Cryptobranchoidei

Taiwan lesser salamander Hynobius fuca, copyright Evan Pickett.

Belongs within: Caudata.

The Cryptobranchoidei are a clade of salamanders uniting the giant salamanders of the Cryptobranchidae with the Asiatic salamanders of the Hynobiidae. Members of the clade exhibit external fertilisation, and are also united by their unicapitate ribs and fusion of the m. pubotibialis and m. puboischiotibialis (Frost et al. 2006).

<==Cryptobranchoidei [Cryptobranchiformes, Cryptobranchoidea]
|--CryptobranchidaePW11
| |--Menopoma Harlan 1825 [Menopomatidae]FG06
| | `--M. alleghanienseM90
| |--Protonopsis LeConte 1824 [Protonopsidae, Protonopsina]FG06
| |--Salamandrops Wagler 1830 [Salamandropes]FG06
| |--Megalobatrachus Tschudi 1837 [Megalobatrachidae]FG06
| |--Sieboldia Gray 1838 [Sieboldiidae]FG06
| |--Aviturus exsecratus Gubin 1991M93
| |--Ulanurus fractus Gubin 1991M93
| |--ZaissanurusM00
| |--Chunerpeton Gao & Shubin 2003GS03
| | `--*C. tianyiensis Gao & Shubin 2003GS03
| |--Andrias Tschudi 1837 [Andriadini]FG06
| | |--A. davidianus (Blanchard 1871)PW11 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--A. japonicus Temminck 1837PW11, I92 [=A. davidianus japonicusUSDI77, Megalobatrachus davidianus japonicusUSDI77]
| | `--A. scheuzeriM00
| `--Cryptobranchus Leuckart 1821FG06
| |--C. alleganiensis (Daudin 1803)W08
| | |--C. a. alleganiensisW08
| | `--C. a. bishopi (Daudin 1803)W08
| `--C. saskatchewensis Playfor 1981M93
`--HynobiidaeFG06
| i. s.: Protohynobius Fei & Ye 2000 [Protohynobiinae]FG06
| Ellipsoglossa Duméril, Bibron & Duméril 1854 [Ellipsoglossidae]FG06
|--Onychodactylus Tschudi 1838ZC06, FG06
| |--O. fischeriPW11
| `--O. japonicusPW11
`--+--+--Ranodon Kessler 1866ZC06, FG06
| | `--R. sibiricusPW11
| `--ParadactylodonPW11
| |--P. mustersiPW11 [=Batrachuperus mustersiZC06]
| `--+--P. gorganensisPW11 [=Batrachuperus gorganensisZC06]
| `--P. persicusPW11 [=Batrachuperus persicusZC06]
`--+--Pachyhynobius Fei, Qu & Wu 1983ZC06, FG06
| `--P. shangchengensisZC06
`--+--+--Salamandrella Dybowski 1870ZC06, FG06
| | `--S. keyserlingii Dybowski 1870W08
| `--+--+--PseudohynobiusPW11
| | | |--P. flavomaculatusPW11
| | | `--P. shuichengensisPW11
| | `--LiuaZC06
| | |--L. shihiPW11
| | `--L. tsinpaensisPW11
| `--Batrachuperus Boulenger 1878ZC06, FG06 [=Batrachyperus (l. c.)L50]
| | i. s.: B. cochranae Liu 1950L50
| |--B. yenyuanensis Liu 1950PW11, L50
| `--+--+--B. pinchonii (David 1871)PW11, L50 (see below for synonymy)
| | `--B. londongensisPW11
| `--+--B. karlschmidti Liu 1950PW11, L50
| `--B. tibetanus Schmidt 1925PW11, L50
`--Hynobius Tschudi 1838ZC06, FG06
| i. s.: H. japonicusPSH17
| H. keyserlingiiL50
| H. shihi Liu 1950L50
|--H. retardatusPW11
`--+--+--+--H. boulengeri (Thompson 1912)PW11, I92
| | `--H. kimurae Dunn 1923PW11, W08
| `--+--H. fucaPW11
| `--+--H. glacialisPW11
| `--+--H. formosanusPW11
| `--+--H. arisanensisPW11
| `--H. sonaniPW11
`--+--+--H. amjiensisPW11
| `--H. naevis (Temminck & Schlegel 1838)PW11, W08
`--+--H. katoi Matsui 2004PW11, W08
`--+--+--H. hidamontanus Matsui 1987PW11, I92
| `--+--H. yiwuensisPW11
| `--+--H. guabangshanensisPW11
| `--+--H. chinensisPW11
| `--H. maoershanensisPW11
`--+--+--+--H. leechiiPW11
| | `--H. yangiPW11
| `--+--H. quelpaertensisPW11
| `--+--H. dunni Tago 1931PW11, I92
| `--+--H. okiensis Sato 1940PW11, I92
| `--H. tsuensisPW11
`--+--H. nebulosus (Schlegel 1838)PW11, I92
`--+--H. stejnegeri Dunn 1923PW11, I92
`--+--H. lichenatusPW11
`--+--+--H. abei Sato 1934PW11, I92
| `--H. tokyoensis Tago 1931PW11, W08 [=H. nebulosus tokyoensisI92]
`--+--H. nigrescens Stejneger 1907PW11, W08
`--H. takedai Matsui & Miyazaki 1984PW11, I92

Batrachuperus pinchonii (David 1871)PW11, L50 [=Dermodactylus pinchoniiL50; incl. Salamandrella sinensis Sauvage 1877L50, *Batrachuperus sinensisL50]

Andrias davidianus (Blanchard 1871)PW11, L50 [=Sieboldia davidianaL50, Hoplobatrachus davidiL50, Megalobatrachus japonicus davidiL40, M. japonicus davidianusUSDI77, L50, Sieboldia davidiL50; incl. M. maximus Boulenger 1882L50, Cryptobatrachus maximusL50, M. sligoi Boulenger 1924L50]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[FG06] Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. de Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green & W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1–370.

[GS03] Gao, K.-Q., & N. H. Shubin. 2003. Earliest known crown-group salamanders. Nature 422: 424–428.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L50] Liu, C.-C. 1950. Amphibians of western China. Fieldiana: Zoology Memoirs 2: 1–400.

[M90] McKay, W. J. 1890. The osteology and myology of the death adder (Acanthophis antarctica). Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (3): 893–986.

[M93] Milner, A. R. 1993. Amphibian-grade Tetrapoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 665–679. Chapman & Hall: London.

[M00] Milner, A. R. 2000. Mesozoic and Tertiary Caudata and Albanerpetontidae. In: Heatwole, H., & R. L. Carroll (eds) Amphibian Biology vol. 4. Palaeontology. The evolutionary history of amphibians pp. 1412–1444. Surrey Beatty & Sons.

[PSH17] Pardo, J. D., B. J. Small & A. K. Huttenlocker. 2017. Stem caecilian from the Triassic of Colorado sheds light on the origins of Lissamphibia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 114 (27): E5389–E5395.

[PW11] Pyron, R. A., & J. J. Wiens. 2011. A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 543–583.

[USDI77] United States Department of the Interior. 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

[W08] Warburg, M. R. 2008. Temporal variations in body dimensions followed for 25 years in a breeding population of adult salamanders, with a partial review on other Urodela (Amphibia, Urodela, Salamandridae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 81–101.

[ZC06] Zhang, P., Y.-Q. Chen, H. Zhou, Y.-F. Liu, X.-L. Wang, T. J. Papenfuss, D. B. Wake & L.-H. Qu. 2006. Phylogeny, evolution and biogeography of Asiatic salamanders (Hynobiidae). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (19): 7360–7365.

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