Crenarchaeota

Fumarole at Solfatara, the original recorded habitat for Sulfolobus solfataricus, copyright yiftah-s.

Belongs within: Life.

The Crenarchaeota are a clade of thermophilic prokaryotes that typically metabolise sulphur (Garrity & Holt 2001).

Characters (from Garrity & Holt 2001): Morphologically diverse, including rods, cocci, filamentous forms and disk-shaped cells. Stain Gram-negative. Occasionally motile. Obligately thermophilic, growth occuring at temperatures from 70–113°C. Acidophilic. Aerobic, facultatively anaerobic or strictly anaerobic chemolithoautotrophs or chemoheterotrophs. Typically metabolise S0. RNA polymerase of BAC type.

<==Crenarchaeota [Thermoprotei]
|--ThermoprotealesSS15
| |--Thermofilum Zillig & Gierl 1983VP [Thermofilaceae]GH01
| | |--*T. pendens Zillig & Gierl 1983VP GH01
| | |--T. librumHS92
| | `--T. uzonenseIN20
| `--ThermoproteaceaeGH01
| | i. s.: Thermocladium Itoh, Suzuki & Nakase 1998VP GH01
| | `--*T. modestius Itoh, Suzuki & Nakase 1998VP GH01
| |--+--Vulcanisaeta distributaSS15
| | `--Caldivirga Itoh, Suzuki et al. 1999VP SS15, GH01
| | `--*C. maquilingensis Itoh, Suzuki et al. 1999VP GH01
| `--+--Thermoproteus Zillig & Stetter 1982VP SS15, GH01
| | |--*T. tenax Zillig & Stetter 1982VP GH01
| | `--T. neutrophilus Zillig 1989VP GH01
| `--Pyrobaculum Stetter, Huber & Kristjansson 1988VP SS15, GH01
| |--*P. islandicum Stetter, Huber & Kristjansson 1988VP GH01
| |--P. aerophilum Völkl, Huber & Stetter 1996VP GH01
| |--P. calidifontisSS15
| |--P. ferrireducensIN20
| `--P. organotrophum Stetter, Huber & Kristjansson 1988VP GH01
`--+--+--Fervidicoccus fontisIN20
| `--+--Ignisphaera aggregansIN20
| `--Sulfolobaceae [Sulfolobales]SS15
| |--Sulfurococcus Golovacheva, Val’ekho-Roman & Troitski 1995VP GH01
| | |--*S. mirabilis Golovacheva, Val’ekho-Roman & Troitski 1995VP GH01
| | `--S. yellowstonensis Karavaiko, Golyshina et al. 1995VP GH01
| `--Sulfolobus Brock, Brock et al. 1972AL GH01
| | i. s.: S. tokodaii Suzuki et al. 2002JC08
| | S. yangmingensis Jan, Wu et al. 1999VP GH01
| |--+--S. metallicus Huber & Stetter 1992VP GH01
| | `--+--Sulfurisphaera Kurosawa, Itoh et al. 1998VP GH01
| | | `--*S. ohwakuensis Kurosawa, Itoh et al. 1998VP GH01
| | `--+--*S. acidocaldarius Brock, Brock et al. 1972AL GH01, SS15, GH01
| | `--Stygiolobus Segerer, Trincone et al. 1991VP GH01
| | `--*S. azoricus Segerer, Trincone et al. 1991VP GH01
| `--+--+--S. shibatae Grogan, Palm & Zillig 1991VP GH01
| | `--S. solfataricus Zillig, Stetter et al. 1980VP SS15, GH01 (see below for synonymy)
| `--+--Acidianus Segerer, Neuner et al. 1986VP SS15, GH01
| | | i. s.: A. hospitalisSS15
| | |--A. brierleyi (Zillig, Stetter et al.) Segerer, Neuner et al. 1986VP (see below for synonymy)GH01
| | `--+--*A. infernus Segerer, Neuner et al. 1986VP GH01
| | `--A. ambivalens (Zillig & Böck) Fuchs, Huber et al. 1996VP GH01 (see below for synonymy)
| `--+--S. hakonensis Takayanagi, Kawasaki et al. 1996VP GH01
| `--Metallosphaera Huber, Spinnier et al. 1989VP SS15, GH01
| |--*M. sedula Huber, Spinnier et al. 1989VP GH01
| |--M. cuprinaSS15
| |--M. prunae Fuchs, Huber et al. 1996VP GH01
| `--M. yellowstonensisIN20
`--Desulfurococcales [Desulfurococcaceae]SS15
| i. s.: Acidilobus saccharovoransSS15
| Caldisphaera lagunensisIN20
|--+--Ignicoccus Huber, Burggraf & Stetter 2000VP IN20, GH01 [Ignicoccales]
| | |--*I. islandicus Huber, Burggraf & Stetter 2000VP GH01
| | |--I. hospitalisSS15
| | `--I. pacificus Huber & Stetter 2000VP GH01
| `--+--Stetteria Jochimsen, Peinemann-Simon et al. 1998VP GH01
| | `--*S. hydrogenophila Jochimsen, Peinemann et al. 1998VP GH01
| `--+--Aeropyrum Sako, Nomura et al. 1996VP IN20, GH01
| | `--*A. pernix Sako, Nomura et al. 1996VP GH01
| `--Thermodiscus Stetter 2003VP GH01, IJSEM03
| `--*T. maritimus Stetter 2003VP GH01, IJSEM03
`--+--PyrodictiaceaeGH01
| |--Pyrolobus Blöchl, Rachel et al. 1999VP SS15, GH01
| | `--*P. fumarii Blöchl, Rachel et al. 1999VP GH01
| `--+--Hyperthermus Zillig, Holz & Wunderl 1991VP IN20, GH01
| | `--*H. butylicus Zillig, Holz & Wunderl 1991VP GH01
| `--Pyrodictium Stetter, König & Stackebrandt 1984VP GH01
| |--*P. occultum Stetter, König & Stackebrandt 1984VP GH01
| |--P. abyssi Pley & Stetter 1991VP GH01
| `--P. brockii Stetter, König & Stackebrandt 1984VP GH01
`--+--Staphylothermus Stetter & Fiala 1986VP IN20, GH01
| |--*S. marinus Stetter & Fiala 1986VP GH01
| `--S. hellenicusSS15
`--+--Desulfurococcus Zillig & Stetter 1983VP GH01
| |--*D. mucosus Zillig & Stetter 1983VP GH01
| |--D. kamchatkensisSS15
| `--D. mobilis Zillig & Stetter 1983VP GH01
`--+--Sulfophobococcus Hensel, Matussek et al. 1997VP GH01
| `--*S. zilligii Hensel, Matussek et al. 1997VP GH01
`--Thermosphaera Huber, Dyba et al. 1998VP GH01
`--*T. aggregans Huber, Dyba et al. 1998VP GH01

Nomina invalida: Desulfurococcus amylolyticus Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Slesarev et al. 1988GH01
Desulfurococcus saccharovorans Stetter 1986GH01
Sulfolobus islandicus Zillig et al. 1994GH01
Sulfolobus thuringiensis Fuchs et al. 1996GH01
Thermoproteus uzoniensis Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Miroshnichenko et al. 1990GH01

Acidianus ambivalens (Zillig & Böck) Fuchs, Huber et al. 1996VP GH01 [=Desulfurolobus ambivalens Zillig & Böck in Zillig, Yeats et al. 1986GH01, Sulfolobus ambivalensWH92]

Acidianus brierleyi (Zillig, Stetter et al.) Segerer, Neuner et al. 1986VP [=Sulfolobus brierleyi Zillig, Stetter et al. 1980]GH01

Sulfolobus solfataricus Zillig, Stetter et al. 1980VP SS15, GH01 [incl. Caldariella acidophila (n. n.)SS92]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[GH01] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001. Phylum AI. Crenarchaeota phy. nov. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 169–210. Springer.

[HS92] Huber, R., & K. O. Stetter. 1992. The order Thermoproteales. In: Balows, A., H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K.-H. Schleifer (eds) The Prokaryotes: A handbook on the biology of bacteria: Ecophysiology, isolation, identification, applications 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 677–683. Springer-Verlag: New York.

[IJSEM03] IJSEM. 2003. Validation list no. 89: Validation of publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSEM. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1–2.

[IN20] Imachi, H., M. K. Nobu, N. Nakahara, Y. Morono, M. Ogawara, Y. Takaki, Y. Takano, K. Uematsu, T. Ikuta, M. Ito, Y. Matsui, M. Miyazaki, K. Murata, Y. Saito, S. Sakai, C. Song, E. Tasumi, Y. Yamanaka, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Kamagata, H. Tamaki & K. Takai. 2020. Isolation of an archaeon at the prokaryote-eukaryote interface. Nature 577: 519–525.

[JC08] Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. 2008. Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58: 1755–1763.

[SS92] Segerer, A. H., & K. O. Stetter. 1992. The order Sulfolobales. In: Balows, A., H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K.-H. Schleifer (eds) The Prokaryotes: A handbook on the biology of bacteria: Ecophysiology, isolation, identification, applications 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 684–701. Springer-Verlag: New York.

[SS15] Spang, A., J. H. Saw, S. L. Jørgensen, K. Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, J. Martijn, A. E. Lind, R. van Eijk, C. Schleper, L. Guy & T. J. G. Ettema. 2015. Complex archaea that bridge the gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Nature 521: 173–179.

[WH92] Widdel, F., & T. A. Hansen. 1992. The dissimilatory sulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacteria. In: Balows, A., H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K.-H. Schleifer (eds) The Prokaryotes: A handbook on the biology of bacteria: Ecophysiology, isolation, identification, applications 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 583–624. Springer-Verlag: New York.

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