Coprinopsis

Common ink cap Coprinopsis atramentaria, copyright Bernard Spragg.

Belongs within: Psathyrellaceae.

Ending life in a puddle of ichor
Published 28 April 2009

The semi-random process by which I select which taxa to write pages on presented me with the mushroom Coprinopsis herbivora. So you’d think I’d open the post with a nice big picture of the species in question, wouldn’t you? Sorry, you’d be wrong, because I haven’t been able to find a picture of Coprinopsis herbivora. In fact, I’ve been able to find next to diddly on Coprinopsis herbivora. All I’ve been able to establish is that it was described by Rolf Singer in 1973 from Argentina as Coprinus herbivorus (and I don’t have access to the original publication), and it looks like it might be found worldwide: I’ve found references to what look like records from Australia and Finland. And as far as C. herbivora specifically goes, that is it.

Coprinopsis picacea. Like C. herbivora, C. picacea has been included in Coprinus subsection Alachuani (morphologically defined by the cellular structure of the cap), so the two species are likely to be closely related (NB. Because of the obscenely complicated way in which botanical subgeneric nomenclature works, I can’t just say “Coprinopsis subsection Alachuani“, because that name probably doesn’t exist). Photo by Pau Cabot.

So let’s widen the field of view a little. Those of you who didn’t immediately recognise the names “Coprinopsis” and/or “Coprinus” were doubtless getting decidedly frustrated by the last paragraph, seeing as I had declined to mention just what, exactly, I was talking about. To explain, Coprinopsis and Coprinus are genera of mushrooms. Until recently, Coprinus included the mushrooms known as ink-caps. When an ink-cap first pops out from the ground, it looks like a fairly undistinguished mushroom. However, as the mushroom matures, the spore-bearing gills begin to liquefy. The mushroom’s cap progressively dissolves into a puddle of vile black goo, like some sort of Z-grade horror effect. As the cap dissolves from the outside in, the spores mature in the same direction, so the progressive dissolution means that mature spores are always on the edge of the cap, well exposed to be caught and carried off by the wind. At least some species of ink-cap are edible (that is, if picked before they turn into sludge) but reports differ—many species contain a compound called coprine that can react violently with alcohol. To quote Edible Wild Mushrooms of North America: “It is important to note that coprine leaves the body primed for poisoning for several days (even a week by some reports) after eating the mushroom. Therefore, it is not only the consumption of a coprine-containing mushroom and an alcoholic drink at the same time that can cause coprine poisoning. Symptoms can also occur if someone drinks wine, for instance, two or more days after the meal or eats a coprine-containing mushroom after consuming alcohol” (emphasis in the original).

Another shot of Coprinopsis picacea specimens, showing various degrees of dissolution. Photo by Marino Zugna.

Well over a hundred species of Coprinus had been identified and described from around the world, but all that began to change in the late 1990s, with the advent of molecular phylogeny. A number of studies (most notably Hopple & Vilgalys 1999) found that the genus Coprinus was polyphyletic, with at least two widely separated clades. The deliquescent cap, it turns out, had evolved on more than occasion. The great majority of species of Coprinus belonged to a clade containing other genera that had been assigned to the family Coprinaceae, though the Coprinus species were not monophyletic within this clade—the positions of species assigned to the genus Psathyrella divided them up into three smaller clades. A very small number of Coprinus species, however, fell within the family Agaricaceae, so more closely related to the common field mushroom Agaricus bisporus (i.e. the only mushroom that many British people and their equally mycophobic descendants are willing to believe is edible) than to other “Coprinaceae” species. This wouldn’t have really been a problem, except that one of those agaricaceous defecters just happened to be the type species of Coprinus, C. comatus. This meant that the name “Coprinus” had to be associated with the small segregate, not with the clade containing the vast majority of species, and Coprinus went from including over a hundred species to including two or three. Similarly, the family containing that large clade could no longer be called Coprinaceae, because it no longer contained the genus Coprinus.

The taxonomic implications of all this were worked through by Redhead et al. (2001). They renamed the no-longer-Coprinaceae clade Psathyrellaceae, and divided the ex-Coprinus species into three genera corresponding to the three smaller clades found by Hopple & Vilgalys (1999). This was not an easy process, for a number of generic names had been synonymised with Coprinus over the years, and they all had to be checked to see if they applied to the “new” genera (the results are long and tortuous, and anyone reading Redhead et al., 2001, who does not have a particular enthusiasm for mycological taxonomy is likely to suffer severe cranial implosion). For two of the segregate genera, Coprinopsis and Coprinellus, Redhead et al. dredged up ancient and little-used generic names that had been used for species in each of these clades (and when I say ancient and little-used: Coprinopsis, for instance, had been named in 1881, its own author had abandoned it by 1889, and it had it never been used between then and 2001). The third clade had no suitable generic name, and so Redhead et al. proposed the new genus name Parasola. An older name, Pselliophora, did exist for the genus Redhead et al. dubbed Coprinopsis, but they recommended that that name be quashed – on the somewhat unsteady grounds that a change from “Coprinus” to “Coprinopsis” was easier to remember than one from “Coprinus” to “Pselliophora“.

Coprinopsis xenobia, another member of ‘Coprinus‘ subsection Alachuani. Photo by Hans Bender.

As can be imagined, the prospect of wholesale name changes for over a hundred species was not greeted with unalloyed enthusiasm from all quarters. While Redhead et al. put in their request for the conservation of Coprinopsis, Jørgensen et al. (2001) put in a counter-request to change the type species of Coprinus to a species in the largest of the segregate clades—Coprinopsis—so minimising the number of species needing name changes. The decisions on these proposals were published in 2005 (Gams, 2005), with what can only be described as a distinctly grumbling tone. The name Coprinopsis was conserved over Pselliophora—but it was made clear that this proposal would not have been supported if Redhead et al. (2001) had not gone ahead and published no less than 98 new combinations in Coprinopsis and so presented the Committee with something of a do-or-be-damned situation. The proposal to change the type species of Coprinus was turned down, on the grounds that, as well as being the type, Coprinus comatus is one of the better-known species in the old genus—and its vernacular name in French is “le coprin”.

And can I note that this seems to be an extraordinary degree of kerfuffle over who gets to keep a name that, loosely translated into English, means “like a turd”?

Systematics of Coprinopsis
Coprinopsis Karsten 1881 (see below for synonymy)RV01
|--C. quadrifidaBH05 [=Coprinus quadrifidusHB02]
`--+--C. atramentaria (Bulliard: Fries) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001HB02, RV01 (see below for synonymy)
`--+--C. cinerea (Schaeffer: Fries) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001HB02, RV01 (see below for synonymy)
`--C. kimurae (Hongo & Aoki) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001HB02, RV01 (see below for synonymy)

Coprinopsis incertae sedis:
*C. friesii (Quélet) Karsten 1881RV01
C. acuminata (Romagnesi) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. africana (Pegler) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. alutaceivelata (Bogart) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. ammophilae (Courtecuisse) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. argentea (Orton) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. austrofriesii (Redhead & Pegler) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. bicornis (Uljé & Horvers) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. brunneistragulata (Bogart) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. brunneofibrillosa (Dennis) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. bubalina (Bogart) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. burkii (Smith) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. calospora (Bas & Uljé) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. caribaea (Pegler) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. cinchonensis (Murrill) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. cinereofloccosa (Orton) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. clastophylla (Maniotis) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. coniophora (Romagnesi) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)EV01
*Zerovaemyces’ copriniformis Gorovoy 1977RV01
C. cothurnata (Godey) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. cubensis (Berkeley & Curtis) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. depressiceps (Bogart) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. echinospora (Buller) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. epichloea (Uljé & Noordeloos) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. episcopalis (Orton) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. erythrocephala (Léveillé) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. extinctoria (Fries) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. fibrillosa (Berkeley & Broome) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. filamentifer (Kühner) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. fluvialis (Lanconelli & Uljé) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. geesterani (Uljé) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. gonophylla (Quélet) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. goudensis (Uljé) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. herbivora (Singer) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. herinkii (Pilát & Svrček) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. heterocoma (Malençon) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. insignis (Peck) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. jamaicensis (Murrill) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. jonesii (Peck) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. krieglsteineri (Bender) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. kubickae (Pilát & Svrček) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. laanii (Kits van Waveren) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. lagopides (Karsten) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. lagopus (Fries: Fries) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. luteocephala (Watling) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. macrocephala (Berkeley) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. macropus (Berkeley & Broome) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. marcida (Bogart) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. martinii (Orton) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. maysoidispora (Redhead & Traquair) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. mexicana (Murrill) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. myceliocephala (Lange) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. narcotica (Batsch: Fries) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. neolagopus (Hongo & Sagara) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. neotropica (Redhead & Pegler) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. nivea (Persoon: Fries) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. ochraceolanata (Bas) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. pachyderma (Bogart) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. pachysperma (Orton) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. paleotropica (Redhead & Pegler) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. papagoensis (Lindsey & Gilbertson) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. phaeospora (Karsten) Karsten 1881 [=C. phaeosporus (l. c.)]RV01
C. phlyctidospora (Romagnesi) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. picacea (Bulliard: Fries) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. piepenbroekii (Uljé & Bas) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. pinguispora (Bogart) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. pseudofriesii (Pilát & Svrček) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. pseudonivea (Bender & Uljé) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. pseudoradiata (Watling) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. psychromorbida (Redhead & Traquair) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. radiata (Bolton) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. radicans (Romagnesi) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. romagnesiana (Singer) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. rugosobispora (Greesink & Imler) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. sclerotiger (Watling) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. sclerotiorum (Horvers & de Cock) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. scobicola (Orton) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. semitalis (Orton) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. spelaiophila (Bas & Uljé) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. spilospora (Romagnesi) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. stangliana (Enderle, Bender & Gröger) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. stercorea (Fries) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. striata (Bogart) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. strossmayeri (Schulzer) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. subtigrinella (Dennis) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. sylvicola (Bogart) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. tectispora (Bogart) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. tigrina (Patouillard) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. tigrinella (Boudier) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. trispora (Kemp & Watling) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. undulata (Bogart) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. urticicola (Berkeley & Broome) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. utrifer (Watling) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. variegata (Peck) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. vermiculifer (Dennis) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. verticillata (Schulz-Weddigen) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. xantholepis (Orton) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01
C. xenobia (Orton) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy)RV01

Coprinopsis Karsten 1881 [=Coprinus subg. Coprinopsis (Karsten) Patouillard 1887; incl. Rhacophyllus Berkeley & Broome 1871, Zerovaemyces Gorovoy 1977; Zerovaemycetaceae]RV01

Coprinopsis acuminata (Romagnesi) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus atramentarius f. acuminatus Romagnesi 1951]RV01

Coprinopsis africana (Pegler) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus africanus Pegler 1966]RV01

Coprinopsis alutaceivelata (Bogart) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus alutaceivelatus Bogart 1979]RV01

Coprinopsis ammophilae (Courtecuisse) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus ammophilae Courtecuisse 1988]RV01

Coprinopsis argentea (Orton) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus argenteus Orton 1972]RV01

Coprinopsis atramentaria (Bulliard: Fries) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001HB02, RV01 [=Agaricus atramentarius Bulliard 1784RV01, Coprinus atramentariusRV01, Pselliophora atramentaria (Bulliard: Fries) Karsten 1879RV01]

Coprinopsis austrofriesii (Redhead & Pegler) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus austrofriesii Redhead & Pegler in Redhead & Traquair 1981]RV01

Coprinopsis bicornis (Uljé & Horvers) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus bicornis Uljé & Horvers in Uljé & Noordeloos 1999]RV01

Coprinopsis brunneistragulata (Bogart) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus brunneistragulatus Bogart 1979]RV01

Coprinopsis brunneofibrillosa (Dennis) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus brunneofibrillosus Dennis 1961]RV01

Coprinopsis bubalina (Bogart) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus bubalinus Bogart 1979]RV01

Coprinopsis burkii (Smith) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus burkii Smith in Smith & Hesler 1946]RV01

Coprinopsis calospora (Bas & Uljé) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Moncalvo et al. 2001 [=Coprinus calosporus Bas & Uljé in Uljé & Bas 1993]RV01

Coprinopsis caribaea (Pegler) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus caribaeus Pegler 1983]RV01

Coprinopsis cinchonensis (Murrill) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus cinchonensis Murrill 1918]RV01

Coprinopsis cinerea (Schaeffer: Fries) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001HB02, RV01 [=Agaricus cinereus Schaeffer 1774RV01, Coprinus cinereusRV01]

Coprinopsis cinereofloccosa (Orton) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus cinereofloccosus Orton 1960]RV01

Coprinopsis clastophylla (Maniotis) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus clastophyllus Maniotis 1964; incl. *Rhacophyllus lilacinus Berkeley & Broome 1871]RV01

Coprinopsis coniophora (Romagnesi) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus coniophorus Romagnesi 1941]RV01

Coprinopsis cothurnata (Godey) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus cothurnatus Godey in Gillet 1878]RV01

Coprinopsis cubensis (Berkeley & Curtis) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus cubensis Berkeley & Curtis 1869]RV01

Coprinopsis depressiceps (Bogart) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus depressiceps Bogart 1979]RV01

Coprinopsis echinospora (Buller) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus echinosporus Buller 1920, Coprinusella echinospora (Bulliard) Peck 1979 (nom. inv.)]RV01

Coprinopsis epichloea (Uljé & Noordeloos) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus epichloeus Uljé & Noordeloos 1997]RV01

Coprinopsis episcopalis (Orton) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus episcopalis Orton 1957]RV01

Coprinopsis erythrocephala (Léveillé) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Agaricus erythrocephalus Léveillé 1841]RV01

Coprinopsis extinctoria (Fries) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus extinctorius Fries 1838 non Agaricus extinctorius Linnaeus 1753]RV01

Coprinopsis fibrillosa (Berkeley & Broome) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus fibrillosus Berkeley & Broome 1871]RV01

Coprinopsis filamentifer (Kühner) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus filamentifer Kühner 1957]RV01

Coprinopsis fluvialis (Lanconelli & Uljé) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus fluvialis Lanconelli & Uljé in Uljé & Noordeloos 1997]RV01

Coprinopsis geesterani (Uljé) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus geesterani Uljé 1992]RV01

Coprinopsis gonophylla (Quélet) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus gonophyllus Quélet in Guillaud, Forquignon & Merlet 1882]RV01

Coprinopsis goudensis (Uljé) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus goudensis Uljé in Uljé & Bas 1993]RV01

Coprinopsis herbivora (Singer) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus herbivorus Singer 1973]RV01

Coprinopsis herinkii (Pilát & Svrček) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus herinkii Pilát & Svrček 1967]RV01

Coprinopsis heterocoma (Malençon) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus heterocomus Malençon in Malençon & Bertault 1970]RV01

Coprinopsis insignis (Peck) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus insignis Peck 1873]RV01

Coprinopsis jamaicensis (Murrill) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus jamaicensis Murrill 1918]RV01

Coprinopsis jonesii (Peck) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus jonesii Peck 1895]RV01

Coprinopsis kimurae (Hongo & Aoki) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001HB02, RV01 [=Coprinus kimurae Hongo & Aoki in Aoki & Hongo 1966RV01]

Coprinopsis krieglsteineri (Bender) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus krieglsteineri Bender 1987]RV01

Coprinopsis kubickae (Pilát & Svrček) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus kubickae Pilát & Svrček 1967]RV01

Coprinopsis laanii (Kits van Waveren) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus laanii Kits van Waveren 1968]RV01

Coprinopsis lagopides (Karsten) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus lagopides Karsten 1879]RV01

Coprinopsis lagopus (Fries: Fries) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Agaricus lagopus Fries 1821, Coprinus lagopus]RV01

Coprinopsis luteocephala (Watling) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus luteocephalus Watling 1972]RV01

Coprinopsis macrocephala (Berkeley) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Agaricus macrocephalus Berkely 1836]RV01

Coprinus macropus (Berkeley & Broome) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus macropus Berkeley & Broome 1871]RV01

Coprinopsis marcida (Bogart) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus marcidus Bogart 1979]RV01

Coprinopsis martinii (Orton) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus martinii Orton 1960]RV01

Coprinus maysoidispora (Redhead & Traquair) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus maysoidisporus Redhead & Traquair 1981]RV01

Coprinopsis mexicana (Murrill) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus mexicanus Murrill 1918]RV01

Coprinopsis myceliocephala (Lange) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus myceliocephalus Lange 1948]RV01

Coprinopsis narcotica (Batsch: Fries) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Agaricus narcoticus Batsch 1786]RV01

Coprinopsis neolagopus (Hongo & Sagara) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus neolagopus Hongo & Sagara 1967]RV01

Coprinopsis neotropica (Redhead & Pegler) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus neotropicus Redhead & Pegler in Redhead & Traquair 1981]RV01

Coprinopsis nivea (Persoon: Fries) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Agaricus niveus Persoon 1801, Coprinus niveus; incl. Coprinus latisporus]RV01

Coprinus ochraceolanata (Bas) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus ochraceolanatus Bas in Uljé & Bas 1993]RV01

Coprinopsis pachyderma (Bogart) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus pachydermus Bogart 1979]RV01

Coprinopsis pachysperma (Orton) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus pachyspermus Orton 1972]RV01

Coprinopsis paleotropica (Redhead & Pegler) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus paleotropicus Redhead & Pegler in Redhead & Traquair 1981]RV01

Coprinopsis papagoensis (Lindsey & Gilbertson) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus papagoensis Lindsey & Gilbertson 1975]RV01

Coprinopsis phlyctidospora (Romagnesi) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus phlyctidosporus Romagnesi 1945, Coprinusella phylctidospora (Romagnesi) Zerov 1979 (nom. inv.)]RV01

Coprinopsis picacea (Bulliard: Fries) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Agaricus picaceus Bulliard 1785]RV01

Coprinopsis piepenbroekii (Uljé & Bas) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus piepenbroekii Uljé & Bas 1993]RV01

Coprinopsis pinguispora (Bogart) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus pinguisporus Bogart 1979]RV01

Coprinopsis pseudofriesii (Pilát & Svrček) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus pseudofriesii Pilát & Svrček 1967]RV01

Coprinopsis pseudonivea (Bender & Uljé) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus pseudoniveus Bender & Uljé in Uljé & Noordeloos 1993]RV01

Coprinopsis pseudoradiata (Watling) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus pseudoradiatus Watling in Orton 1976]RV01

Coprinopsis psychromorbida (Redhead & Traquair) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus psychromorbidus Redhead & Traquair 1981]RV01

Coprinopsis radiata (Bolton) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Agaricus radiatus Bolton 1788]RV01

Coprinopsis radicans (Romagnesi) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus radicans Romagnesi 1951]RV01

Coprinopsis rugosobispora (Greesink & Imler) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus rugosobisporus Geesink & Imler 1979]RV01

Copirnopsis sclerotiger (Watling) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus sclerotiger Watling 1972]RV01

Coprinopsis sclerotiorum (Horvers & de Cock) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus sclerotiorum Horvers & de Cock in Uljé & Noordeloos 1997]RV01

Coprinopsis scobicola (Orton) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus scobicola Orton 1972, incl. Coprinus bilanatus Kemp 1975 (nom. inv.)]RV01

Coprinopsis semitalis (Orton) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus semitalis Orton 1972]RV01

Coprinopsis spelaiophila (Bas & Uljé) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus spelaiophilus Bas & Uljé in Uljé & Noordeloos 1999]RV01

Coprinopsis spilospora (Romagnesi) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus spilosporus Romagnesi 1951]RV01

Coprinopsis stangliana (Enderle, Bender & Gröger) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus stanglianus Enderle, Bender & Gröger in Bender & Enderle 1988]RV01

Coprinopsis stercorea (Fries) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus stercoreus Fries 1838]RV01

Coprinopsis striata (Bogart) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus striatus Bogart 1979]RV01

Coprinopsis strossmayeri (Schulzer) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus strossmayeri Schulzer 1879; incl. Coprinus rhizophorus]RV01

Coprinopsis subtigrinella (Dennis) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus subtigrinellus Dennis 1961]RV01

Coprinopsis sylvicola (Bogart) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus sylvicola Bogart 1979]RV01

Coprinopsis tectispora (Bogart) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus tectisporus Bogart 1979]RV01

Coprinopsis tigrina (Patouillard) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Psathyra tigrina Patouillard 1899]RV01

Coprinopsis tigrinella (Boudier) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus tigrinellus Boudier 1885]RV01

Coprinopsis trispora (Kemp & Watling) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus trisporus Kemp & Watling in Watling 1972]RV01

Coprinopsis undulata (Bogart) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus undulatus Bogart 1979]RV01

Coprinopsis urticicola (Berkeley & Broome) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Agaricus urticaecola Berkeley & Broome 1861]RV01

Coprinopsis utrifer (Watling) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus utrifer Watling 1972]RV01

Coprinopsis variegata (Peck) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus variegatus Peck 1873]RV01

Coprinopsis vermiculifer (Dennis) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus vermiculifer Dennis 1964]RV01

Coprinopsis verticillata (Schulz-Weddigen) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus verticillatus Schulz-Weddigen 1985]RV01

Coprinopsis xantholepis (Orton) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus xantholepis Orton 1972]RV01

Coprinopsis xenobia (Orton) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo in Redhead, Vilgalys et al. 2001 [=Coprinus xenobius Oreton 1976]RV01

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BH05] Binder, M., D. S. Hibbett, K.-H. Larsson, E. Larsson, E. Langer & G. Langer. 2005. The phylogenetic distribution of resupinate forms across the major clades of mushroom-forming fungi (Homobasidiomycetes). Systematics and Biodiversity 3 (2): 113–157.

Gams, W. 2005. Report of the Committee for Fungi: 12. Taxon 54 (2): 520–522.

[HB02] Hibbett, D. S., & M. Binder. 2002. Evolution of complex fruiting-body morphologies in homobasidiomycetes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series BBiological Sciences 269: 1963–1969.

Hopple, J. S., Jr & R. Vilgalys. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships in the mushroom genus Coprinus and dark-spored allies based on sequence data from the nuclear gene coding for the large ribosomal subunit RNA: divergent domains, outgroups, and monophyly. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 13 (1): 1–19.

Jørgensen, P. M., S. Ryman, W. Gams & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. (1486) Proposal to conserve the name Coprinus Pers. (Basidiomycota) with a conserved type. Taxon 50 (3): 909–910.

[RV01] Redhead, S. A., R. Vilgalys, J.-M. Moncalvo, J. Johnson & J. S Hopple Jr. 2001. Coprinus Pers. and the disposition of Coprinus species sensu lato. Taxon 50: 203–241.

Singer, R. 1973. Diagnoses fungorum novorum Agaricalium. III. Beihefte zur Sydowia 7: 1–106.

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