. conflictus Nicholls 1945N45
              |         Acartia [Acartiidae]N45
              |           |--A. clausiR79
              |           |--A. hudsonicaC02b
              |           |--A. longiremisB26
              |           |--A. pacificaZSX10
              |           `--A. tonsaB26
              |         Tortanus Giesbrecht 1898N44 [TortanidaeN45]
              |           |--T. (Tortanus) barbatus (Brady 1883) [=Corynura barbata]N44
              |           |--T. discaudatusB26
              |           `--T. vermiculusZSX10
              |         ParapontellidaeN45
              |           |--ParapontellaN45
              |           `--NeopontellaN45
              |         ParacalanidaeN44
              |           |--Paracalanus parvusB26
              |           `--Acrocalanus Giesbrecht 1888N44
              |                `--A. gracilisN44
              |         Pseudophaenna [Phaennidae]N44
              |         CentropagidaeN44
              |         PontellidaeN44
              |         Fosshageniidae [Fosshagenioidea]MD01
              |         ‘Phyllopus’ (preoc.) [Nullisetigeridae, Phyllopodidae]MD01
              |           `--P. bidentatusB26
              |         PseudocyclopiidaeMD01
              |           |--PseudocyclopiaMD01
              |           `--StygocyclopiaFBI01
              |                |--S. australis Jaume, Boxshall & Humphreys 2001PH13
              |                `--S. balearicaFBI01
              |         AetideidaeP95
              |           |--Aetidius armatusB26
              |           |--PseudochirellaP95
              |           |--UndeuchaetaP95
              |           |    |--U. majorB26
              |           |    `--U. minorB26
              |           `--EuchirellaP95
              |                |--E. curticaudaB26
              |                |--E. pulchraB26
              |                `--E. rostrataB26
              |         ArietellidaeMD01
              |         AugaptilusH04 [AugaptilidaeMD01]
              |           `--A. filigerusH04
              |         BathypontiaN45 [BathypontiidaeMD01]
              |         BoholinidaeMD01
              |         CandaciidaeMD01
              |         ClausocalanusW81 [ClausocalanidaeMD01]
              |           `--C. laticepsW81
              |         DiaixidaeMD01
              |         DiscoidaeMD01
              |         EucalanusB26 [EucalanidaeMD01]
              |           |--E. attenuatusB26
              |           `--E. elongatusB26
              |         EuchaetidaeP95
              |         HeterorhabdusB26 [HeterorhabdidaeMD01]
              |           |--H. norvegicusB26
              |           `--H. spinifronsB26
              |         HyperbionychidaeMD01
              |         Lucicutia Giesbrecht & Schmeil 1898B26 [=Leuckartia (preoc.)B26; LucicutiidaeMD01]
              |           `--L. grandis (Giesbrect 1895) [=Leuckartia grandis]B26
              |         MecynoceraB26 [MecynoceridaeMD01]
              |           `--M. clausiB26
              |         MegacalanidaeMD01
              |         MesaiokeratidaeMD01
              |         ParkiidaeMD01
              |         RhincalanusB26 [RhincalanidaeMD01]
              |           |--R. cornutusB26
              |           `--R. nasutusB26
              |         RyocalanidaeMD01
              |         ScolecitrichidaeMD01
              |         TharybidaeMD01
              |         EpilabidoceraP95
              |         TropodiaptomusB50b
              |           |--T. gigantoviger Brehm 1933B50b
              |           `--T. simplexB50b
              |--SpinocalanoideaMK01
              `--EpacteriscoideaFBI01
                   |--EpacteriscidaeFBI01
                   `--RidgewayiidaeFBI01
                        |--Brattstromia longicaudataFBI01
                        |--Exumellina bucculentaFBI01
                        |--Stygoridgewayia trispinosa Tang, Barron & Goater 2008PH13
                        `--Ridgewayia Thompson & Scott 1903B86
                             `--R. marki (Esterly 1911)B86
Copepoda incertae sedis:
  Linaresia Zulueta 1908H01
  Benthomisophria palliata Sars 1909IFS01
  LernaeoceraIFS01
    |--L. branchialis (Linnaeus 1767)IFS01
    `--L. obtusaK-M02b
  Ommatokoita elongataBu02
  Lernaeopodina longimanaMc02
  Clavellisa cordataMu02
  Salminicola salmoneusKF02
  Clavella adunaK-M02a
  Parabolomochus bellonesC02a
  Diocis gobinusK-M02c
  Lernaenicas longiventrisK-M02e
  Calanoides carinatusK-M02f
  Acanthochondria cornutaK-M02g
  Anchistratos occidentalisK-M02h
  Orthagoriscicola muricatusK-M02i
  Philorthagoriscus serratusK-M02i
  Abscondicola humesi Fiers 1990S03
  BonierillaM62
  Doroixys uncinataM62
  HaplostomaM62
  Gunenotophorus globularisM62
  Phthiriopsis emiliiBK77
  Australocypris similisTDC06
  Meridiecyclops platypusTDC06
  GaidiusB26
    |--G. brevispinusB26
    |--G. pungensB26
    `--G. tenuispinisB26
  Dwightia Wilson 1924B26
    |--D. gracilis [=Setella gracilis]B26
    `--D. oculataB26
  Halithalestris croniB26
  ScolecithricellaB26
    |--S. minorB26
    |--S. obtusifronsB26
    `--S. ovataB26
  PleuromammaB26
    |--P. abdominalisB26
    |--P. borealeB26
    |--P. gracilisB26
    |--P. robustaB26
    `--P. xiphiasB26
  Amallophora magnaB26
  ChiridiusB26
    |--C. armatusB26
    `--C. obtusifronsB26
  Chirundina streetsiiB26
  Cornucalanus magnusB26
  Gaetanus milesB26
  Pesceus schmeili (Mrázek 1893)FS14
  Epactophanes richardi Mrázek 1893FS14
  Acanthodiaptomus pacificusBM06
  Eodiaptomus woltereckiB50b
    |--E. w. woltereckiB50b
    `--E. w. matanensisB50b
  Ischnochitonika lasallianaBRW98

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (translated: 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[BRW98] Beesley, P. L., G. J. B. Ross & A. Wells (eds) 1998. Fauna of Australia vol. 5. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Part A. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[BM06] Bergsten, J., & K. B. Miller. 2006. Taxonomic revision of the Holarctic diving beetle genus Acilius Leach (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). Systematic Entomology 31: 145–197.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[B86] Bowman, T. E. 1986. Copepoda: Calanoida. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 295–298. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[B64] Brady, G. S. 1864. On the marine cyclopoid Entomostraca (Calanidae), with notices of some species new to Britain. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 99–100.

[B01] Brancelj, A. 2001. Male of Moraria radovnae Brancelj, 1988 (Copepoda: Crustacea), and notes on endemic and rare copepod species from Slovenia and neighbouring countries. Hydrobiologia 453/454: 513–524.

[B50] Brooks, J. L. 1950. Speciation in ancient lakes (concluded). Quarterly Review of Biology 25: 131–176.

[B68] Brooks, J. L. 1968. The effects of prey size selection by lake planktivores. Systematic Zoology 17 (3): 273–291.

[B02] Burgess, G. H. 2002. Spiny dogfishes. Family Squalidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 48–57. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[C02a] Collette, B. B. 2002a. Needlefishes. Family Belonidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 287–289. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[C02b] Collette. B. B. 2002b. Mackerels. Family Scombridae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 516–536. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[FS14] Fiasca, B., F. Stoch, M.-J. Olivier, C. Maazouzi, M. Petitta, A. Di Cioccio & D. M. P. Galassi. 2014. The dark side of springs: what drives small-scale spatial patterns of subsurface meiofaunal assemblages? J. Limnol. 73 (1): 71–80.

[FBI01] Fosshagen, A., G. A. Boxshall & T. M. Iliffe. 2001. The Epacteriscidae, a cave-living family of calanoid copepods. Sarsia 86: 245–318.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[HD03] Ho, J.-S., M. Dojiri, G. Hendler & G. B. Deets. 2003. A new species of Copepoda (Thaumatopsyllidae) symbiotic with a brittle star from California, U.S.A., and designation of a new order Thaumatopsylloida. Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (3): 582–594.

[H01] Huys, R. 2001. Splanchnotrophid systematics: a case of polyphyly and taxonomic myopia. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 (1): 106–156.

[IFS01] Ivanenko, V. N., F. D. Ferrari & A. V. Smurov. 2001. Nauplii and copepodids of Scottomyzon gibberum (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Scottomyzontidae, a new family), a symbiont of Asterias rubens (Asteroidea). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 114 (1): 237–261.

[K-M02a] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002a. Smelts. Family Osmeridae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 162–170. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K-M02b] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002b. Cods. Family Gadidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 223–261. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K-M02c] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002c. Sculpins. Family Cottidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 346–357. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K-M02d] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002d. Bluefish. Family Pomatomidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 400–406. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K-M02e] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002e. Jacks. Family Carangidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 411–427. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K-M02f] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002f. Righteye flounders. Family Pleuronectidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 560–587. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K-M02g] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002g. Filefishes. Family Monacanthidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 592–598. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K-M02h] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002h. Ocean sunfishes. Family Molidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 603–607. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[KF02] Kocik, J. F., & K. D. Friedland. 2002. Salmons and trouts. Family Salmonidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 170–181. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[MK01] Markhaseva, E. L., & K. N. Kosobokova. 2001. Arctokonstantinus hardingi (Copepoda, Calanoida, Arctokonstantinidae): New family, new genus, and new species from the bathypelagial Arctic Basin. Sarsia 86: 319–324.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1–124.

[Mc02] McEachran, J. D. 2002. Skates. Family Rajidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 60–75. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[Mu02] Munroe, T. A. 2002. Herrings. Family Clupeidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 111–160. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[N44] Nicholls, A. G. 1944. Littoral Copepoda from South Australia. (II) Calanoida, Cyclopoida, Notodelphyoida, Monstrilloida and Caligoida. Records of the South Australian Museum 8 (1): 1–62.

[N45] Nicholls, A. G. 1945. A new calanoid copepod from Australia. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 11, 12: 501–514.

[P95] Park, T. 1995. Taxonomy and distribution of the marine calanoid copepod family Euchaetidae. Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego 29: i–xi, 1–203.

[PH13] Poore, G. C. B., & W. F. Humphreys. 2013. Bunderanthura bundera gen. et sp. nov. from Western Australia, first anchialine Leptanthuridae (Isopoda) from the Southern Hemisphere. Records of the Western Australian Museum 28 (1): 21–29.

[R79] Ryland, J. S. 1979. Structural and physiological aspects of coloniality in bryozoans. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 211–242. Academic Press: London.

[S03] Seifried, S. 2003. Phylogeny of Harpacticoida (Copepoda): Revision of “Maxillipedasphalea” and Exanechentera. Cuvillier Verlag: Göttingen.

[S-MR03] Suárez-Morales, E., & J. W. Reid. 2003. An updated checklist of the continental copepod fauna of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, with notes on its regional associations. Crustaceana 76 (8): 977–991.

[TDC06] Timms, B. V., B. Datson & M. Coleman. 2006. The wetlands of the Lake Carey catchment, northeast Goldfields of Western Australia, with special reference to large branchiopods. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 175–183.

[W81] Watson, L. 1981. Sea Guide to Whales of the World. Hutchinson: London.

[ZS10] Zhang, G., & S. Sun. 2010. Structure and geographic distribution of zooplankton communities in western Arctic Ocean in summer 2003. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 177–181. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

[ZSX10] Zhang, G.-T., S. Sun, Z.-L. Xu & Q.-L. Zhang. 2010. Unexpected dominance of the subtropical copepod Temora turbinata in the temperate Changjiang River estuary and its possible causes. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 100–102. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

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