Thala crassa, copyright Conquiliologistas do Brasil.

Belongs within: Neogastropoda.
Contains: Costellaria, Vexillum.

The Costellariidae, ribbed mitres, are a group of predatory gastropods with shells resembling those of the mitres of the Mitridae but with strong axial sculpture. Most species lack an operculum though molecular data support inclusion of the operculate genera Latiromitra and Ceratoxancus as basal costellariids. The radula possesses unicuspid lateral teeth and a tricuspid or multicuspid rachidian tooth. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the tricuspid rachidian, as found in Thala, is plesiomorphic relative to the multicuspid rachidian of most Vexillum species (Fedosov et al. 2015). Costellariids prey on other molluscs that they kill with a poison secreted from accessory salivary glands.

<==Costellariidae [Turriculidae, Vexillidae, Vexillinae]BR17
| | |--L. barthelowi (Bartsch 1942)FP15
| | `--L. crosnieri Bouchet & Kantor 2000FP15
| `--Ceratoxancus Kuroda 1952FP15, BC01
| |--C. melichrous Kantor & Bouchet 1997FP15
| `--+--*C. teramachii Kuroda 1952BC01, FP15, BC01
| `--C. leiosFP15
`--Thala Adams & Adams 1853FP15, O27 [incl. Micromitra Bellardi 1888 non Meek 1873W94, Mitromica Berry 1958W94]
|--*T. mirifica (Reeve 1845) [=Mitra mirifica]C80
|--T. africana Rolán & Fernandes 1995BC01
|--T. crassa Simone 1995BC01
|--T. esperanza Leal & Moore 1993BC01
|--T. exilis (Reeve 1845) (see below for synonymy)W94
|--T. gratiosaW94 [=Mitra (Thala) solitaria Adams 1852O27, *Mitromica solitariaW94]
|--T. maxmarrowi Cernohorsky 1980C80
|--T. obsoleta [incl. *Micromitra taurina]W94
`--T. orcutti (Dall 1920) [=Mitra (Thala) orcutti]O27

Costellariidae incertae sedis:
Mitropifex Iredale 1929W94
|--‘Vexillum (Costellaria)’ obeliscus (Reeve 1844) (see below for synonymy)W94
`--M. iredalei Powell 1958BC01
Nodicostellaria crassa (Simone 1995)S11
Pusia Swainson 1840BR05 (see below for synonymy)
|--*P. microzonias (Lamarck 1811)BR17 (see below for synonymy)
|--P. amabilis (Reeve 1845) [=Vexillum (Pusia) amabile; incl. V. encausta Gould 1850]W94
|--P. anabelae Fernandes 1992BC01
|--P. aureolineata (Turner 1988) [=Vexillum (Pusia) aureolineatum]W94
|--P. australe (Swainson 1820)FP15 (see below for synonymy)
|--P. bernhardina (Röding 1798) (see below for synonymy)W94
|--P. catenata (Broderip 1836) [incl. Mitra bibsae Usticke 1969]BC01
|--P. cavea (Reeve 1844) (see below for synonymy)W94
|--P. chibaensis Salisbury & Rosenberg 1999SR99
|--P. chickcharneorum (Lyons & Kaicher 1978) [=Vexillum (Pusia) chickcharneorum]BC01
|--P. consanguinea (Reeve 1845) [=Vexillum (Pusia) consanguineum; incl. V. russa Gould 1860]W94
|--P. corallina (Reeve 1845) [=Vexillum (Pusia) corallinum]W94
|--P. crocata (Lamarck 1811) (see below for synonymy)W94
|--*Ebenomitra’ ebenusW94
|--P. exigua (Adams 1845) (see below for synonymy)BC01
|--P. goubini (Hervier 1897)SR99
|--P. hanleyi (Dohrn 1861) [=Mitra hanleyi]SR99
|--P. hansenae (Cernohorsky 1973) [=Vexillum (Pusia) hansenae]W94
|--P. histrio (Reeve 1844) (see below for synonymy)BC01
|--P. inermis (Reeve 1845) [incl. Mitra kraussii Dunker 1861, P. kraussii]SR99
|--P. infausta (Reeve 1845) (see below for synonymy)W94
|--P. lauta (Reeve 1845) [=Vexillum (Pusia) lautum]W94
|--P. leucodesmum (Reeve 1845) [=Vexillum (Pusia) leucodesmum]W94
|--P. luculenta (Reeve 1845) [=Vexillum (Pusia) luculentum]W94
|--P. marrowi (Cernohorsky 1973) [=Vexillum (Pusia) marrowi]W94
|--P. millecostata (Broderip 1836) (see below for synonymy)W94
|--P. pardalis (Kuster 1841) [=Vexillum (Pusia) pardalis]W94
|--P. pisolinum (Lamarck 1811) [=Vexillum (Pusia) pisolinum; incl. V. cremans Reeve 1845]W94
|--P. salisburyi (Cernohorsky 1976) [=Vexillum (Pusia) salisburyi]C80
|--P. semicostata (Anton 1839) [=Vexillum (Pusia) semicostatum]W94
|--P. speciosa (Reeve 1844) [=Vexillum (Pusia) speciosum; incl. V. trizonalis Dautzenberg 1935]W94
|--‘Voluta’ tricolor Gmelin 1791 [=*Pusiolina tricolor]SR99
|--P. turben (Reeve 1844) [=*Idiochila turben, Vexillum (Pusia) turben; incl. V. kanaka Pilsbry 1921]W94
`--P. tusum (Reeve 1845) [=Vexillum (Pusia) tusum]W94
Austromitra Finlay 1926SR99
|--*A. rubiginosa (Hutton 1873) [=Columbella rubiginosa]P61
|--A. ambulacra (Marwick 1926) [=Vexillum ambulacrum]F27
|--A. analogica (Reeve 1845)W94 (see below for synonymy)
|--A. angulata (Suter 1908)P61 [=Vexillum pseudomarginata angulataF27]
|--A. antipoda (Brookes 1926)P61 [=Vexillum antipodumF27]
|--A. arnoldi (Verco 1909)W94
|--A. brunneacincta Powell 1952P61
|--A. erecta Powell 1934P61
|--A. fracta [=Vexillum fractum]F27
|--A. lawsi Finlay 1930P61
|--A. lincolnensisM54
|--A. maculosa Turner & Simone 1998S11
|--A. marginata [=Vexillum marginatum]F27
|--A. minutenodosa Cernohorsky 1980W94
|--A. planata [=Turricula planata, Vexillum planatum]F27
|--A. planatella Finlay 1930P61
|--A. pseudomarginata (Suter 1913)P61 [=Vexillum pseudomarginataF27]
|--A. rubiradix Finlay 1927P61
|--A. tasmanica (Tenison Woods 1876) (see below for synonymy)W94
|--A. tricordata Beu 1970B70
|--A. volucra (Hedley 1915)W94
`--A. zafra Powell 1952P61
|--M. decorosa (Stephenson 1952)TTE93
`--M. ripleyana (Wade 1926)TTE93

Austromitra analogica (Reeve 1845)W94 [=Vexillum analogicumF27; incl. A. bellapicta Verco 1909W94, Vexillum bellapictumF27, A. cinnamomea Adams 1855W94, A. jaffaensis Cotton & Godfrey 1932W94, A. legrandi Tenison Woods 1876W94, Vexillum legrandiF27, A. pumilio May 1916W94, V. pumilioF27, A. retrocurvata Verco 1909W94, A. scalariformis Tenison Woods 1876W94, Vexillum scalariformeF27, A. schomburghi Angas 1878W94, A. scita Tenison Woods 1876W94, A. tatei Angas 1879W94, A. teresiae Tenison Woods 1876W94, A. vincta Adams 1855W94, A. weldii Tenison Woods 1878W94]

Austromitra tasmanica (Tenison Woods 1876) [incl. A. bucklandi bassiana Gabriel 1962, A. bucklandi Gabriel 1962, A. cericosta Laseron 1951]W94

Pusia Swainson 1840BR05 [incl. Ebenomitra Monterosato 1917W94, Idiochila Pilsbry 1921W94, Pusiolina Cossmann 1921W94; Pusiinae, Pusinae]

Pusia australe (Swainson 1820)FP15 [=Vexillum (Pusia) australeFP15; incl. V. kieneri Sowerby 1874W94, V. melaleuca Quoy & Gaimard 1833W94, V. vincentiana Verco 1896W94]

Pusia bernhardina (Röding 1798) [=Vexillum (Pusia) bernhardina; incl. V. muriculata Lamarck 1811, V. stefaninii Nardini 1934]W94

Pusia cavea (Reeve 1844) [=Vexillum (Pusia) cavea; incl. V. porphyretica Reeve 1844, V. satsumae Dall 1926]W94

Pusia crocata (Lamarck 1811) [=Vexillum (Pusia) crocatum; incl. V. aurantia Broderip 1836, V. concinna Reeve 1844, V. cumingi Reeve 1844, V. flavescens Reeve 1844, V. imitatrix Dautzenberg & Bouge 1923, V. pyramidalis Reeve 1844]W94

Pusia exigua (Adams 1845) [=Vexillum (Pusia) exiguum; incl. Mitra hanleyi f. antiguensis Usticke 1969, M. minutus Usticke 1969 non M. minuta Gmelin 1791, M. moisei McGinty 1955]BC01

Pusia histrio (Reeve 1844) [=Vexillum (Pusia) histrio; incl. Mitra cruzana Usticke 1959, M. hayesae Usticke 1959]BC01

Pusia infausta (Reeve 1845) [=Vexillum (Pusia) infaustum; incl. V. elizae Melvill 1889, V. fulvosulcata Melvill 1888]W94

*Pusia microzonias (Lamarck 1811)BR17 [=Mitra microzoniasBR17, Vexillum (*Pusia) microzoniasFP15; incl. V. bilineata Reeve 1845W94, V. discors Kuster 1840W94, V. glabra Pease 1868W94, V. infrafasciata Souverbie 1865W94, V. lubrica Pease 1869W94, V. semiplicata Broderip 1836W94, V. sulcata Gmelin 1791W94, V. vavakuana Ladd & Hoffmeister 1945W94]

Pusia millecostata (Broderip 1836) [=Vexillum (Pusia) millecostatum; incl. V. adamsoni Reeve 1844, V. antonii Kuster 1839, V. crocea Reeve 1845, V. evelynae Melvill 1895]W94

Thala exilis (Reeve 1845) [incl. T. adumbrata Souverbie 1876, T. ceylanica Preston 1904, T. illecebra Melvill 1927, T. jaculanda Gould 1860, T. ogasawarana Pilsbry 1904]W94

Vexillum (Costellaria)’ obeliscus (Reeve 1844) [incl. V. andamanica Nevill & Nevill 1875, *Mitropifex quasillus Iredale 1929, V. subtruncata Sowerby 1874]W94

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[C80] Cernohorsky, W. O. 1980. The taxonomy of some Indo-Pacific Mollusca. Part 8. Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum 17: 135–152.

[FP15] Fedosov, A., N. Puillandre, Y. Kantor & P. Bouchet. 2015. Phylogeny and systematics of mitriform gastropods (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Neogastropoda). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 175: 336–359.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[SR99] Salisbury, R., & G. Rosenberg. 1999. Description of a new species of Pusia (Gastropoda: Costellariidae) from Japan. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 149: 93–97.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[W94] Wilson, B. 1994. Australian Marine Shells vol. 2. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part Two (Neogastropods). Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

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