Coprosma

Twiggy coprosma Coprosma rhamnoides, copyright Rudolph89.

Belongs within: Anthospermeae.

Coprosma is a genus of shrubs and trees with often glandular leaves found around the southwest Pacific, with the highest diversity in New Zealand.

Characters (from Allen 1961): Shrubs or trees with simple opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules usually gland-tipped when young. Plants prevailingly dioecious, but with several types of sexual expressions. Flowers solitary or in fascicles or cymes, seated in a cup formed by partial fusion of two stipulate bracts (forming a calyculus). Calyx-teeth 4–5, usually minute, often absent in male. Corolla-tube usually narrow-funnelform, sometimes campanulate, lobes valvate. Stamens usually inserted near base of corolla-tube; filaments filiform; anthers usually far-exserted, more or less sagittate, apiculate, pendulous. Ovary usually 2-loculed; styles usually 2, very slender, sometimes narrowly clavate in stigmatic region, usually far-exserted. Fruit a succulent, more or less globose drupe with 2–(4) plano-convex pyrenes, usually crowned by withered persistent calyx.

Coprosma Forster & Forster 1776W96
|--C. subg. Coprosma [incl. C. subg. Microcoprosma Allan 1961]W96
| |--C. sect. Coprosma [=C. sect. Foetidae Allan 1961]W96
| | `--C. (subg. *C.) foetidissima Forster & Forster 1776W96 (see below for synonymy)
| |--C. sect. Acerosae Allan 1961A61
| | |--C. (sect. *A.) acerosa Cunn. 1839 [incl. C. acerosa f. arenaria Kirk 1899]A61
| | |--C. brunnea (Kirk) Cockayne ex Cheesem. 1925 [=C. acerosa f. brunnea Kirk 1899]A61
| | |--C. intertexta Simpson 1945A61
| | `--C. rugosa Cheeseman 1906A61
| |--C. sect. Antipodae Allan 1961A61
| | |--C. (sect. *A.) antipoda Oliver 1935 [incl. Plagianthus linariifolia Buchanan 1884]A61
| | `--C. cheesemanii Oliver 1935 [incl. C. depressa Cheesem. 1887 non Col. ex Hooker 1853]A61
| |--C. sect. Cuneatae Allan 1961A61
| | |--C. (sect. *C.) cuneata Hooker 1844A61
| | |--C. astonii Petrie 1912A61
| | |--C. banksii Petrie 1898 [incl. C. myrtillifolia var. linearis Hooker 1853]A61
| | |--C. colensoi Hooker 1864 [incl. C. pseudo-colensoi Cockayne & Allan 1934]A61
| | `--C. crenulata Oliver 1917 [incl. C. retusa Petrie 1894 non Hooker 1844]A61
| |--C. sect. Linariifoliae Allan 1961A61
| | `--C. (sect. *L.) linariifolia Hooker 1864 [=C. propinqua var. linariifolia Hooker 1853]A61
| |--C. sect. Microcoprosma Allan 1961 [=C. sect. Rotundifoliae (nom. inv.)]A61
| | |--C. (sect. *M.) rotundifolia Cunn. 1839 [incl. C. rufescens Colenso 1886]A61
| | |--C. areolata Cheeseman 1886 [incl. C. multiflora Colenso 1889]A61
| | |--C. × gracilicaulis [C. rotundifolia × C. tenuicaulis]A61
| | |--C. polymorpha Oliver 1935A61
| | |--C. rhamnoides Cunn. 1839A61 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--C. tenuicaulis Hooker 1853 [incl. C. tenuicaulis var. major Cheeseman 1906]A61
| | `--C. virescens Petrie 1879 [incl. C. divaricata var. pallida Hooker 1853]A61
| |--C. sect. Parviflorae Allan 1961A61
| | |--C. (sect. *P.) parviflora Hooker 1853A61
| | | |--C. p. var. parvifloraA61
| | | `--C. p. var. dumosa Cheeseman 1906A61
| | |--C. ciliata Hooker 1844 (see below for synonymy)A61
| | |--C. microcarpa Hooker 1853 [incl. C. margarita Colenso 1896]A61
| | `--C. propinqua Cunn. 1839 [incl. C. alba Colenso 1892]A61
| | |--C. p. var. propinqua [incl. C. propinqua var. typica Oliver 1935]A61
| | |--C. p. var. latiuscula Allan 1961A61
| | `--C. p. var. martinii Oliver 1935A61
| |--C. sect. Pseudocuneatae Allan 1961A61
| | |--C. (sect. *P.) pseudocuneata Oliver 1928 [incl. C. egmontiana Cockayne 1928]A61
| | `--C. depressa Col. ex Hooker 1853 [incl. C. pubens Petrie 1894 non Gray 1860, C. ramulosa Petrie 1895]A61
| |--C. sect. Pumilae Allan 1961A61
| | |--C. (sect. *P.) pumila Hooker 1847 (see below for synonymy)A61
| | | |--C. p. ssp. pumilaD95
| | | `--C. ‘perpusilla’ ssp. subantarcticaD95
| | `--C. petriei Cheesem. 1886A61
| | |--C. p. var. petriei [incl. C. petriei var. vera Cockayne & Allan 1926]A61
| | `--C. p. var. atropurpurea Cockayne & Allan 1926A61
| |--C. sect. Rigidae Allan 1961A61
| | |--C. (sect. *R.) rigida Cheeseman 1887 (see below for synonymy)A61
| | |--C. crassifolia Colenso 1846 [incl. C. divaricata var. coriacea Hooker 1853, C. pendula Colenso 1889]A61
| | |--C. obconica Kirk 1899A61
| | |--C. rubra Petrie 1885A61 (see below for synonymy)
| | `--C. wallii Petrie in Cheeseman 1925A61
| `--C. sect. Spathulatae Allan 1961A61
| |--C. (sect. *S.) spathulata Cunn. 1839A61
| | |--C. s. ssp. spathulataHL01
| | `--C. s. ssp. hikuruanaHL01
| `--C. arborea Kirk 1878A61
|--C. subg. Lucidae Webb 1996W96
| |--C. sect. Lucidae Webb 1996W96
| | |--C. (subg. *L.) lucida Forster & Forster 1776W96 (see below for synonymy)
| | | |--C. l. var. lucidaA61
| | | `--C. l. var. angustifolia Cheeseman 1925A61
| | `--C. dodonaeifolia Oliver 1935A61
| |--C. sect. Australes Allan 1961A61
| | |--C. (sect. *A.) australis (Rich.) Robinson 1910 (see below for synonymy)A61
| | |--C. acutifolia Hooker 1856A61
| | |--C. macrocarpa Cheeseman 1888A61
| | |--C. robusta Raoul 1844 (see below for synonymy)A61
| | `--C. tenuifolia Cheeseman 1886A61
| `--C. sect. Petiolatae Allan 1961A61
| |--C. (sect. *P.) petiolata Hooker 1856A61
| |--C. chathamica Cockayne 1902A61
| `--C. repens Richard 1832A61 (see below for synonymy)
`--C. subg. Serrula Allan 1961A61
`--C. (subg. *S.) serrulata Hooker ex Buchan. 1871A61

Coprosma incertae sedis:
C. arcuata Colenso 1846 (n. d.)A61
C. × buchananii Kirk 1892A61, C06 [C. crassifolia × C. robustaA61]
C. × cunninghamiiA61 [C. propinqua × C. robustaA61; incl. C. confertaC06]
C. ernodeoidesBM00
C. × gracilisA61 (see below for synonymy)
C. grandifloraH97
C. hirtellaBR65
C. × kirkii Cheesem. 1897C06 [C. acerosa × C. repensA61]
C. montanaD95
C. × neglecta [C. repens × C. rhamnoides]A61
C. novoguineensisD95
C. quadrifida (Labillardière) Robinson 1910 (see below for synonymy)BR65
C. solandri Kirk 1897 (n. d.)A61

Coprosma australis (Rich.) Robinson 1910 [=Ronabea australis Rich. 1832; incl. C. autumnalis Colenso 1887, C. grandifolia Hooker 1853]A61

Coprosma ciliata Hooker 1844 [incl. C. myrtillifolia Hooker 1844, C. parviflora var. pilosa Cheeseman 1887, C. ciliata var. virgata Hooker 1844]A61

Coprosma foetidissima Forster & Forster 1776W96 [=C. (sect. *Foetidae) foetidissimaA61; incl. C. affinis Hooker 1844A61, C. pusillaC06, C. sagittata Colenso 1899A61]

Coprosma × gracilisA61 [C. lucida × C. rhamnoidesA61; =C. divaricata var. gracilis Hooker 1853A61; incl. C. viridis Carse 1927A61, C27]

Coprosma lucida Forster & Forster 1776W96 [incl. C. lanceolata Colenso 1899A61, C. lucida var. obovata Kirk 1899A61]

Coprosma pumila Hooker 1847 [incl. C. perpusilla Colenso 1890, C. repens Hooker 1844 non Rich. 1832]A61

Coprosma quadrifida (Labillardière) Robinson 1910 [=Canthium quadrifidum Labillardière 1804; incl. Marquisia billardieri Richard 1819, Coprosma billardieri Hooker 1847]BR65

Coprosma repens Richard 1832A61 [incl. C. baueriA61, C. baueriana Hooker 1853A61, C. baueri var. oblongifolia Kirk 1899A61, C. retusa Hooker 1844A61, C. stockii Williams 1876A61, C. variegataD95]

Coprosma rhamnoides Cunn. 1839A61 [=C. rhamnoides var. vera Cheeseman 1906C06; incl. C. concinna Colenso 1884A61, C. divaricata Cunn. 1839A61, C. rhamnoides var. divaricata Cheeseman 1887A61, C. heterophylla Colenso 1886A61, C. orbiculata Colenso 1890A61]

Coprosma rigida Cheeseman 1887 [incl. C. aurantiaca Colenso 1890, C. lentissima Colenso 1890, C. turbinata Colenso 1892]A61

Coprosma robusta Raoul 1844 [incl. C. robusta var. angustata Kirk 1899, C. coffaeoides Colenso 1889, C. robusta var. parva Kirk 1899]A61

Coprosma rubra Petrie 1885A61 [incl. C. filiformis msA61, C. divaricata var. latifolia Hooker 1853A61, C. latifolia Col. ex Cheesem. 1887C06]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[BM00] Bremer, B., & J.-F. Manen. 2000. Phylogeny and classification of the subfamily Rubioideae (Rubiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 225: 43–72.

[C27] Carse, H. 1927. Botanical notes, with descriptions of new species. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 89–93.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[D95] Dawson, M. I. 1995. Contributions to a chromosome atlas of the New Zealand flora. 33. Miscellaneous species. New Zealand Journal of Botany 33: 477–487.

[H97] Hamilton, A. G. 1897. On domatia in certain Australian and other plants. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (4): 758–792, pl. 57.

[HL01] Heenan, P. B., & P. J. de Lange. 2001. A new, dodecaploid species of Uncinia (Cyperaceae) from ultramafic rocks, Surville Cliffs, Northland, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 39: 373–380.

[W96] Webb, C. J. 1996. A rose by any other name: two problems of scent in the naming and typification of New Zealand plants. New Zealand Journal of Botany 34: 281–283.

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