Sclerites of the Devonian Devonothyonites avis, from Boczarowski (2001). Scale bar = 200 µm.

Belongs within: Dendrochirotacea.
Contains: Calclamnidae.

The Cucumariidae are a group of sea cucumbers characterised by the presence of ten branching tentacles. Sclerites of possible cucumariids are known as far back as the middle Ordovician where they are represented by the Staurocaudininae, oval sclerites with a distinct marginal zone and perforated central zone. The Devonian Devonothyoninae possessed trizonate sclerites with a perforated central part and lateral processes, and are also associated with dagger-shaped anal teeth and branching, perforated blades (Boczarowski 2001).

Characters (from O’Loughlin & Alcock 2000): Tentacles multiple-branching (dendritic); body form cylindrical, not U-shaped; calcareous ring present of ten pieces lacking posterior prolongations; cover of imbricating scales entirely or dorsally absent.

    |    |--Mercedescaudina Schallreuter 1975B01
    |    |    |--*M. triperforata (Schallreuter 1968) [=Protocaudina triperforata]B01
    |    |    |--M. langeri Boczarowski 2001B01
    |    |    `--M. mostleri Schallreuter 1975B01
    |    `--Staurocaudina Boczarowski 2001B01
    |         |--S. domborowiana Boczarowski 2001B01
    |         `--+--*S. canina Boczarowski 2001B01
    |            `--+--S. rigaudaeB01
    |               `--+--S. mortenseni (Deflandre-Rigaud 1946)B01
    |                  `--+--S. khadirensis (Soodan 1977)B01
    |                     `--Staurocucumis Ekman 1927B01
       |--Palaeohemioedema Boczarowski 2001 [Palaeohemioedemiinae]B01
       |    `--*P. cognata Boczarowski 2001B01
            |--Ballistocucumis Boczarowski 2001B01
            |    `--*B. bimembris Boczarewski 2001B01
            |--Tetravirga Frizzell & Exline 1955B01
            |    |--*T. imperforata Frizzell & Exline 1956FE66
            |    |--T. curtaFE66
            |    |--T. etheridgeiFE66
            |    `--T. fordalensis Frizzell & Exline 1955SG93
            `--Devonothyonites Langer 1991B01
                 |--*D. triangularis Langer 1991B01
                 |--D. accipitris Boczarowski 2001B01
                 |--D. avis Boczarowski 2001B01
                 |--D. exporrigus Boczarowski 2001B01
                 |--D. polymorphus Boczarowski 2001B01
                 |--D. spiritus Boczarowski 2001B01
                 `--D. tudorowiensis Boczarowski 2001B01
Cucumariidae incertae sedis:
    |--P. bispicula Cherbonnier 1965B01
    `--P. curvata Cherbonnier 1958B01
  Abyssocucumis Heding 1942B01
    |--Hemioedema Hérouard 1929B01
    `--Cucumaria Blainville 1834B01
         |--C. abyssorum Théel 1885B01
         |--C. albatrossi Cherbonnier 1941B01
         |--C. chronhjelmsFE66
         |--C. cruciferaH04
         |--C. denticulata Ekman 1927B01
         |--C. elongataW79
         |--C. fraudatrixKBC03
         |--C. frondosaHK02
         |--C. georgiana (Lampert 1886)B01
         |--C. hyndmaniBK77
         |--C. kirschbergiPP64
         |--C. lacteaBK77
         |--C. miniataMK05
         |--C. normaniBK77
         |--C. planciBK77
         |--C. saxicolaBK77
         |--C. spatha Cherbonnier 1941B01
         `--C. steineni Ludwig 1898B01
    |--Trachythone Studer 1876B01
         |--C. crassus Ekman 1918SM15
         |--C. inornatusH04
         |--C. quadrangularis Troschel 1846SM15
         `--C. robustus Östergren 1898BM09
    |--P. australis (Ludwig 1875)MG-H11
    `--P. dispar (Lampert 1889)BM09
  Actinocucumis typica Ludwig 1875 [incl. A. longipedes]SM15
  Cercodemas anceps (Selenka 1867)SM15
  Leptopentacta grisea Clark 1928SM15
  Mensamaria intercedens (Lampert 1885)SM15
  Pseudocolochirus violaceus (Theel 1886)SM15
  Staurothyone rosacea (Semper 1869)SM15

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[B01] Boczarowski, A. 2001. Isolated sclerites of Devonian non-pelmatozoan echinoderms. Palaeontologia Polonica 59: 1–219.

[BM09] Bryce, C., & L. Marsh. 2009. Echinodermata (Asteroidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea) of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 209–220.

[FE66] Frizzell, D. L., & H. Exline. 1966. Holothuroidea—fossil record. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U646–U672. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[HK02] Haug, T., A. K. Kjuul, O. B. Styrvold, E. Sandsdalen, Ø. M. Olsen & K. Stensvåg. 2002. Antibacterial activity in Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (Echinoidea), Cucumaria frondosa (Holothuroidea), and Asterias rubens (Asteroidea). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 81: 94–102.

[KBC03] Kashin, I. A., E. V. Bagaveeva & S. F. Chaplygina. 2003. Fouling communities of hydrotechnical constructions in Nakhodka Bay (Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29: 267–283.

[MK05] Matsubara, M., M. Komatsu, T. Araki, S. Asakawa, S. Yokobori, K. Watanabe & H. Wada. 2005. The phylogenetic status of Paxillosida (Asteroidea) based on complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 598–605.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[SM15] Sampey, A., & L. M. Marsh. 2015. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: echinoderms. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 207–246.

[SG93] Simms, M. J., A. S. Gale, P. Gilliland, E. P. F. Rose & G. D. Sevastopulo. 1993. Echinodermata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 491–528. Chapman & Hall: London.

[W79] Warner, G. F. 1979. Aggregation in echinoderms. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 375–396. Academic Press: London.

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