Chinese fan palm Livistona chinensis, copyright Forest and Kim Starr.

Belongs within: Arecaceae.
Contains: Licuala.

The Coryphoideae are a group of palms whose members often have palmate or costapalmate, induplicate leaves and/or apocarpous flowers. The date palm Phoenix dactylifera is widely cultivated for its edible fruits. The immature seeds of the toddy palm Borassus flabellifer are also widely eaten.

    |    |--HyphaeninaeHB09
    |    `--LataniinaeHB09
    |         |--Borassus flabelliferHB09, KJ05
    |         `--LataniaBP60
    |              |--L. borbonicaC90
    |              `--L. doddigesiiBP60
         |  i. s.: GuihaiaBBB03
         |         KerriodoxaBBB03
              |--Johannesteijsmannia altifronsSDK-L03, P88
                   |--L. alfrediiMLP09
                   |--L. australis (Brown) von Martius 1838HE80 [=Corypha australisB78]
                   |--L. benthamiiB00
                   |--L. chinensisA80b
                   |    |--L. c. var. chinensisA80b
                   |    |--L. c. var. boninensisA80a
                   |    `--L. c. var. subglobosaA80b
                   |--L. decipiensB00
                   |--L. drudeiB00
                   |--L. eastoniiLK14
                   |--L. humilis [incl. L. leichhardtii]B78
                   |--L. inermisB78
                   |--L. lorophyllaB12
                   |--L. mariaeB00
                   |--L. muelleriB00
                   |--L. nasmophilaB12
                   `--L. nitidaB00
Coryphoideae incertae sedis:
  Chamaerops humilisZ03, R-CT01
    |--C. albaF11
    |--C. australisF11
    `--C. ceriferaT-W89
    |--P. acaulisMi72
    |--P. canariensis Chabaud 1882HE80
    |--P. dactyliferaBP60
    |--P. fariniferaMa72
    |--P. humilisK72
    |--P. reclinataDS04
    |--P. sylvestrisKJ05
    `--P. theophrastiD81
  ThrinaxF11 [ThrinacinaeSDK-L03]
    |--T. parvifloraA02
    `--T. radiataF11

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A02] Anderson, R. S. 2002. Curculionidae Latreille 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 722–815. CRC Press.

[A80a] Aoki, J. 1980a. A revision of the oribatid mites of Japan. I. The families Phthiracaridae and Oribotritiidae. Bulletin of the Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Yokohama National University 6 (2): 1–89.

[A80b] Aoki, J. 1980b. A revision of the oribatid mites of Japan. III. Families Protoplophoridae, Archoplophoridae and Mesoplophoridae. Proceedings of the Japanese Society of Systematic Zoology 18: 5–16.

[BP60] Baker, E. W., & A. E. Pritchard. 1960. The tetranychoid mites of Africa. Hilgardia 29 (11): 455–574.

[BBB03] Barfod, A. S., T. Burholt & F. Borchsenius. 2003. Contrasting pollination modes in three species of Licuala (Arecaceae: Coryphoideae). Telopea 10 (1): 207–223.

[B78] Bentham, G. 1878. Flora Australiensis: A description of the plants of the Australian Territory vol. 7. Roxburghiaceae to Filices. L. Reeve & Co.: London.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[C90] Caracciolo, M. 1890. Détails complémentaires sur les métamorphoses de lépidoptères de Trinidad. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: clxxviii.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[D81] Day, D. 1981. The Doomsday Book of Animals: A unique natural history of three hundred vanished species. Ebury Press: London.

[F11] Fraga, R. M. 2011. Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 684–807. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[HB09] Heatubun, C. D., W. J. Baker, J. P. Mogea, M. M. Harley, S. S. Tjitrosoedirdjo & J. Dransfield. 2009. A monograph of Cyrtostachys (Arecaceae). Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 67–94.

[KJ05] Katewa, S. S., A. Jain, B. L. Chaudhary & P. Galav. 2005. Some unreported medicinal uses of plants from the tribal area of Southern Rajasthan. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 121–130.

[K72] Krishnan, M. 1972. An ecological survey of the larger mammals of peninsular India (continued). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (2): 297–351.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[Ma72] Mathew, D. N. 1972. The ecology of the baya in Rajampet, Cuddapah Dt., A.P. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (1): 188–191.

[MLP09] McKenzie, N. L., S. van Leeuwen & A. M. Pinder. 2009. Introduction to the Pilbara Biodiversity Survey, 2002–2007. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 3–89.

[Mi72] Mitra, S. N. 1972. Observations on the vegetation of the Upper Damodar catchment area. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (1): 17–25.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 522–529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[SDK-L03] Saw, L. G., J. Dransfield & D. M. Keith-Lucas. 2003. Morphological diversity of the genus Licuala (Palmae). Telopea 10 (1): 187–206.

[T-W89] Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1889. On the vegetation of Malaysia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 9–106, pls 1–9.

[Z03] Zona, S. 2003. Endosperm condition and the paradox of Ptychococcus paradoxus. Telopea 10 (1): 179–185.

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