Curculioninae

Deretiosus aridus, copyright Ratty Explores.

Belongs within: Curculionidae.
Contains: Derelomini, Rhamphini, Eugnomini, Storeini, Cleogonini, Scolytinae, Cionus, Anthonomus, Ceutorhynchinae, Cossoninae, Tychiini, Curculio, Haplonyx, Orthorhinus, Mesoptillinae, Hylobiini, Conoderinae, Hylesininae, Lixinae, Molytinae.

The Curculioninae have been recognised as a subfamily of weevils with a long rostrum. Molecular analyses do not support the historical circumscription of the family, placing its members as non-monophyletic within a broader clade of weevils with larvae that are mostly internal feeders on plant tissues.

<==Curculioninae [Anthonomides, Tychiides]GC-P14
    |--+--Gymnetron Schoenherr 1825LE23, A02 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |    |--G. beccabungaeC01
    |  |    |--G. crassirostris Lucas 1846E12
    |  |    |--G. pascuorum [incl. G. pascuorum var. bicolor]C01
    |  |    `--G. vulpes Lucas 1846E12
    |  `--+--ScolytinaeLE23
    |     `--+--+--Cioninae [Cionides]M62
    |        |  |    |--CionusLE23
    |        |  |    `--Stereonychidius Morimoto 1962M62
    |        |  |         `--*S. galloisi (Hustache 1920) [=Stereonychus galloisi]M62
    |        |  `--CampylosceliniL18
    |        |       |  i. s.: HomoeometamelusMPJ18
    |        |       |         Scolytoproctus Faust 1895MPJ18
    |        |       |--PhaenomerusLB20 [PhaenomerinaL18, Phaenomerini]
    |        |       |    `--P. peregrinatorLB20
    |        |       `--CampyloscelinaL18
    |        `--AnthonominiA02
    |             |--AnthonomusLE23
    |             |--Chelonychus Dietz 1891A02
    |             |--Cionomimus Marshall 1939 [incl. Cionistes Dietz 1891 non Wright 1861]A02
    |             |--Cionopsis Champion 1903A02
    |             |--Coccotorus LeConte 1876A02
    |             |--Dietzianus Sleeper 1953 [incl. Xanthus Dietz 1891 non Gistel 1834]A02
    |             |--Epimechus Dietz 1891A02
    |             |--Magdalinops Dietz 1891A02
    |             |--Pseudanthonomus Dietz 1891A02
    |             |    `--P. hamamelidisA89
    |             |--Smicraulax Pierce 1908A02
    |             |--Anthonomopsis Dietz 1891A02
    |             |    `--A. mixta (LeConte 1876)A02
    |             |--Atractomerus Duponchel & Chevrolat 1842 (see below for synonymy)A02
    |             |    `--A. punctipennis (Gyllenhal 1836)A02
    |             |--Brachyogmus Linell 1897A02
    |             |    `--B. ornatus Linell 1897A02
    |             |--Ephelops Dietz 1891A02
    |             |    `--E. triguttatus Dietz 1891A02
    |             |--Huaca Clark 1993A02
    |             |    `--H. apian Clark 1993A02
    |             |--Nanops Dietz 1891A02
    |             |    `--N. schwarzii Dietz 1891A01
    |             |--Narberdia Burke 1976A02
    |             |    `--N. aridulus Burke 1976A02
    |             `--Neomastix Dietz 1891A02
    |                  `--N. solidaginis Dietz 1891A02
    `--+--+--CeutorhynchinaeLE23
       |  `--+--AraucarietiusLE23
       |     `--AncyttaliaLE23
       `--+--+--+--+--Ipsichora longipesLB20
          |  |  |  `--+--CossoninaeLE23
          |  |  |     `--GloeodemaLB20
          |  |  `--+--AmorphoceriniMPJ18
          |  |     |    |--Amorphocerus rufipesMPJ18
          |  |     |    `--Porthetes hispidusLB20
          |  |     `--+--PseuderodiscusLB20
          |  |        `--Trachodes Germar 1824LB20, A02 (see below for synonymy)
          |  |             |--T. hispidus (Linnaeus 1758)A02
          |  |             `--*Atrachodes’ murakamii Morimoto 1962M62
          |  `--+--TychiiniLB20
          |     `--Curculionina [Curculionini]A02
          |          |--CurculioLE23
          |          `--Archarius Gistel 1856 (see below for synonymy)A02
          |               `--A. salicivorus (Paykull 1792)A02
          `--+--+--+--Cryptoplini [Haplonycides, Haplonychinae]L20
             |  |  |    |--Zeopus storeoides Pascoe 1872Mas86
             |  |  |    |--Sigastus fascicularisMas86
             |  |  |    |--HaplonyxLE23
             |  |  |    |--Cryptoplus Erichson 1842M94
             |  |  |    |    `--*C. perdix Erichson 1842M94
             |  |  |    `--AollesMas86
             |  |  |         |--A. nuceus Pascoe 1870Mas86
             |  |  |         `--A. rubiginosus Pascoe 1870Mas86
             |  |  `--+--+--Rhyssomatus Schoenherr 1837LB20, A02 [incl. Polydus Pascoe 1872A02, Sermysatus Casey 1895A02]
             |  |     |  |    |--R. aequalisA08
             |  |     |  |    `--R. diversicollisML05
             |  |     |  `--+--RhinusaLB20
             |  |     |     |    |--R. asellus (Gravenhorst 1807)HF03
             |  |     |     |    |--R. bipustulatum (Rossi 1792)HF03
             |  |     |     |    |--R. netum (Germar 1821)HF03
             |  |     |     |    `--R. tetrum (Fabricius 1801)HF03
             |  |     |     `--OrthorhinusLB20
             |  |     `--+--+--AcleesLB20
             |  |        |  |    |--A. indigenusLB20
             |  |        |  |    `--A. porosusMac86
             |  |        |  `--+--MesoptillinaeLE23
             |  |        |     `--PinacopusLB20
             |  |        `--+--+--LiparusLB20
             |  |           |  |    |--L. disparR13
             |  |           |  |    |--L. germanus (Linnaeus 1758)G20, L58 [=Curculio germanusG20]
             |  |           |  |    `--L. tenebrioidesLB20
             |  |           |  `--HylobiiniLB20
             |  |           `--+--ParamecopsLB20
             |  |              `--PimelocerusLB20
             |  `--+--ConoderinaeLE23
             |     `--+--+--Deretiosus Pascoe 1871LB20, L09
             |        |  |    |--D. aridus Pascoe 1871L09
             |        |  |    |--D. aspratilis Lea 1909L09
             |        |  |    |--D. blandus Lea 1909L09
             |        |  |    |--D. hystricosus Lea 1909L09
             |        |  |    `--D. verrucifer Faust 1899L09
             |        |  `--HylesininaeLE23
             |        `--Camptorhinini [Camptorhinides]GC-P14
             |             |--Pachyonyx affaberM78
             |             `--Camptorhinus Schoenherr 1826LB20, M94
             |                  |--C. albizziaeM94
             |                  |--C. crinipes Gahan 1900JG19
             |                  |--C. dorsalis Boisd. 1835Mas86
             |                  `--C. erectisquamis (Marsh 1928)HF03
             `--+--+--+--AlcidodesLB20
                |  |  |    |--A. bubo (Fabricius 1801) [=Rhynchaenus bubo]M94
                |  |  |    |--A. elegansLB20
                |  |  |    `--A. leeuweniMHG04
                |  |  `--+--BothynoderesLB20
                |  |     |    |--B. albidusR13
                |  |     |    `--B. brevirostrisG89
                |  |     `--LixinaeLB20
                |  `--+--+--Adexius scrobipennis Gyllenhal 1834LB20, AS08
                |     |  `--+--Neolaemosaccus Hustache 1937LB20, M94
                |     |     |    |--*N. subsignatus [=Laemosaccus subsignatus]M94
                |     |     |    |--N. narinus (Pascoe 1872) [=Laemosaccus narinus]M94
                |     |     |    `--N. petulansLB20
                |     |     `--EctatorhinusLB20
                |     |          |--E. alatusLB20
                |     |          `--E. wallaceiM78
                |     `--+--OtibazoLB20
                |        `--Niphades costatusLB20
                `--MolytinaeLE23

Curculioninae incertae sedis:
  Assuanensius discoidalis (Tournier 1873)HF03
  Geranorhinus pusillus (Motschulsky 1851)HF03
  Sharpia soluta Faust 1885HF03
  DiapelmusMas86
    |--D. erichsoni Pascoe 1870Mas86
    |--D. mendax Erichs. 1842Mas86
    `--D. ventralis Pascoe 1870Mas86
  Ellescini [Ellescina]A02
    |--Proctorus LeConte 1876 [incl. Encalus LeConte 1876]A02
    `--Ellescus Dejean 1821 (see below for synonymy)A02
         `--E. orbitalisMas86
  Orichora trivirgata Pascoe 1870Mas86
  Ochrophoebe uniformis Pascoe 1872Mas86
  Elleschodes Blackburn 1897M94
    `--*E. hamiltoni Blackburn 1897M94
  Erytenna Pascoe 1870M94
    |--*E. consputa Pascoe 1870M94
    `--E. dispersa Pascoe 1870Mas86
  NotinusM94
  Oropterus conigerM94, T27
  PeristoreusM94
  Otidocephalini [Myrmecini]B14
    |--Oopterinus Casey 1892A02
    |    `--O. perforatusA02
    |--Micromyrmex Sleeper 1953A02
    |    |--M. cavirostris (Casey 1892)A02
    |    `--M. poeyi (Chevrolat 1832)A02
    `--Myrmex Sturm 1826 [incl. Cycotida Pascoe 1872, Otidocephalus Chevrolat 1832]A02
         |--M. arizonicusA02
         `--‘Cycotida’ lineata Pascoe 1872Mas86
  ErodisciniB14
    |--Ludovix fasciatus (Gyllenhal 1836)B14
    |--Sicoderus Vanin 1986A02
    |    `--S. tinamus (LeConte 1884)A02
    `--Erodiscus Schönh. 1826 [incl. Hammacerus]FS90
         |--E. attenuatusML05
         `--E. delauneyi Chv. 1880FS90
  CamarotiniB14
    |--Odontopus Say 1831 [incl. Prionomerus Schoenherr 1835]A02
    |    |--O. calceatus (Say 1831)A02
    |    `--‘Prionomerus’ triangulifer Chv. 1880FS90
    `--Camarotus [Camarotina]B14
         |--C. cassidoidesB14
         |--C. dilatatusB14
         `--C. singularis Champion 1903B14
  DerelominiD09
  Piazorhinus Schoenherr 1835A02 (see below for synonymy)
  Prionobrachium [Prionobrachiini]ML05
    `--P. bimaculatumML05
  SmicronychiniML05
    |--Promecotarsus Casey 1892A02
    `--Smicronyx Schoenherr 1843 (see below for synonymy)A02
  RhamphiniML05
  CeratopodiniML05
  CraspedotusML05 [incl. NeobrachybarisH51; Pyropinae, PyropiniML05]
  MecininiL18
    |--Miarus campanulaeGC-P14, C01
    |--Cleopomiarus Pierce 1919 [incl. Hemimiarus Franz 1947, Miaromimus Solari 1947]A02
    |    `--C. hispidulus (LeConte 1876)A02
    `--Mecinus Germar 1821 (see below for synonymy)A02
         |--M. circulatus (Marsham 1802)HF03
         |--M. janthinus (Germar 1817)A02
         |--M. pascuorum (Gyllenhal 1813)HF03
         |--M. pirazzolii (Stierlin 1867)HF03
         `--M. pyraster (Herbst 1795)A02
  Macrorhoptus LeConte 1876 [incl. Paraceratopus Brèthes 1910]A02
  EugnominiGC-P14
  Ceratopus [Ceratopini]GC-P14
  ImathiaLB20 [incl. AmblycnemusM78]
  0--+--Dorytomus Germar 1817LB20, A02 (see below for synonymy)
  |  |    `--D. longimanusLB20
  |  `--Rhynchaenus Clairville 1798LB20, M94 [Rhynchaeninae]
  |       |--R. alniR26
  |       |--R. fagiLB20
  |       |--R. populiL02
  |       |--R. rhamniR26
  |       |--R. salicisR26
  |       `--R. saltatorM94
  `--+--+--Rhinidotasia dentataLB20
     |  `--PantoxystusLB20
     |       |--P. cyaneus Macleay 1886Mac86
     |       `--P. rubricollisMac86
     `--StoreiniLB20
  CleogoniniLB20

Archarius Gistel 1856 [=Archarias Villa & Villa 1833 non Dejean 1821; incl. Balanobius Jekel 1861, Longifistulia Hong & Wang 1987, Toptaria Kwon & Lee 1990]A02

Atractomerus Duponchel & Chevrolat 1842 [incl. Arthleptrus Burke 1982, Cissoanthonomus Hustache 1939, Leptarthrus Dietz 1891 non Stephens 1829]A02

Dorytomus Germar 1817A02 [incl. Alycodes Dietz 1891A02, Chaetodorytomus Iablokov-Khnzorian 1970A02, Doratotomus Gistel 1886A02, Eteophilus Bedel 1886A02, Euolamus Reitter 1916A02, Olamus Reitter 1916A02, Paradorytomus Zumpt 1932A02, Praeolamus Zumpt 1932A02, Solenorhinus Motschulsky 1860A02; Dorytomina, Dorytomini]

Ellescus Dejean 1821 [=Elleschus Schoenherr 1838; incl. Alyca LeConte 1876, Anisarctus Desbrochers 1907, Sarapus Villa & Villa 1833 non Fischer von Waldheim 1821]A02

Gymnetron Schoenherr 1825LE23, A02 [=Gymnetrum Agassiz 1846A02; incl. Aprinus Desbrochers 1893A02, Carpolinus Gistel 1848A02, Eutemnoscelus Desbrochers 1893A02; GymetriniML05]

Mecinus Germar 1821 [incl. Hexaphyllus Dejean 1821, Macipus Fischer de Waldheim 1829, Mecinopsis Escalera 1914]A02

Piazorhinus Schoenherr 1835A02 [=Piazorrhinus Champion 1903A02; incl. Acamatus Schoenherr 1833A02, Polyponus Kirsch 1875A02; PiazorhininiML05]

Smicronyx Schoenherr 1843 [incl. Chalybodontus Desbrochers 1897, Desmoris LeConte 1876, Oligocaricis Lea 1926, Micronyx Schoenherr 1835 non Boisduval 1835, Pachyphanes Dietz 1894, Pseudromicronyx Dietz 1894, Synertha Dietz 1894]A02

Trachodes Germar 1824LB20, A02 [incl. Atrachodes Morimoto 1962A02, Blastophila Gistel 1856A02, Metrachodes Marshall 1948A02; Trachodini]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A02] Anderson, R. S. 2002. Curculionidae Latreille 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 722–815. CRC Press.

[A08] Anderson, R. S. 2008. The identity of Chaleponotus elusus Casey 1892 (Curculionidae: Molytinae: Conotrachelini). Coleopterists Bulletin 62 (1): 42–44.

[AS08] Astrin, J. J., & P. E. Stüben. 2008. Phylogeny in cryptic weevils: molecules, morphology and new genera of western Palaearctic Cryptorhynchinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Invertebrate Systematics 22: 503–522.

[A89] Auld, T. D. 1989. Larval survival in the soil and adult emergence in Melanterius Erichson and Plaesiorhinus Blackburn (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) following seed feeding on Acacia and Bossiaea (Fabaceae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 28: 235–238.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[D09] Davis, S. R. 2009. Morphology of Baridinae and related groups (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). ZooKeys 10: 1–136.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[FS90] Fleutiaux, E., & A. Sallé. 1890. Liste des coléoptères de la Guadeloupe et descriptions d’espèces nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 351–484.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso “Esploratore” dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[GC-P14] Gillett, C. P. D. T., A. Crampton-Platt, M. J. T. N. Timmermans, B. H. Jordal, B. C. Emerson & A. P. Vogler. 2014. Bulk de novo mitogenome assembly from pooled total DNA elucidates the phylogeny of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). Molecular Biology and Evolution 31 (8): 2223–2237.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[HF03] Halperin, J., & J. Fremuth. 2003. Contribution to the knowledge of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) and their host plants in Israel. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 93–100.

[H51] Hustache, A. 1951. Nouveaux Barinae Sud-Américains. 4.ème partie: Madopterina—Lyterida—Leptoschoina—Eutoxina—Madarina—Barymerina. Boletim do Museu Nacional, nova serie, Zoologia 102: 1–78.

[JG19] James, D. J., P. T. Green, W. F. Humphreys & J. C. Z. Woinarski. 2019. Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34 (2): 55–114.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L09] Lea, A. M. 1909. Revision of the Australian Curculionidae belonging to the subfamily Cryptorhynchides. Part IX. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 701–732.

[L18] Legalov, A. A. 2018. Annotated key to weevils of the world. Part 3. Subfamily Conoderinae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Ukrainian Journal of Ecology 8 (4): 494–503.

[L20] Legalov, A. A. 2020. Annotated key to weevils of the world. Part 4. Subfamilies Erirhininae, Dryophthorinae and Cossoninae (Curculionidae). Ukrainian Journal of Ecology 10 (2): 319–331.

[LB20] Letsch, H., M. Balke, E. F. A. Toussaint & A. Riedel. 2020. Historical biogeography of the hyperdiverse hidden snout weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cryptorhynchinae). Systematic Entomology 45: 312–326.

[LE23] Li, Y.-D., M. S. Engel, E. Tihelka & C. Cai. 2023. Phylogenomics of weevils revisited: data curation and modelling compositional heterogeneity. Biology Letters 19: 20230307.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis revised 10th ed. vol. 1. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[Mac86] Macleay, W. 1886. The insects of the Fly River, New Guinea, “Coleoptera” (continued). Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 183–204.

[ML05] Marvaldi, A. E., & A. A. Lanteri. 2005. Key to higher taxa of South American weevils based on adult characters (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea). Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 78: 65–87.

[Mas86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part V. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (3): 585–686.

[M94] May, B. M. 1994. An introduction to the immature stages of Australian Curculionoidea. In: Zimmerman, E. C. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May pp. 365–728. CSIRO Australia.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[M62] Morimoto, K. 1962. Descriptions of a new subfamily, new genera and species of the family Curculionidae of Japan. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University 11 (4): 375–409.

[M78] Morimoto, K. 1978. On the genera of Oriental Cryptorhynchinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Esakia 11: 121–143.

[MPJ18] Mugu, S., D. Pistone & B. H. Jordal. 2018. New molecular markers resolve the phylogenetic position of the enigmatic wood-boring weevils Platypodinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny 76 (1): 45–58.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106–125.

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