Culicomorpha

 Specimen of Androprosopa americana, from the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario.

Belongs within: Neoneura.
Contains: Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Simuliidae, Culicidae, Chaoboridae.

The Culicomorpha are a major clade of flies including mosquitoes, midges and related taxa. Most are relatively slender, long-legged flies but some are more robust, including the Simuliidae, Thaumaleidae and some Ceratopogonidae. The majority of culicomorphs have aquatic larvae, most of which are filter-feeders or gleaners of algae, protozoa and other micro-organisms. Of the two main lineages within the Culicomorpha, adults have wing venation reduced in Chironomoidea relative to that found in the Culicoidea. The Thaumaleidae are small, stocky flies, most diverse in the Holarctic region, with holoptic eyes (meeting dorsally along the midline of the head) and relatively short, slender antennae (Stone & Peterson 1981).

Synapomorphies (from Blagoderov et al. 2002): Torsion joint at R kink, radial and axillary hair plates, R2 lost, R3+4 stalk formed, MA vein-like and transverse, M3+4 simple, im lost, Cu base tends to be captured by cu-a, CuP base angled towards 1A, pedicel enlarged, (post)laterocervicale with ventromedian projection, empodium tends to be setiform. Pupa with palpal sheath curved posteromesad, hind leg sheath S-shaped and concealed beneath wing sheath. Larva with labral brush complex, torma and premandible invaginated.

<==Culicomorpha
    |--ChironomoideaCM91
    |    |--+--CeratopogonidaeWT11
    |    |  `--ChironomidaeWT11
    |    `--+--SimuliidaeWT11
    |       `--Thaumaleidae [Orphnephilidae, Thaumalaeidae]WT11
    |            |--Mesothaumalea fossilis Kovalev 1989RJ93
    |            |--Trichothaumalea pluvialisSP81
    |            |--NiphtaCM91
    |            |--Afrothaumalea Stuckenberg 1960S61
    |            |    `--*A. pamelae Stuckenberg 1960S61
    |            |--Austrothaumalea Tonnoir 1927S61
    |            |    `--A. neozealandicaS61
    |            |--ThaumaleaSP81
    |            |    |--T. americanaSP81
    |            |    |--T. fuscaB72
    |            |    |--T. santaclaraensis Brothers 1972B72
    |            |    `--T. testaceaRD77
    |            |--AndroprosopaSP81
    |            |    |--A. americanaWT11
    |            |    `--A. larvataSP81
    |            `--Orphnephila deviaS89
    `--CulicoideaCM91
         |--+--CulicidaeWT11
         |  `--+--ChaoboridaeWT11
         |     `--Corethrellidae [Corethrellinae]WT11
         |          |--Lutzomiops kerrvillensisC81
         |          `--CorethrellaB09b
         |               |--C. amazonicaWT11
         |               |--C. brakeleyiC81
         |               |--C. calathicolaB09b
         |               |--C. dicosimoaeB09b
         |               |--C. towadensisB09b
         |               `--C. wirthiBW09
         `--DixidaeWT11
              |  i. s.: DixellaB09a [incl. DixapuellaP81]
              |           |--D. alexanderiP81
              |           |--D. californicaP81
              |           |--D. clavataP81
              |           |--D. dyariP81
              |           |--D. naeviaP81
              |           |--D. nicholsoniO98
              |           |--D. novaB09a
              |           `--D. suzukiiB09a
              |         NeodixaRD77
              |--ParadixaGE05 [ParadixinaeB09a]
              |--MeringodixaP81 [MeringodixinaeB09a]
              |    `--M. chalonensisP81
              `--DixinaeB09a
                   |--Syndixa sibiricaBLM02
                   `--DixaP81
                        |--D. aprilina [=Bolitophila (Dixa) aprilina]G20
                        |--D. brevisP81
                        |--D. nicholsoniCM91
                        `--D. submaculataWT11

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[B09a] Borkent, A. 2009a. Dixidae (meniscus midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera, vol. 1 pp. 359–360. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[B09b] Borkent, A. 2009b. Corethrellidae (frog-biting midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 361–363. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[B72] Brothers, D. R. 1972. A new species of Thaumalea from California (Diptera: Thaumaleidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (2): 121–122.

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 95–156. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C81] Cook, E. F. 1981. Chaoboridae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 335–339. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[P81] Peters, T. M. 1981. Dixidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 329–333. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S89] Skuse, F. A. A. 1889. Diptera of Australia. Part VI.—The Chironomidae. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (2): 215–311, pls 11–14.

[SP81] Stone, A., & B. V. Peterson. 1981. Thaumaleidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 351–353. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[S61] Stuckenberg, R. R. 1961. Diptera (Nematocera): Thaumaleidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck (eds) South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 409–412. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

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