Crioceratites

Partially restored specimen of Crioceratites nolani, copyright Teresa Martin.

Belongs within: Lytoceratida.

Crioceratites is a genus of ammonites with a tendency to become openly coiled, known from the Upper Valanginian to the Upper Barremian of the Lower Cretaceous (Wright et al. 1996).

Characters (from Wright et al. 1996): Typically coiled in equiangular spiral, but spiral angle may increase with age; whorl section oval to subquadrate, with more or less trapezoidal top; ribs generally dense, rounded, straight to flexuous, single or bundled at umbilical edge, and untuberculate; stronger major ribs strengthened on shoulders or with ventrolateral or umbilical, lateral, and ventrolateral spines; constrictions may be present.

<==Crioceratites Levaille 1837EK02 [=Crioceras Orbigny 1842WCH96; incl. Hoplitocrioceras Giovine 1950WCH96]
|--C. (Crioceratites) (see below for synonymy)WCH96
| | i. s.: C. (C.) binelli (Astier 1851) [=Ancyloceras binelli, *Binelliceras binelli]WCH96
| | *Toxoceras’ requienianum Orbigny 1842WCH96
| | C. (C.) trinodosum (Thieuloy 1965) [=*Himantoceras trinodosum]WCH96
| |--*C. (C.) duvalii Léveillé 1837WCH96, W69, WCH96 [=*Crioceras duvaliiWCH96]
| `--+--C. (C.) nolani (Kilian 1910)W69, EK02
| |--+--C. (Sornayites Wiedmann 1962)W69, WCH96
| | | `--C. (*S.) paronai (Sarkar 1955) [=Emericiceras paronai]WCH96
| | `--C. (Paracrioceras Spath 1924) [incl. Ermericiceras Sarkar 1954]WCH96
| | |--C. (*P.) occultus (Seeley 1865) [=Ammonites (Crioceras) occultum]WCH96
| | |--C. (P.) denckmanniWCH96, R81
| | `--C. emerici Léveillé 1837W69, WCH96 [=*Emericiceras emericiWCH96]
| `--+--C. (C.) majoricensisW69
| `--Pseudothurmannia Spath 1923W69, WCH96 [incl. Balearites Sarkar 1954WCH96, Georgioceras Wilckens 1947WCH96]
| | i. s.:*Georgioceras’ kohllarseni Wilckens 1947WCH96
| |--+--P. baleare (Nolan 1894)WCH96 (see below for synonymy)
| | `--P. ibizensis [=Crioceratites (Pseudothurmannia) ibizensis]W69
| `--+--*P. angulicostata (Orbigny 1841)WCH96 (see below for synonymy)
| `--HemihoplitidaeWCH96
| |--Camereiceras Delanoy 1990WCH96
| | `--*C. limentinum (Thieuloy 1979) [=Matheronites limentinus]WCH96
| |--Pascoeites Spath 1933WCH96
| | `--*P. budavadensis Spath 1933WCH96
| `--Hemihoplites Spath 1924W69, WCH96 (see below for synonymy)
| |--*H. feraudianus (Orbigny 1841) [=Ammonites feraudianus]WCH96
| |--H. astarteW69
| |--‘Pseudothurmannia (*Ornicephalites)’ indonesiana Skwarko & Thieuloy 1989WCH96
| `--H. soulieri (Matheron 1879)P93, WCH96 [=Ammonites soulieriWCH96, *Matheronites soulieriWCH96]
`--C. (Spathicrioceras Sarkar 1955) [=Sapthicrioceras (l. c.)]WCH96
`--C. (*S.) sornayi (Sarkar 1955) [=*Spathicrioceras sornayi]WCH96

Crioceratites incertae sedis:
C. andinusR81
‘Crioceras’ australeF71
‘Crioceras’ discofalcatusK79
C. elegansWCH96
‘Crioceras’ flindersi [=Flindersites flindersi; incl. F. intermedius]F71
*Hoplitocrioceras’ gentilii Giovine 1950WCH96
‘Crioceras’ ishiharaiK79
C. lardiiK79
C. latumK79
C. loryiWCH96
C. rarocinctumWCH96
C. sparsicostataWCH96
‘Crioceras’ strombeckiK79
‘Crioceras’ tayloriF71

Crioceratites Levaille 1837 (Crioceratites) [incl. Binelliceras Sarkar 1977, Himantoceras Thieuloy 1965, Toxoceras Orbigny 1842]WCH96

Hemihoplites Spath 1924W69, WCH96 [incl. Matheronites Renngarten 1926WCH96, Ornicephalites Skwarko & Thieuloy 1989WCH96]

*Pseudothurmannia angulicostata (Orbigny 1841)WCH96 [=Ammonites angulicostatusWCH96, Crioceratites (Pseudothurmannia) angulicostatusW69]

Pseudothurmannia baleare (Nolan 1894)WCH96 [=Crioceras baleareWCH96, *Balearites balearisWCH96, Crioceratites (Pseudothurmannia) balearisW69]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[EK02] Engeser, T., & H. Keupp. 2002. Phylogeny of the aptychi-possessing Neoammonoidea (Aptychophora nov., Cephalopoda). Lethaia 35: 79–96.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[K79] Kauffman, E. G. 1979. Cretaceous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A418–A487. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[P93] Page, K. N. 1993. Mollusca: Cephalopoda (Ammonoidea: Phylloceratina, Lytoceratina, Ammonitina and Ancyloceratina). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 213–227. Chapman & Hall: London.

[R81] Rawson, P. F. 1981. Early Cretaceous ammonite biostratigraphy and biogeography. In: House, M. R., & J. R. Senior (eds) The Ammonoidea: The evolution, classification, mode of life and geological usefulness of a major fossil group pp. 499–529. Academic Press.

[W69] Wiedmann, J. 1969. The heteromorphs and ammonoid extinction. Biological Reviews 44: 563–602.

[WCH96] Wright, C. W., J. H. Calloman & M. K. Howarth. 1996. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt L. Mollusca 4, revised vol. 4. Cretaceous Ammonoidea. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

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