Cranaidae

Dorsal view and pedipalp of Neocranaus albiconspersus, from Roewer (1923).

Belongs within: Laminata.
Contains: Phareicranaus, Santinezia, Holocranaus, Cranaus.

The Cranaidae are a group of harvestmen found primarily in northern South America, usually with a dense covering of dorsal tubercles on the pedipalps. Many genera in this family remain poorly defined and in need of revision.

Characters (from Pinto-da-Rocha & Kury 2007): Body length 6–16 mm, leg IV 21–95 mm long. Dorsum widest at area II or groove III; ocularium placed in miidle of prosoma, rounded and high, small-tuberculate or with two high spines; ozopores slitlike, one opening partially covered by tubercle of coxa II; area I divided, normally with one tubercle on each side; area II tuberculate; area III usually with two spines upward or backward; tergite I normally small-tuberculate, II small-tuberculate, III normally with two spines or small-tuberculate. Coxa IV small-tuberculate or with two tubercles or spines close to spiracular area; posterior margin of spiracular area sometimes with large unpaired apophyses. Segment I of chelicera with few tubercles or densely tuberculate. Pedipalps short and heavy or elongate and thin; usually dorsally coarsely tuberculate from trochanter to tibia; setal sockets of tibia longer than setae. Legs with few tubercles or spines; coxa IV tuberculate with short and straight external apophysis; femur IV straight or slightly S-curved; tarsal process strong, claws smooth or pectinate. Penis with stylus long and slender, straight with apex slightly swollen, ventral process of glans absent, dorsal process of glans rarely present; ventral plate oblique in relation to axis of truncus, usually rectangular and robust, sometimes guitar-shaped, apical border with V cleft or straight; with distal group of one to six setae on side, one to five median, usually no basal setae.

Cranaidae
    |  i. s.: Zannicranaus monoclonius Kury 2012A19
    |--Heterocranaus Roewer 1913 [incl. Riveticranaus Roewer 1919, Miradorius Roewer 1923; Heterocranainae]K03
    |    |--*H. margaritipalpis (Simon 1879) [=Cranaus margaritipalpis]K03
    |    `--H. lutescens (Roewer 1919) [=*Riveticranaus lutescens, *Miradorius lutescens]K03
    `--+--StygnicranainaeP-RK07
       |    |--Tryferos Roewer 1931K03
       |    |    `--*T. elegans Roewer 1931K03
       |    `--Stygnicranaus Roewer 1913K03
       |         |--*S. abnormis Roewer 1913K03
       |         `--S. concolor Kury 1995K03
       `--CranainaeP-RK07
            |--PhareicranausK03
            |--SantineziaK03
            |--HolocranausK03
            |--CranausK03
            |--Carsevennia Roewer 1913K03
            |    `--*C. crassipalpis Roewer 1913K03
            |--Metacranaus Roewer 1913K03
            |    `--*M. tricalcaris Roewer 1913K03
            |--Ventrivomer Roewer 1913K03
            |    `--*V. ancyrophorus (Butler 1873) [=Gonyleptes ancyrophorus]K03
            |--Ventrifurca Roewer 1913K03
            |    `--*V. albipustulata Roewer 1913K03
            |--Ventripila Roewer 1917K03
            |    `--*V. marginata Roewer 1917K03
            |--Allocranaus Roewer 1915K03
            |    `--*A. columbianus Roewer 1915K03
            |--Bunicranaus Roewer 1913K03
            |    `--*B. simoni Roewer 1913K03
            |--Homocranaus Roewer 1915K03
            |    `--*H. tetracalcar Roewer 1915K03
            |--Acanthocranaus Roewer 1913K03
            |    `--*A. calcariger Roewer 1913 [=Neocranaus calcariger]K03
            |--Paracranaus Roewer 1913K03
            |    `--*P. crassipalpis Roewer 1913 [=Paracranus (l. c.) crassipalpis]K03
            |--Aguaytiella Goodnight & Goodnight 1943K03
            |    `--*A. maculata Goodnight & Goodnight 1943K03
            |--Alausius Roewer 1932K03
            |    `--*A. mirus Roewer 1932K03
            |--Angistrius Roewer 1932K03
            |    `--*A. abnormis Roewer 1932K03
            |--Aucayacuella Avram 1983K03
            |    `--*A. bordoni Avram 1983 [=A. margaretae Avram & Soares 1983]K03
            |--Balzabamba Mello-Leitão 1945K03
            |    `--*B. marmorata Mello-Leitão 1945K03
            |--Baustomus Roewer 1932K03
            |    `--*B. macrospina Roewer 1932 [=B. macropina (l. c.)]K03
            |--Bucayana Mello-Leitão 1942K03
            |    `--*B. bucayana Mello-Leitão 1942K03
            |--Cayabeus Roewer 1932K03
            |    `--*C. perlatus Roewer 1932K03
            |--Cenipa Goodnight & Goodnight 1943K03
            |    `--*C. nubila Goodnight & Goodnight 1943K03
            |--Chetronus Roewer 1932K03
            |    `--*C. spiniger Roewer 1932K03
            |--Clinocippus Roewer 1932K03
            |    `--*C. albater Roewer 1932K03
            |--Comboyus Roewer 1943K03
            |    `--*C. albilineatus Roewer 1943K03
            |--Cranaostygnus Caporiacco 1951 (n. d.)K03
            |    `--*C. marcuzzi Caporiacco 1951 (n. d.)K03
            |--Digalistes Roewer 1932K03
            |    `--*D. signata Roewer 1932K03
            |--Diptyonius Roewer 1932K03
            |    `--*D. striatus Roewer 1932K03
            |--Guayaquiliana Mello-Leitão 1935K03
            |    `--*G. camposi Mello-Leitão 1935K03
            |--Idomenta Roewer 1932K03
            |    `--*I. luteipalpis Roewer 1932K03
            |--Kendima Roewer 1932K03
            |    `--*K. albiornata Roewer 1932K03
            |--Ladantola Roewer 1932 [=Ladantolo (l. c.), Landantola (l. c.)]K03
            |    `--*L. aspersa Roewer 1932 [=Landantola (l. c.) aspersa]K03
            |--Mecritta Roewer 1932K03
            |    `--*M. filipes Roewer 1932K03
            |--Panalus Goodnight & Goodnight 1947K03
            |    `--*P. robustus Goodnight & Goodnight 1947K03
            |--Parkocranaus Mello-Leitão 1949K03
            |    `--*P. bimaculatus Mello-Leitão 1949K03
            |--Sibundoxia Roewer 1963K03
            |    `--*S. scripta Roewer 1963K03
            |--Spirunius Roewer 1932K03
            |    `--*S. coxipunctus Roewer 1932K03
            |--Stygnicranella Caporiacco 1951 (n. d.)K03
            |    `--*S. pizai Caporiacco 1951 (n. d.)K03
            |--Tetracranaus Roewer 1963K03
            |    `--*T. zilchi Roewer 1963K03
            |--Thaumatocranaus Roewer 1932K03
            |    `--*T. mirabilis Roewer 1932K03
            |--Timotesa Roewer 1943K03
            |    `--*T. octomaculata Roewer 1943K03
            |--Tripilatus Roewer 1932K03
            |    `--*T. elegans Roewer 1932K03
            |--Ventrisudis Roewer 1963K03
            |    `--*V. mira Roewer 1963K03
            |--Megacranaus Roewer 1913K03
            |    |--*M. pygoplus Roewer 1913K03
            |    `--M. areolatus Roewer 1932K03
            |--Spinicranaus Roewer 1913K03
            |    |--*S. diabolicus (Simon 1879) [=Cranaus diabolicus]K03
            |    `--S. camposi (Mello-Leitão 1942) [=Nieblia camposi]K03
            |--Microcranaus Roewer 1913K03
            |    |--*M. pustulatus Roewer 1913K03
            |    `--M. columbianus Roewer 1963K03
            |--Angistrisoma Soares & Soares 1948K03, KA-Z11
            |    |--*A. fuscum Roewer 1932KA-Z11 [=A. fuscaK03]
            |    `--A. atroluteum Roewer 1932KA-Z11, K03 [=A. atroluteaK03]
            |--Deriacrus Roewer 1932 [=Deriaeus (l. c.)]K03
            |    |--*D. simoni Roewer 1932 [=Demades woodii Sørensen in Roewer 1943 (n. n.)]K03
            |    `--D. marginatus Roewer 1963K03
            |--Peripa Roewer 1925K03
            |    |--*P. clavipus Roewer 1925K03
            |    `--P. simplex Roewer 1932K03
            |--Phalangodus Gervais 1842 [incl. Iquitosa Roewer 1943]K03
            |    |--*P. anacosmetus Gervais 1842 [incl. Allocranaus giganteus Mello-Leitão 1940]K03
            |    `--P. poecilis (Roewer 1943) [=*Iquitosa poecilis]K03
            |--Puna Roewer 1925K03
            |    |--*P. festae Roewer 1925K03
            |    `--P. semicircularis Roewer 1932K03
            |--Eucranaus Roewer 1913 [incl. Ikossimus Roewer 1932, Ikossemus (l. c.)]K03
            |    |--*E. reticulatus Roewer 1913K03
            |    |--E. fuscus (Roewer 1932) [=*Ikossimus fuscus]K03
            |    `--E. tenuipes (Roewer 1959) [=Ikossimus tenuipes]K03
            |--Isocranaus Roewer 1915K03
            |    |--*I. obscurus Roewer 1915K03
            |    |--I. gorgonae Hirst 1926K03
            |    |--I. reticulatus Roewer 1959K03
            |    `--I. umbraticus Roewer 1959K03
            `--Neocranaus Roewer 1913 [incl. Mitobatulina Mello-Leitão 1941]K03
                 |--*N. albiconspersus Roewer 1913K03
                 |--N. armatissimus (Mello-Leitão 1941) [=*Mitobatulina armatissima]K03
                 |--N. dybasi (Goodnight & Goodnight 1947) [=Rhopalocranaus dybasi]K03
                 `--N. magnus (Roewer 1932) [=Nieblia magna, Phareicranaus magnus]K03

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A19] Acosta, L. E. 2019. A relictual troglomorphic harvestman discovered in a volcanic cave of western Argentina: Otilioleptes marcelae, new genus, new species, and Otilioleptidae, new family (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptoidea). PLoS One 14 (10): e0223828.

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[KA-Z11] Kury, A. B., & M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga. 2011. Addenda and corrigenda to the “Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones)”. Zootaxa 3034: 47–68.

[P-RK07] Pinto-da-Rocha, R., & A. B. Kury. 2007. Cranaidae Roewer, 1913. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 185–188. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

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