Mossy stonecrop Crassula tillaea, copyright Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz.

Belongs within: Hamamelidaceae.
Contains: Rhodiola, Tillaea, Dudleya, Sedum.

The Crassulaceae are a family of succulent plants found nearly worldwide but most diverse in north-temperate regions and South Africa. In members of the genus Crassula, the leaves typically bear numerous hydathodes (water-exuding pores); in other genera, forming the subfamily Sempervivoideae, the leaves have only a single apical or subapical hydathode. In species of the genus Bryophyllum, new individuals may be produced vegetatively as plantlets forming along the edges of the parent plant’s leaves, later breaking off and taking root.

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Annuals to subshrubs, fleshy. Leaves generally simple, generally basal and cauline, alternate or opposite, generally reduced upward. Inflorescence generally a cyme, generally bracted. Flower with sepals generally 3-5, generally more or less free; petals generally 3-5, more or less free or fused; stamens equal to or more numerous than sepals, free or epipetalous; pistils generally 3-5, simple (sometimes fused at base), ovary 1-chambered, placenta 1, parietal, ovules 1-many, style 1. Fruit follicles generally 3-5. Seeds 1-many, small.

    |--Sempervivoideae [Cotyledonoideae, Echeverieae, Sedoideae]T00
    |    |  i. s.: SempervivumKC83
    |    |           |--S. arachnoideumS96
    |    |           |--S. montanumKC83
    |    |           `--S. tectorumC55
    |    |         Cotyledon orbiculataH93
    |    |           |--C. o. var. orbiculataH93
    |    |           `--C. o. var. oblongaH93
    |    |--+--DudleyaNDA05
    |    |  `--SedumNDA05
    |    `--Kalanchoe [Kalanchoeae]NDA05
    |         |--K. blossfeldianaMH98
    |         |--K. daigremontianaNDA05 [=Bryophyllum daigremontianaH90]
    |         |--K. longifloraH90
    |         `--K. spathulataLK14
    `--CrassulaJB99 [CrassuloideaeT00]
         |  i. s.: C. aquatica [=Tillaea aquatica; incl. C. saginoides]H93
         |         C. aurusbergensisCV06
         |         C. ausensisCV06
         |           |--C. a. ssp. ausensisCV06
         |           |--C. a. ssp. giessiiCV06
         |           `--C. a. ssp. titanopsisCV06
         |         C. colorataOS04
         |           |--C. c. var. colorataH90
         |           |--C. c. var. acuminataH90
         |           `--C. c. var. tuberculataK90
         |         C. connata [incl. Tillaea erecta]H93
         |         C. decumbens [incl. C. macrantha]H90
         |         C. elegansCV06
         |           |--C. e. ssp. elegansCV06
         |           `--C. e. ssp. namibensisCV06
         |         C. exsertaOS04
         |         C. falcataJB99
         |         C. helmsii (Kirk) Berger 1930H90, A61 [=Tillaea helmsii Kirk 1899A61]
         |         C. luederitziiCV06
         |         C. lycopodioidesBT72
         |         C. marnieranaNDA05
         |         C. multicavaH90
         |         C. natansGK00
         |         C. numaisensisCV06
         |         C. paludosaD03
         |         C. pedicellosaGK00
         |         C. peduncularisGK00 [incl. Tillaea purpurata Hook. f. 1847A61, C. purpurata (Hook. f.) Domin 1925H90, A61]
         |         C. perforataNDA05
         |         C. sarmentosaH90
         |         C. sieberiana (Schult.) Druce 1917H90, A61 (see below for synonymy)
         |         C. solieriH93
         |         C. tetragonaH93
         |           |--C. t. ssp. tetragonaH90
         |           `--C. t. ssp. robustaH90
         `--C. sect. GlomerataeBC98
              |--C. basalticaBC98
              |--C. campestris (Ecklon & Zeyh.) Endlicher in Walpers 1843 (see below for synonymy)BC98
              `--C. tillaeaBC98
Crassulaceae incertae sedis:
    |--R. marnieriO88
    `--R. semiensisB06
    |--A. arboreumY98
    `--A. haworthiiH93
    |--U. horizontalisPT98
    `--U. rupestris (Salisbury) Dandy 1948PL04
  Andromischus schuldtianusCV06
    |--A. s. ssp. schuldtianusCV06
    |--A. s. ssp. brandbergensisCV06
    `--A. s. ssp. juttaeCV06
    |--T. aridimontanusCV06
    `--T. aurusbergensisCV06
    |--B. delagoense [=Kalanchoe delagoense; incl. B. tubiflorum, K. tubiflora]H90
    `--B. pinnatum [=Kalanchoe pinnata; incl. B. calycinum]H90
    |--P. congdoniiH93
    |--P. leiocarpumH93
    |--P. pentandrumH93
    `--P. pumilumH93
  Bulliarda DC. 1801KC01

Crassula campestris (Ecklon & Zeyh.) Endlicher in Walpers 1843 [=Tetraphyle campestre Ecklon & Zeyh. 1837; incl. C. pentandra ssp. catalaunica Vigo & Terradas 1969]BC98

Crassula sieberiana (Schult.) Druce 1917H90, A61 [=Tillaea sieberiana Schult. 1827A61; incl. T. muscosa Forst. f. 1786 non Linnaeus 1753A61, T. verticillaris DC. 1828A61]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BT72] Baker, E. W., & D. M. Tuttle. 1972. New species and further notes on the Tetranychoidea mostly from the southwestern United States (Acarina: Tetranychidae and Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 116: 1–37.

[BC98] Brullo, S., G. Campo, C. Marcenò, S. Romano & G. Siracusa. 1998. Crassula campestris (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Endl. (Crassulaceae), a new record for the Italian flora. Willdenowia 28: 53–58.

[B06] Burgoyne, P. M. 2006. Review: Plants of the Simen. A flora of the Simen Mountains and surroundings, northern Ethiopia. Bothalia 36 (2): 253.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[JB99] Johansson, J., R. Berg, A. Pifferi, S. Svenberg & L. O. Bjorn. 1999. Time-resolved studies of light propagation in Crassula and Phaseolus leaves. Photochemistry and Photobiology 69: 242–247.

[K90] Keighery, G. J. 1990. Vegetation and flora of Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 61–87. Western Australian Museum.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[KC83] Körner, C., & P. Cochrane. 1983. Influence of plant physiognomy on leaf temperature on clear midsummer days in the Snowy Mountains, south-eastern Australia. Acta Œcologica Œcologiae Plantae 4 (2): 117–124.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[NDA05] Nickrent, D. L., J. P. Der & F. E. Anderson. 2005. Discovery of the photosynthetic relatives of the “Maltese mushroom” Cynomorium. BMC Evolutionary Biology 5: 38.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[S96] Schatz, H. 1996. Oribatid mites (Oribatida) in alpine dry meadows (Austria, central Alps). In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 633–635. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

One comment

  1. Are stone crop and Rhodiola the same what are the differences……The plant shown is growing in Northern Canada in the Yukon Territory in our small capital city of whse.

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