Cranaidae

Dorsal view and pedipalp of Neocranaus albiconspersus, from Roewer (1923).

Belongs within: Grassatores.
Contains: Phareicranaus, Santinezia, Holocranaus, Cranaus.

The Cranaidae are a group of harvestmen found primarily in northern South America, usually with a dense covering of dorsal tubercles on the pedipalps. Many genera in this family remain poorly defined and in need of revision.

Characters (from Pinto-da-Rocha & Kury 2007): Body length 6–16 mm, leg IV 21–95 mm long. Dorsum widest at area II or groove III; ocularium placed in miidle of prosoma, rounded and high, small-tuberculate or with two high spines; ozopores slitlike, one opening partially covered by tubercle of coxa II; area I divided, normally with one tubercle on each side; area II tuberculate; area III usually with two spines upward or backward; tergite I normally small-tuberculate, II small-tuberculate, III normally with two spines or small-tuberculate. Coxa IV small-tuberculate or with two tubercles or spines close to spiracular area; posterior margin of spiracular area sometimes with large unpaired apophyses. Segment I of chelicera with few tubercles or densely tuberculate. Pedipalps short and heavy or elongate and thin; usually dorsally coarsely tuberculate from trochanter to tibia; setal sockets of tibia longer than setae. Legs with few tubercles or spines; coxa IV tuberculate with short and straight external apophysis; femur IV straight or slightly S-curved; tarsal process strong, claws smooth or pectinate. Penis with stylus long and slender, straight with apex slightly swollen, ventral process of glans absent, dorsal process of glans rarely present; ventral plate oblique in relation to axis of truncus, usually rectangular and robust, sometimes guitar-shaped, apical border with V cleft or straight; with distal group of one to six setae on side, one to five median, usually no basal setae.

Cranaidae
    |–Heterocranaus Roewer 1913 [incl. Riveticranaus Roewer 1919, Miradorius Roewer 1923; Heterocranainae] K03
    |    |–*H. margaritipalpis (Simon 1879) [=Cranaus margaritipalpis] K03
    |    `–H. lutescens (Roewer 1919) [=*Riveticranaus lutescens, *Miradorius lutescens] K03
    |–Prostygninae K03
    |    |–Prostygnidius Roewer 1915 K03
    |    |    `–*P. pustulatus Roewer 1915 K03
    |    |–Peladoius Roewer 1919 K03
    |    |    `–*P. riveti Roewer 1919 K03
    |    |–Globitarsus Roewer 1913 K03
    |    |    `–*G. angustus Roewer 1913 K03
    |    |–Troya Roewer 1919 K03
    |    |    `–*T. riveti Roewer 1919 K03
    |    |–Micropachylus Roewer 1913 K03
    |    |    `–*M. metatarsalis Roewer 1913 K03
    |    |–Prostygnus Roewer 1913 K03
    |    |    `–*P. vestitus Roewer 1913 [=Prostignidius (l. c.) vestitus] K03
    |    |–Binamballeus Roewer 1952 K03
    |    |    `–*B. metatarsalis Roewer 1952 K03
    |    |–Chiriboga Roewer 1959 K03
    |    |    `–*C. albituber Roewer 1959 K03
    |    |–Cutervolus Roewer 1957 K03
    |    |    `–*C. albopunctatus Roewer 1957 [incl. Isocranaus conveniens Roewer 1963] K03
    |    |–Lisarea Roewer 1943 K03
    |    |    `–*L. ferruginea Roewer 1943 K03
    |    |–Meridanatus Roewer 1943 K03
    |    |    `–*M. berlandi Roewer 1943 K03
    |    |–Sclerostygnellus Roewer 1943 K03
    |    |    `–*S. rotundus Roewer 1943 [=Sclerostignellus (l. c.) rotundus] K03
    |    |–Prostygnellus Roewer 1919 [incl. Minyssus Roewer 1943] K03
    |    |    |–*P. riveti Roewer 1919 K03
    |    |    `–P. isabellinus (Roewer 1943) [=*Minyssus isabellinus] K03
    |    |–Yania Roewer 1919 K03
    |    |    |–*Y. flavolimbata Roewer 1919 K03
    |    |    `–Y. metatarsalis Kury 1994 K03
    |    |–Ostracidium Perty 1833 R23
    |    |    |–*O. fuscum Perty 1833 K03
    |    |    |–O. decoratum Kollar in Koch 1839 K03
    |    |    `–O. succineum Perty 1833 K03
    |    `–Llaguenia Kury & Pérez-González 2015 KP-G15
    |         `–*L. peruviana (Roewer 1956) [=Zamora peruviana] KP-G15
    `–+–Stygnicranainae P-RK07
       |    |–Tryferos Roewer 1931 K03
       |    |    `–*T. elegans Roewer 1931 K03
       |    `–Stygnicranaus Roewer 1913 K03
       |         |–*S. abnormis Roewer 1913 K03
       |         `–S. concolor Kury 1995 K03
       `–Cranainae P-RK07
            |–Phareicranaus K03
            |–Santinezia K03
            |–Holocranaus K03
            |–Cranaus K03
            |–Carsevennia Roewer 1913 K03
            |    `–*C. crassipalpis Roewer 1913 K03
            |–Metacranaus Roewer 1913 K03
            |    `–*M. tricalcaris Roewer 1913 K03
            |–Ventrivomer Roewer 1913 K03
            |    `–*V. ancyrophorus (Butler 1873) [=Gonyleptes ancyrophorus] K03
            |–Ventrifurca Roewer 1913 K03
            |    `–*V. albipustulata Roewer 1913 K03
            |–Ventripila Roewer 1917 K03
            |    `–*V. marginata Roewer 1917 K03
            |–Allocranaus Roewer 1915 K03
            |    `–*A. columbianus Roewer 1915 K03
            |–Bunicranaus Roewer 1913 K03
            |    `–*B. simoni Roewer 1913 K03
            |–Homocranaus Roewer 1915 K03
            |    `–*H. tetracalcar Roewer 1915 K03
            |–Acanthocranaus Roewer 1913 K03
            |    `–*A. calcariger Roewer 1913 [=Neocranaus calcariger] K03
            |–Paracranaus Roewer 1913 K03
            |    `–*P. crassipalpis Roewer 1913 [=Paracranus (l. c.) crassipalpis] K03
            |–Aguaytiella Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03
            |    `–*A. maculata Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03
            |–Alausius Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `–*A. mirus Roewer 1932 K03
            |–Angistrius Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `–*A. abnormis Roewer 1932 K03
            |–Aucayacuella Avram 1983 K03
            |    `–*A. bordoni Avram 1983 [=A. margaretae Avram & Soares 1983] K03
            |–Balzabamba Mello-Leitão 1945 K03
            |    `–*B. marmorata Mello-Leitão 1945 K03
            |–Baustomus Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `–*B. macrospina Roewer 1932 [=B. macropina (l. c.)] K03
            |–Bucayana Mello-Leitão 1942 K03
            |    `–*B. bucayana Mello-Leitão 1942 K03
            |–Callcosma Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `–*C. gracilima Roewer 1932 K03
            |–Cayabeus Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `–*C. perlatus Roewer 1932 K03
            |–Cenipa Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03
            |    `–*C. nubila Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03
            |–Chetronus Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `–*C. spiniger Roewer 1932 K03
            |–Clinocippus Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `–*C. albater Roewer 1932 K03
            |–Comboyus Roewer 1943 K03
            |    `–*C. albilineatus Roewer 1943 K03
            |–Cranaostygnus Caporiacco 1951 (n. d.) K03
            |    `–*C. marcuzzi Caporiacco 1951 (n. d.) K03
            |–Digalistes Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `–*D. signata Roewer 1932 K03
            |–Diptyonius Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `–*D. striatus Roewer 1932 K03
            |–Guayaquiliana Mello-Leitão 1935 K03
            |    `–*G. camposi Mello-Leitão 1935 K03
            |–Idomenta Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `–*I. luteipalpis Roewer 1932 K03
            |–Kendima Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `–*K. albiornata Roewer 1932 K03
            |–Ladantola Roewer 1932 [=Ladantolo (l. c.), Landantola (l. c.)] K03
            |    `–*L. aspersa Roewer 1932 [=Landantola (l. c.) aspersa] K03
            |–Mecritta Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `–*M. filipes Roewer 1932 K03
            |–Panalus Goodnight & Goodnight 1947 K03
            |    `–*P. robustus Goodnight & Goodnight 1947 K03
            |–Parkocranaus Mello-Leitão 1949 K03
            |    `–*P. bimaculatus Mello-Leitão 1949 K03
            |–Sibundoxia Roewer 1963 K03
            |    `–*S. scripta Roewer 1963 K03
            |–Spirunius Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `–*S. coxipunctus Roewer 1932 K03
            |–Stygnicranella Caporiacco 1951 (n. d.) K03
            |    `–*S. pizai Caporiacco 1951 (n. d.) K03
            |–Tetracranaus Roewer 1963 K03
            |    `–*T. zilchi Roewer 1963 K03
            |–Thaumatocranaus Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `–*T. mirabilis Roewer 1932 K03
            |–Timotesa Roewer 1943 K03
            |    `–*T. octomaculata Roewer 1943 K03
            |–Tripilatus Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `–*T. elegans Roewer 1932 K03
            |–Ventrisudis Roewer 1963 K03
            |    `–*V. mira Roewer 1963 K03
            |–Quindina Roewer 1914 [=Quidina] K03
            |    |–*Q. bella Roewer 1914 K03
            |    `–Q. bimaculata Roewer 1932 K03
            |–Megacranaus Roewer 1913 K03
            |    |–*M. pygoplus Roewer 1913 K03
            |    `–M. areolatus Roewer 1932 K03
            |–Spinicranaus Roewer 1913 K03
            |    |–*S. diabolicus (Simon 1879) [=Cranaus diabolicus] K03
            |    `–S. camposi (Mello-Leitão 1942) [=Nieblia camposi] K03
            |–Microcranaus Roewer 1913 K03
            |    |–*M. pustulatus Roewer 1913 K03
            |    `–M. columbianus Roewer 1963 K03
            |–Angistrisoma Soares & Soares 1948 K03, KA-Z11
            |    |–*A. fuscum Roewer 1932 KA-Z11 [=A. fusca K03]
            |    `–A. atroluteum Roewer 1932 KA-Z11, K03 [=A. atrolutea K03]
            |–Deriacrus Roewer 1932 [=Deriaeus (l. c.)] K03
            |    |–*D. simoni Roewer 1932 [=Demades woodii Sørensen in Roewer 1943 (n. n.)] K03
            |    `–D. marginatus Roewer 1963 K03
            |–Licornus Roewer 1932 K03
            |    |–*L. perfectus Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `–L. atroluteus Roewer 1959 K03
            |–Peripa Roewer 1925 K03
            |    |–*P. clavipus Roewer 1925 K03
            |    `–P. simplex Roewer 1932 K03
            |–Phalangodus Gervais 1842 [incl. Iquitosa Roewer 1943] K03
            |    |–*P. anacosmetus Gervais 1842 [incl. Allocranaus giganteus Mello-Leitão 1940] K03
            |    `–P. poecilis (Roewer 1943) [=*Iquitosa poecilis] K03
            |–Puna Roewer 1925 K03
            |    |–*P. festae Roewer 1925 K03
            |    `–P. semicircularis Roewer 1932 K03
            |–Eucranaus Roewer 1913 [incl. Ikossimus Roewer 1932, Ikossemus (l. c.)] K03
            |    |–*E. reticulatus Roewer 1913 K03
            |    |–E. fuscus (Roewer 1932) [=*Ikossimus fuscus] K03
            |    `–E. tenuipes (Roewer 1959) [=Ikossimus tenuipes] K03
            |–Isocranaus Roewer 1915 K03
            |    |–*I. obscurus Roewer 1915 K03
            |    |–I. gorgonae Hirst 1926 K03
            |    |–I. reticulatus Roewer 1959 K03
            |    `–I. umbraticus Roewer 1959 K03
            `–Neocranaus Roewer 1913 [incl. Mitobatulina Mello-Leitão 1941] K03
                 |–*N. albiconspersus Roewer 1913 K03
                 |–N. armatissimus (Mello-Leitão 1941) [=*Mitobatulina armatissima] K03
                 |–N. dybasi (Goodnight & Goodnight 1947) [=Rhopalocranaus dybasi] K03
                 `–N. magnus (Roewer 1932) [=Nieblia magna, Phareicranaus magnus] K03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[KA-Z11] Kury, A. B., & M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga. 2011. Addenda and corrigenda to the “Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones)”. Zootaxa 3034: 47–68.

[KP-G15] Kury, A. B., & A. Pérez-González. 2015. A companion to part 2 of the world checklist of Opiliones species (Arachnida): Laniatores—Samooidea, Zalmoxoidea and Grassatores incertae sedis. Biodiversity Data Journal 3: e6663.

[P-RK07] Pinto-da-Rocha, R., & A. B. Kury. 2007. Cranaidae Roewer, 1913. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 185–188. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[R23] Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

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