Crabronini

Crossocerus quadrimaculatus, copyright Slimguy.

Belongs within: Crabronidae.
Contains: Williamsita, Enoplolindenius (Iskutana), Podagritus (Podagritus), Podagritus (Echuca), Podagritus (Parechuca), Encopognathus, Entomognathus (Mashona), Anacrabro, Rhopalum (Rhopalum), Rhopalum (Calceorhopalum), Rhopalum (Corynopus), Rhopalum (Latrorhopalum), Dasyproctus, Neodasyproctus, Foxita, Ectemnius, Lestica (Solenius), Lindenius, Crabro, Crossocerus (Crossocerus), Crossocerus (Ablepharipus), Crossocerus (Blepharipus), Crossocerus (Cuphopterus), Crossocerus (Microcrabro).

The Crabronini are a diverse group of wasps characterised by a large, cuboidal head, a relatively stout thorax and stout legs. Members of the more generalised, presumably basal genera Entomognathus, Encopognathus, Anacrabro and Entomocrabro have a mandible which is notched externoventrally and simple apically, a palpal formula of 6-4, and females have a flat, triangular plate on the pygidium. In more derived genera, the mandible lacks the externoventral notch and is often toothed apically (Bohart & Menke 1976).

Characters (from Bohart & Menke 1976): Small to medium large forms, 2 to 14 mm long; eyes naked or rarely hairy, inner orbits nearly always converging below, often strongly so; eye facets usually enlarging ventrad; frons often with a definite scapal basin which may be margined laterally, dorsally, or both; ocellar triangle various, occipital carina complete or incomplete; antennal sockets usually close to each other and to inner orbits; clypeus usually transverse; male antenna with 12 or 13 articles, female with 12; scape often with one or two carinae; male flagellum sometimes broadened and, or fringed beneath; palpal formula 6-4, 6-3 or 5-3; mandible apex simple or bidentate, rarely tridentate, inner margin simple or dentate, inner base sometimes with a large tooth or prog; mandible socket often closed; metanotum and propodeum without mucro; metanotum usually without squamae; submarginal cell separated by vein from discoidal cell I; gaster often pedunculate; male pygidial
plate present or absent; female pygidial plate triangular and flat or narrowed and guttered.

<==Crabronini [Anacrabronina, Crabronina]BM76
    |--Entomognathus Dahlbom 1844SN18, BM76
    |    |  i. s.: E. arnoldi Bohart & Menke 1976 [=Crabro tridens Arnold 1944 non Fabricius 1793]BM76
    |    |--E. (Entomognathus)BM76
    |    |    |--*E. (E.) brevis (Vander Linden 1829) [=Crabro brevis; incl. Lindenius apicalis Lepeletier & Brullé 1834]BM76
    |    |    |--E. (E.) breviusculus (Gussakovskij 1952) [=Crabro breviusculus]BM76
    |    |    |--E. (E.) dentifer (Noskiewicz 1929) [=Crabro dentifer; incl. E. permixtus Nouvel & Ribaut 1956]BM76
    |    |    |--E. (E.) euryops (Kohl 1899) [=Crabro euryops]BM76
    |    |    |--E. (E.) fortuitus (Kohl 1915) [=Crabro fortuitus]BM76
    |    |    |--E. (E.) libanonis (Kohl 1905) [=Crabro libanonis]BM76
    |    |    |--E. (E.) sahlbergi (Morawitz 1866) [=Crabro sahlbergi]BM76
    |    |    |--E. (E.) schmidti Beaumont 1967BM76
    |    |    `--E. (E.) schmiedeknechtii (Kohl 1905) [=Crabro schmiedeknechtii]BM76
    |    |--E. (Koxinga Pate 1944)BM76
    |    |    |--E. (*K.) siraiya Pate 1944BM76
    |    |    `--E. (K.) nitidus (Cameron 1890)BM76 [=Oxybelus nitidusBM76, Crabro nitidusL99]
    |    |--E. (Mashona)BM76
    |    `--E. (Toncahua Pate 1944) [incl. Florkinus Leclercq 1956]BM76
    |         |--‘Anothyreus’ panurgoides Viereck 1904 (see below for synonymy)BM76
    |         |--E. (T.) arenivagus Krombein 1963BM76
    |         |--E. (T.) evolutionis (Leclercq 1956) [=Encopognathus evolutionis, *Florkinus evolutionis]BM76
    |         |--E. (T.) geometricus Leclercq 1955BM76
    |         |--E. (T.) lenapeorum Viereck 1904BM76
    |         |--E. (T.) memorialis Banks 1921BM76
    |         `--E. (T.) mexicanus Cameron 1904BM76
    `--+--+--AnacrabroSN18
       |  `--Quexua Pate 1942SN18, BM76 [incl. Arecuna Pate 1942BM76]
       |       |  i. s.: Q. essequibo Pate 1942 [=*Arecuna essequibo]BM76
       |       |--Q. verticalis (Smith 1873) [=Crabro verticalis; incl. Q. llameo Pate 1942]BM76
       |       `--Q. cashibo groupBM76
       |            |--*Q. cashibo Pate 1942BM76
       |            |--Q. inca Leclerq 1955BM76
       |            |--Q. pano Pate 1942BM76
       |            |--Q. ricata Leclercq 1955BM76
       |            `--Q. witoto Pate 1942BM76
       `--+--+--Moniaecera Ashmead 1899SN18, BM76
          |  |    |--*M. abdominalis (Fox 1895) [=Crabro abdominalis]BM76
          |  |    |--M. asperata (Fox 1895) [=Crabro asperatus]BM76
          |  |    |--M. evansi Pate 1947BM76
          |  |    |--M. foxiana Pate 1948BM76
          |  |    `--M. pinal Pate 1947BM76
          |  `--Rhopalum Stephens 1829SN18, BM76 (see below for synonymy)
          |       |  i. s.: R. atlanticum Bohart 1974BM76
          |       |         R. bamendae (Leclercq 1961) [=Podagritus bamendae]BM76
          |       |         R. brevinodum (Spinola 1851) [=Physoscelis brevinodus; incl. R. pucarense Leclercq 1970]BM76
          |       |         R. bruchi Schrottky 1909BM76
          |       |         R. carbonariumG27
          |       |         R. claudii (Janvier 1928) [=Crabro claudii]BM76
          |       |         R. cruentatum (Arnold 1944) [=Crabro cruentatus]BM76
          |       |           |--R. c. cruentatumBM76
          |       |           `--R. c. belgarum Leclercq 1955BM76
          |       |         ‘Euplilis’ dimidiatusR26
          |       |         R. fenimorum Leclercq 1970BM76
          |       |         R. gorongozae (Arnold 1960) [=Crabro gorongozae]BM76
          |       |         R. guttatum Tsuneki 1955BM76
          |       |         R. hanedai Tsuneki 1973BM76
          |       |         R. heterocerum (Mantero 1901) [=Crabro heterocerus]BM76
          |       |         R. ichneumoniforme (Arnold 1927) [=Thyreopus ichneumoniformis]BM76
          |       |           |--R. i. ichneumoniformeBM76
          |       |           `--R. i. stramineipes (Arnold 1932) [=Thyreopus stramineipes]BM76
          |       |         R. pacificum Bohart 1974BM76
          |       |         R. pallipes (Lepeletier & Brullé 1834) (see below for synonymy)BM76
          |       |         R. ‘petiolatum’ (Nurse 1912) [=Crabro petiolatus non Panzer 1797]BM76
          |       |         R. seychellense Turner 1912 [incl. Crabro oceanicus Turner 1911 non Schulz 1906]BM76
          |       |--R. (Rhopalum)C85
          |       |--R. (Aporhopalum Leclercq 1955)BM76
          |       |    `--R. (*A.) perforator Smith 1876BM76
          |       |--R. (Calceorhopalum)BM76
          |       |--R. (Corynopus)C85
          |       |--R. (Latrorhopalum)BM76
          |       |--R. (Notorhopalum Leclercq 1978)C85
          |       |    `--R. (*N.) carnegiacum Leclercq 1978C85
          |       `--R. (Zelorhopalum Leclercq 1955)BM76
          |            |--R. (*Z.) aucklandi Leclercq 1955BM76
          |            `--R. (Z.) zealandum Leclercq 1955BM76
          `--+--+--+--DasyproctusSN18
             |  |  `--NeodasyproctusSN18
             |  `--+--+--FoxitaSN18
             |     |  `--EctemniusSN18
             |     `--Lestica Billberg 1820SN18, BM76 (see below for synonymy)
             |          |  i. s.: L. cinctella (Fox 1895) [=Crabro cinctellus]BM76
             |          |         ‘Ceratocolus’ laevisR13
             |          |         L. rufigaster Tsuneki 1984I92
             |          |--L. (Lestica)BM76
             |          |    |--*L. (L.) subterranea (Fabricius 1775)BM76 (see below for synonymy)
             |          |    |    |--L. s. subterraneaBM76
             |          |    |    `--L. s. ochotica (Morawitz 1866) [=Crabro ochotica]BM76
             |          |    `--L. (L.) compacta (Kohl 1915) [=Crabro compactus]BM76
             |          |--L. (Solenius)C85
             |          |--L. alata groupBM76
             |          |    |--L. alata (Panzer 1797)BM76 (see below for synonymy)
             |          |    |--L. aurantiaca (Kohl 1915) [=Crabro aurantiacus]BM76
             |          |    |--L. dasymera Pate 1948BM76
             |          |    `--L. pygialis (Pérez 1903) [=Ceratocolus pygialis]BM76
             |          |--L. clypeata groupBM76
             |          |    |--L. camelus (Eversmann 1849) [=Crabro camelus; incl. C. sapporensis Matsumura 1911]BM76
             |          |    |--L. clypeata (Schreber 1759) (see below for synonymy)BM76
             |          |    |--L. reiteri (Kohl 1915) (see below for synonymy)BM76
             |          |    `--L. wollmanni (Kohl 1915) [=Crabro wollmanni]BM76
             |          `--L. pluschtschevskyi groupBM76
             |               |--L. eurypus (Kohl 1898) [=Crabro eurypus]BM76
             |               `--L. pluschtschevskyi (Morawitz 1891) [=Crabro pluschtschevskyi, *Ptyx pluschtschevskyi]BM76
             `--+--LindeniusSN18
                `--+--CrabroSN18
                   `--Crossocerus Lepeletier & Brullé 1834SN18, BM76
                        |  i. s.: C. italicus Beaumont 1964BM76
                        |         C. jason (Cameron 1891) [=Crabro jason]BM76
                        |         C. perpusillus (Walker 1871) [=Crabro perpusillus]BM76
                        |         C. ruandensis (Arnold 1932) [=Rhopalum ruandense]BM76
                        |         C. varus (Panzer 1799) [=Crabro varus]BM76
                        |--C. (Crossocerus)BM76
                        |--C. (Ablepharipus)BM76
                        |--C. (Acanthocrabro Perkins 1913)BM76
                        |    |--C. (*A.) vagabundus (Panzer 1798) (see below for synonymy)BM76
                        |    |    |--C. v. vagabundusBM76
                        |    |    |--C. v. koreanus Tsuneki 1957BM76
                        |    |    `--C. v. yamatonicus (Tsuneki 1948) [=Crabro yamatonicus]BM76
                        |    |--C. (A.) annandali (Bingham 1908) [=Crabro annandali]BM76
                        |    `--C. (A.) sauteri Tsuneki 1977 [=C. (A.) krusemani sauteri]L99
                        |--C. (Ainocrabro Tsuneki 1954)BM76
                        |    `--C. (*A.) aino (Tsuneki 1947) [=Crabro aino]BM76
                        |--C. (Alicrabro Tsuneki 1968)BM76
                        |    `--C. (*A.) rufiventris Tsuneki 1968BM76
                        |--C. (Apocrabro Pate 1944)BM76
                        |    |--C. (*A.) aeta Pate 1944BM76
                        |    |    |--C. a. aetaBM76
                        |    |    `--C. a. loa Pate 1944BM76
                        |    |--C. (A.) pyrrhus Leclercq 1956BM76
                        |    `--C. (A.) ursidus Leclercq 1956BM76
                        |--C. (Apoides Tsuneki 1968)BM76
                        |    `--C. (*A.) alticola Tsuneki 1968BM76
                        |--C. (Blepharipus)BM76
                        |--C. (Bnunius Tsuneki 1971)BM76
                        |    `--C. (*B.) domicola Tsuneki 1971BM76
                        |--C. (Cuphopterus)BM76
                        |--C. (Epicrossocerus Ashmead 1899)BM76
                        |    |--C. (*E.) insolens (Fox 1895) [=Crabro insolens]BM76
                        |    |--C. (E.) guerrerensis (Cameron 1891) [=Crabro guerrerensis]BM76
                        |    |--C. (E.) raui Rohwer 1923BM76
                        |    `--C. (E.) universitatis (Rohwer 1909) [=Crabro universitatis]BM76
                        |--C. (Eupliloides Pate 1846)BM76
                        |    |--C. (*E.) albocollaris (Ashmead 1904) (see below for synonymy)BM76
                        |    |--C. (E.) bougainvillae Pate 1946BM76
                        |    |--C. (E.) cheesmani Leclercq 1955BM76
                        |    |--C. (E.) leontopolites Pate 1946BM76
                        |    |--C. (E.) spilaspis (Cameron 1907) [=Dasyproctus spilaspis]BM76
                        |    `--C. (E.) ‘tanoi’ (Tsuneki 1974) non Tsuneki 1968 [=Eupliloides tanoi]BM76
                        |--C. (Hoplocrabro Thomson 1874)BM76
                        |    |--C. (*H.) quadrimaculatus (Fabricius 1793) (see below for synonymy)BM76
                        |    `--C. (H.) angelicus (Kincaid 1900) (see below for synonymy)BM76
                        |--C. (Microcrabro)BM76
                        |--C. (Neoblepharipus Leclercq 1968) [incl. Fentis Tsuneki 1971]BM76
                        |    |--C. (*N.) potosus Leclercq 1968BM76
                        |    |--C. (N.) amurensis (Kohl 1892) [=Crabro amurensis]BM76
                        |    |--C. (N.) guichardi Leclercq 1972BM76
                        |    |--C. (N.) maculitarsis (Cameron 1891) [=Crabro maculitarsis]BM76
                        |    |--C. (N.) pignatus Leclercq 1968BM76
                        |    |--C. (N.) porexus Leclercq 1968BM76
                        |    `--C. (N.) quinquedentatus Tsuneki 1971 [=*Fentis quinquedentatus]BM76
                        |--C. (Nothocrabro Pate 1944)BM76
                        |    `--C. (*N.) nitidiventris (Fox 1895) [=Crabro nitidiventris]BM76
                        |--C. (Ornicrabro Leclercq 1973)BM76
                        |    `--C. (*O.) flacissimus Leclercq 1973BM76
                        |--C. (Oxycrabro Leclercq 1961)BM76
                        |    |--C. (*O.) acanthophorus (Kohl 1892) [=Crabro acanthophorus]BM76
                        |    `--C. (O.) federationis Leclercq 1961BM76
                        |--C. (Paroxycrabro Leclercq 1963)BM76
                        |    `--C. (*P.) sotirus Leclercq 1963BM76
                        |--C. (Pericrabro Leclercq 1954)BM76
                        |    `--C. (*P.) sociabilis (Arnold 1932) [=Thyreopus sociabilis]BM76
                        `--C. (Stictoptila Pate 1944)BM76
                             `--C. (S.) maculipennis (Smith 1856) (see below for synonymy)BM76
Crabronini incertae sedis:
  Holcorhopalum Cameron 1904 [incl. Amaripa Pate 1944]BM76
    `--*H. foveatum Cameron 1904 [incl. *Amaripa thauma Pate 1944]BM76
  Podagritoides Leclercq 1957BM76
    `--*P. oceanicus (Schulz 1906) [=Crabro oceanicus]BM76
  Leclercqia Tsuneki 1968BM76
    `--*L. formosana Tsuneki 1968BM76
  Towada Tsuneki 1970BM76
    `--T. flavitarsus (Tsuneki 1947) (see below for synonymy)BM76
  Chimila Pate 1944BM76
    `--*C. pae Pate 1944BM76
  Taruma Pate 1944BM76
    `--*T. bara Pate 1944BM76
  Odontocrabro Tsuneki 1971BM76
    `--*O. abnormis Tsuneki 1971BM76
  Isorhopalum Leclercq 1963BM76
    |--*I. mayoni Leclercq 1963BM76
    `--I. marunum Leclercq 1963BM76
  Echucoides Leclercq 1957BM76
    |--*E. piratus (Leclercq 1957) [=Podagritus piratus]BM76
    `--E. cercericus (Leclercq 1957) [=Podagritus cercericus]BM76
  Notocrabro Leclercq 1951BM76 [=Spinocrabro Leclercq 1954C85]
    |--*N. idoneus (Turner 1908) (see below for synonymy)C85
    `--N. micheneri Leclercq 1974C85
  Huavea Pate 1948BM76
    |--*H. chontale (Pate 1948) [=Moniaecera chontale]BM76
    `--H. pima Court & Bohart 1966BM76
  Piyumoides Leclercq 1963BM76
    |--*P. hewittii (Cameron 1908) [=Crabro hewittii, Crossocerus hewittii]BM76
    `--P. narcissus Leclercq 1963BM76
  Hingstoniola Turner & Waterston 1926BM76
    |--*H. duplicata (Turner & Waterston 1926) [=Crabro duplicatus]BM76
    `--H. pagdeni Leclercq 1954 (see below for synonymy)BM76
  WilliamsitaBM76
  Pseudoturneria Leclercq 1954BM76 [=Turneriola Leclercq 1951 non China 1933C85]
    |--*P. perlucida (Turner 1908) [=Crabro perlucidus, *Turneriola perlucida]C85
    |--P. couloni Leclercq 1974C85
    `--P. territorialis Leclercq 1974C85
  Chimiloides Leclercq 1951BM76
    |--*C. nigromaculatus (Smith 1868) [=Crabro nigromaculatus]C85
    |--C. doddii (Turner 1908) [=Crabro doddii; incl. Cr. erythrogaster Turner 1910]C85
    `--C. piliferus Leclercq 1954C85
  Arnoldita Pate 1948BM76
    |--*A. perarmata (Arnold 1926) [=Thyreopus perarmatus]BM76
    |--A. canalifera (Arnold 1944) [=Crabro canaliferus]BM76
    `--A. senex (Arnold 1926) [=Thyreopus senex]BM76
  Vechtia Pate 1944BM76
    |--V. rugosa (Smith 1857) (see below for synonymy)BM76
    |    |--V. r. rugosaBM76
    |    `--V. r. forticarinata Leclercq 1951BM76
    `--V. prerugosa Leclercq 1963BM76
  Piyuma Pate 1944BM76
    |--P. prosopoides (Turner 1908)C85 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. accepta Leclercq 1963BM76
    |--P. butuana Leclercq 1963BM76
    |--P. familiaris (Smith 1858) [=Crabro familiaris]BM76
    `--P. selangori Leclercq 1957BM76
  Pae Pate 1944BM76
    |--P. (Pae)BM76
    |    |--*P. (P.) paniquita Pate 1944BM76
    |    `--P. (P.) amaripa Pate 1944BM76
    `--P. (Lamocrabro Leclercq 1951)BM76
         `--P. (*L.) nasicornis (Smith 1873) [=Crabro nasicornis; incl. C. dentatus Smith 1873]BM76
  Entomocrabro Kohl 1905BM76
    |--*E. duckei (Kohl 1905) [=Crabro dukei]BM76
    |--E. amahuaca Pate 1941BM76
    |--E. bequaerti Pate 1941BM76
    |--E. richardsi Pate 1941BM76
    |--E. sacuya Pate 1941BM76
    `--E. terricola Leclercq 1950BM76
  Tracheliodes Morawitz 1866 (see below for synonymy)BM76
    |--T. curvitarsis (Herrich-Schaeffer 1841) (see below for synonymy)BM76
    |--T. amu Pate 1942BM76
    |--T. foveolineatus (Viereck 1909) [=Crabro foveolineatus]BM76
    |--T. hicksi Sandhouse 1936BM76
    |--T. mortuellus Cockerell 1905BM76
    |--T. quinquenotatus (Jurine 1807) (see below for synonymy)BM76
    |--T. succinalis (Cockerell 1909) [=Crabro succinalis]BM76
    `--T. tornquisti (Cockerell 1909) [=Crabro tornquisti]BM76
  Enoplolindenius Rohwer 1911BM76
    |--E. (Enoplolindenius)BM76
    |    |--*E. (E.) clypeatus (Rohwer 1911) [=Lindenius clypeatus]BM76
    |    |--E. (E.) boyaca Pate 1942BM76
    |    |--E. (E.) chibcha Pate 1942 [incl. E. paria Pate 1942]BM76
    |    |--E. (E.) partamona Pate 1942BM76
    |    |--E. (E.) pugnans (Smith 1873) (see below for synonymy)BM76
    |    `--E. (E.) serrei Leclercq 1951BM76
    `--E. (Iskutana)BM76
  Podagritus Spinola 1851BM76
    |  i. s.: P. arechavaletai (Brèthes 1909) [=Crabro arechavaletai]BM76
    |           |--P. a. arechavaletaiBM76
    |           `--P. a. joergenseni (Brèthes 1913) [=Crabro joergenseni]BM76
    |         P. chambersiH02
    |         P. digyalosH02
    |         P. pius (Strand 1910) [=Crabro pius; incl. P. geraesae Leclercq 1951]BM76
    |         P. sorbicus Leclercq 1957BM76
    |--P. (Podagritus)BM76
    |--P. (Echuca)C85
    `--P. (Parechuca)BM76
  EncopognathusBM76
  Tsunekiola Antropov 1986L99
  Ceratocrabro Tsuneki 1970BM76
    `--*C. shimoyamai Tsuneki 1958BM76, L99 [=Ectemnius (*Ceratocrabro) shimoyamaiL99]

‘Anothyreus’ panurgoides Viereck 1904 [incl. Crabro texanus Cresson 1887 non Cresson 1872, Entomognathus (*Toncahua) texanus]BM76

Crossocerus (*Acanthocrabro) vagabundus (Panzer 1798) [=Crabro vagabundus; incl. Crabro esakii Yasumatsu 1942, Crabro fasciatus Costa 1871, Crossocerus lefebvrei Lepeletier & Brullé 1834, Blepharipus quinquemaculatus Lepeletier & Brullé 1834]BM76

Crossocerus (*Eupliloides) albocollaris (Ashmead 1904) [=Rhopalum albocollare; incl. Crabro elongatus Dudgeon in Nurse 1903 non Lepeletier & Brullé 1834, Crossocerus holtensis Leclercq 1950, Cro. pricesa Pate 1948]BM76

Crossocerus (Hoplocrabro) angelicus (Kincaid 1900) [=Crabro angelicus; incl. Crabro boulderensis Rohwer 1909, Crabro spinibuccus Viereck 1909, Crabro vierecki Smith 1908]BM76

Crossocerus (*Hoplocrabro) quadrimaculatus (Fabricius 1793) [=Crabro quadrimaculatus; incl. Cro. bimaculatus Lepeletier & Brullé 1834, Cro. laevipes Lepeletier & Brullé 1834, Crabro levipes Vander Linden 1829, Crabro murorum Latreille 1804-1805, Crabro quadripunctatus Fabricius 1793, Crabro quinquemaculatus Dahlbom 1838 non Blepharipus quinquemaculatus Lepeletier & Brullé 1834, Crabro rotundarius Dahlbom 1838]BM76

Crossocerus (Stictoptila) maculipennis (Smith 1856) [=Crabro maculipennis; incl. Crabro albertus Carter 1925, Crabro canonicola Viereck 1908, Crabro confertus Fox 1895, *Stictoptila conferta, Belpharipus maculatus Lepeletier & Brullé 1834 non Crabro maculatus Fabricius 1781, Crabro pictus Smith 1856 non Fabricius 1793, Crabro ventralis Fox 1895]BM76

Enoplolindenius (Enoplolindenius) pugnans (Smith 1873) [=Crabro pugnans; incl. E. aymara Pate 1942, C. circumscriptus Kohl 1892, C. mexicanus Cameron 1904, C. stirocephalus Cameron 1912]BM76

Hingstoniola pagdeni Leclercq 1954 [incl. Crabro fimbriatus Pagden 1934 non Rossi 1790, C. parviornatus Cameron in Leclercq 1951 (n. n.)]BM76

Lestica Billberg 1820SN18, BM76 [=Hypothyreus Ashmead 1899BM76; incl. Ceratoculus Lepeletier & Brullé 1834BM76, Clypeocrabro Richards 1935BM76, Ptyx Pate 1947BM76, Thyreus Lepeletier & Brullé 1834 non Panzer 1806BM76]

Lestica alata (Panzer 1797)BM76 [=Crabro alatusBM76, *Ceratoculus alatusBM76; incl. Cr. alatus var. basalis Smith 1856MS01, BM76, Cr. japonicus Schulz 1904BM76]

Lestica clypeata (Schreber 1759) [=Apis clypeata; incl. Sphex clypearius Schreber 1784, Crabro lapidarius Fabricius 1804 non Panzer 1804, Cr. nigridens Herrich-Schaeffer 1841, Sphex ovata Christ 1791, Cr. vexillatus Panzer 1797, *Clypeocrabro vexillatus, *Thyreus vexillatus]BM76

Lestica confluenta (Say 1837) [=Crabro confluentus, C. confluens (l. c.); incl. C. atrifrons Cresson 1865, C. bellus Cresson 1865, C. cinctibellus Viereck 1908, C. dubius Smith 1856, C. eburneus Taschenberg 1875, *Solenius interruptus Lepeletier & Brullé 1834 non Thyreopus interruptus Lepeletier & Brullé 1834, C. opwanus Rohwer 1908, C. planaris Mickel 1916, Solenius seamansi Carter 1925, C. townsendi Rohwer 1911]BM76

Lestica reiteri (Kohl 1915) [=Crabro reiteri; incl. C. kuramaensis Iwata 1938, C. kuramensis (l. c.)]BM76

*Lestica (Lestica) subterranea (Fabricius 1775)BM76 [=Crabro subterraneusBM76, Ceratocolus subterraneusR13, *Hypothyreus subterraneusBM76; incl. Crabro philanthoides Panzer 1801BM76]

*Notocrabro idoneus (Turner 1908) [=Crabro (Rhopalum) idoneus, *Spinocrabro idoneus; incl. Rhopalum spinulifer Turner 1918]C85

Piyuma prosopoides (Turner 1908)C85 [=Crabro prosopoidesC85; incl. C. dentipleuris Cameron 1908BM76, C. iwatai Yasumatsu 1942BM76, *Piyuma koxinga Pate 1944BM76, C. makilingi Williams 1928BM76]

Rhopalum Stephens 1829 (nom. cons.)SN18, BM76 [=Euplilis Risso 1826 (nom. rej.)BM76, Physoscelis Westwood 1839BM76, Physoscelus Lepeletier & Brullé 1834BM76]

Rhopalum pallipes (Lepeletier & Brullé 1834) [=Physoscelis pallipes, Crabro pallidipes Dalla Torre 1897]BM76

Towada flavitarsus (Tsuneki 1947) [=Crabro flavitarsus; incl. Crossocerus leclercqi Tsuneki 1959, *Towada leclercqi]BM76

Tracheliodes Morawitz 1866 [=Brachymerus Dahlbom 1845 non Chevrolet 1835; incl. Fertonius Pérez in Ferton 1892]BM76

Tracheliodes curvitarsis (Herrich-Schaeffer 1841) [=Crossocerus curvitarsis; incl. Crabro filigranus Costa 1871, Crabro megerlei Dahlbom 1845, *Brachymerus megerlei, *Tracheliodes megerlei, Blepharipus rondani Spinola in Costa 1871 (n. n.)]BM76

Tracheliodes quinquenotatus (Jurine 1807) [=Crabro quinquenotatus; incl. Crabro bucephalus Smith 1856, Crossocerus festivus Marquet 1881, Fertonius formicarius Ferton 1896, Crabro herinaceus Gribodo 1894, Crossocerus luteicollis Lepeletier & Brullé 1834, *Fertonius luteicollis, Blepharipus politus Costa 1871 (n. n.), Crabro quinquesignatus Jurine in Bignell 1900, Ceratocolus trochantericus Herrich-Schaeffer 1841]BM76

Vechtia rugosa (Smith 1857) [=Crabro rugosus; incl. C. bucephalus Smith 1864 non Smith 1856, C. spinifrons Bingham 1897, *Vechtia spinifrons]BM76

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[G27] Gourlay, E. S. 1927. Notes on the New Zealand wood-wasp Ophrynopus schauinslandi Ashmead. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 691–693.

[H02] Harris, A. 2002. Further observations on the nesting of Podagritus chambersi and P. digyalos (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Spheciformes: Crabronidae). Weta 24: 22–24.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L99] Leclercq, J. 1999. Hyménoptères sphecides crabroniens du genre Ectemnius Dahlbom, 1845. Espèces d’Asie et d’Océanie et groupes d’espèces de la faune mondiale. Notes Fauniques de Gembloux 36: 3–83.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[SN18] Sann, M., O. Niehuis, R. S. Peters, C. Mayer, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, S. Bank, K. Meusemann, B. Misof, C. Bleidorn & M. Ohl. 2018. Phylogenomic analysis of Apoidea sheds new light on the sister group of bees. BMC Evolutionary Biology 18: 71.

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