Cyanobacteria

Eosynechococcus isolatus, from Kumar & Srivastava (1992).

Belongs within: Terrabacteria.
Contains: Aphralysiaceae, Entophysalidaceae, Myxococcoides, Cyanobacteriia.

The Cyanobacteria are a clade of bacteria including the photosynthetic blue-green algae and their close relatives. The latter include the recently identified aquatic clades Sericytochromatia and Vampirovibrionia. The Sericytochromatia are little understood at present, being primarily represented in the literature by environmental sequences. Known representatives of the Vampirovibrionia include animal gut symbionts and predators of green algae.

Numerous fossils have been attributed to the Cyanobacteria extending at least to the early Proterozoic. One potential representative is the early Proterozoic Grypania spiralis which reached megascopic size and has alternatively been regarded as an early eukaryote. Vologdin (1962) described numerous microstructures from stromatolites as cyanobacteria (Glaessner 1979).

Cyanobacteria (see below for synonymy)
    |--SericytochromatiaCD21
    `--+--CyanobacteriiaCD21
       `--VampirovibrioniaCD21
            |  i. s.: VampirovibrioGH01
            |--GastranaerophilalesCD21
            `--CaenarcaniphilalesCD21
Cyanobacteria incertae sedis:
  Grypania Walter, Oehler & Oehler 1976C-S02, H85 [incl. Spiroscolex Torell 1870H62]
    `--*G. spiralis (Walcott) Walter, Oehler & Oehler 1976H85 (see below for synonymy)
  Umezakia natansMN03
  EpiphytonHS02
  Anacystis nidulansC01
  SatpulisporaT84
    |--S. microreticulataT84
    |--S. minutaT84
    `--S. psilataT84
  AphralysiaceaeVH01
  Sphaerophycus Schopf 1968KS92
    |--*S. parvum Schopf 1968KS92
    |--S. mediumKS92
    |--S. reticulatumKS92
    |--S. tetragonalis Muir 1976KS92
    `--S. wilsoniiKS92
  EntophysalidaceaeC01
  ‘Diplocystis’ Trevisan 1848 (nom. rej.) nec Berkeley & Curtis 1869 nec Künstler 1887 (ICZN) nec Agardh 1896 nec Cleve 1901FT93
  Crocosphaera watsoniiR-EB05
  Coelosphaerium Nageli 1849M70
    `--C. kuetzingianum Nageli 1849M70
  Girvanellaceae [Girvanellinae, Porostromata]MSV01
    |--Halysis Høeg 1932 [incl. Flabellia Shuysky 1973 non Mangold 1970 (ICZN)]MSV01
    |    `--*H. moniliformis Høeg 1932 (see below for synonymy)MSV01
    `--Girvanella Nicholson & Etheridge 1878 [=Argirvanellum Rhumbler 1913]LT64b
         |--*G. problematica Nicholson & Etheridge 1878LT64b
         `--G. nankinensisG31
  Paraphralysia Vachard in Vachard & Beckary 1991MSV00
  Polymorphodium Derville 1931MSV00
  ChabakoviaceaeMSV00
    |--Tscherdyncevella Antropov 1950MSV00
    |    `--*T. acervulinoides Antropov 1950LT64a
    `--Chabakovia Vologdin 1939LT64b
         `--*C. ramosa Vologdin 1939LT64b
  Cyanobacterium Rippka & Cohen-Bazire 1983C01
    `--*C. stanieri Rippka & Cohen-Bazire 1983C01
  Gloeocapsa Kützing 1843C01
    |--G. atrataSG05
    `--G. rupestrisSG05
  MyxococcoidesKS92
  Melasmatosphaera Hofmann 1976KS92
    |--*M. media Hofmann 1976KS92
    |--M. magnaKS92
    `--M. parva Hofmann 1976KS92
  Huroniospora Baghoorn 1965KS92
    |--*H. microreticulata Barghoorn in Barghoorn & Tyler 1965KS92
    |--H. barghoornKS92
    |--H. macroreticulataKS92
    |--H. microreticulataKS92
    |--H. ornataKS92
    `--H. psilata Barghoorn in Barghoorn & Tyler 1965KS92
  Tetraphycus Oehler 1978KS92
    |--*T. gregalis Oehler 1978KS92
    |--T. acinulusKS92
    |--T. congregatus McMenamin, Kumar & Awramik 1983KS92
    |--T. conjunctum Lo 1980KS92
    |--T. diminutivusKS92
    `--T. major Oehler 1978KS92
  Eosynechococcus Hofmann 1976KS92
    |--*E. mooreii Hofmann 1976KS92
    |--E. amadeus Knoll & Golubic 1979KS92
    |--E. depressusKS92
    |--E. grandisKS92
    |--E. isolatus McMenamin, Kumar & Awramik 1983KS92
    |--E. mediusKS92
    `--E. minutusT84
  Abruptophycus Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*A. compositus Vologdin 1962G79
  Amplectostroma Vologdin 1966G79
    `--*A. ramificata Vologdin 1966G79
  Angarophycus Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*A. depictus Vologdin 1962G79
  Antiquophytolithus Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*A. filamentaris Vologdin 1962G79
  Azyrtalia Vologdin 1969G79
    `--*A. zonulata Vologdin 1969G79
  Borlogella Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*B. multifaria Vologdin 1962G79
  Bulbistroma Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*B. curtothallum Vologdin 1962G79
  Bursiphycus Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*B. bullatus Vologdin 1962G79
  Cirriphycus Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*C. ordinatus Vologdin 1962G79
  Columnaria Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*C. turuchanica Vologdin 1962G79
  Crispophycus Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*C. sibiricus Vologdin 1962G79
  Crustophycus Vologdin 1962G79
    |--*C. angaricus Vologdin 1962G79
    `--C. tunguskaensisAP68
  Cyanostroma Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*C. turuchanicum Vologdin 1962G79
  Cystostroma Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*C. varians Vologdin 1962G79
  Echaninia Vologdin 1969G79
    `--*E. mucosa Vologdin 1969G79
  Fibrostroma Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*F. fibrillatum Vologdin 1962G79
  Fillostroma Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*F. moticum Vologdin 1962G79
  Grabauella Vologdin 1964G79
    `--*G. dependitis Vologdin 1964G79
  Granifer Vologdin 1955 non Fritsch 1908 (ICZN)G79
    `--*G. conicus Vologdin 1955G79
  Jatuliana Korde in Vologdin & Korde 1965G79
    `--*J. furcata Korde in Vologdin & Korde 1965G79
  Lamellophycus Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*L. aculeatus Vologdin 1962G79
  Lamellostroma Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*L. vesiculare Vologdin 1962G79
  Leiostroma Vologdin 1966G79
    `--*L. eleganta Vologdin 1966G79
  Leptotrichomaria Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*L. intermissa Vologdin 1962G79
  Lermontovaephycus Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*L. lamellosus Vologdin 1962G79
  Lopatinella Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*L. bipartita Vologdin 1962G79
  Mucostroma Vologdin 1966G79
    `--*M. carelica Vologdin 1966G79
  Murandavia Vologdin 1965 [incl. Kareliana Korde in Vologdin & Korde 1965]G79
    `--*M. amurica Vologdin 1965G79
  Nerusiandella Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*N. faveolata Vologdin 1962G79
  Papulophycus Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*P. pennatus Vologdin 1962G79
  Perennaria Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*P. ambigua Vologdin 1962G79
  Pilostroma Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*P. grumosum Vologdin 1962G79
  Plexostroma Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*P. pleurotropum Vologdin 1962G79
  Praechroococcus Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*P. catervatus Vologdin 1962G79
  Protoepiphyton Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*P. curtofiligerum Vologdin 1962G79
  Ramulostroma Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*R. ramulosum Vologdin 1962G79
  Sarmaella Vologdin 1962G79
    |--*S. vesiculosa Vologdin 1962G79
    `--S. multiformiaAP68
  Scandophycus Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*S. crispobilis Vologdin 1962G79
  Sphaerothallus Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*S. spissus Vologdin 1962G79
  Telastroma Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*T. tenuirimulatum Vologdin 1962G79
  Thysanoplanta Vologdin & Titorenko 1966G79
    `--*T. filamentosa Vologdin & Titorenko 1966G79
  ‘Trichostroma’ Vologdin 1962 nec Link 1826 nec Corda 1829G79
    `--*T. capilliforme Vologdin 1962G79
  ‘Vesicularia’ Vologdin 1962 nec Micheli ex Targ. Tozz. 1826 nec Thompson 1830 (ICZN) nec (Müll.Hal.) Müll.Hal. 1896G79
    `--*V. nidifica Vologdin 1962G79
  Vittophyton Vologdin 1962G79
    `--*V. parvum Vologdin 1962G79
  Gomphosphaeria aponinaTP87
  Favososphaeridium bothnicum Timofeev 1966E93
  Dichothrix Zanardini ex Bornet & Flahault. 1886KC01
  Gloeocapsomorpha priscaW04
  Discophyton electroneionP92
Inorganic: Gloeocapsomorpha tazenakhtensis Choubert, Termier & Termier 1951H62

Cyanobacteria [Chroococcaceae, Chroococcales, Chroocophyceae, Coccogoneae, Cyanophyceae, Cyanophyta, Myxophyceae, Myxophyta, Oxyphotobacteria]

*Grypania spiralis (Walcott) Walter, Oehler & Oehler 1976H85 [=Helminthoidichnites spiralis Walcott 1899H85; incl. Montfortia filiformis Lebesconte 1886H85, Arenicolites spiralis Billings 1872H85, A. (Spiroscolex) spirales Dawson 1897H85, *Spiroscolex spiralisH62]

*Halysis moniliformis Høeg 1932 [incl. *Flabellia basifixa Shuysky 1973, H. sphaericus Saltovskaya 1984, F. ufensis Shuysky 1973]MSV01

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AP68] Afonin, A. I., & A. G. Pospelov. 1968. Novye dannye po stratigraphii verhnego Proterozoâ v severnoj časti Gornogo Altaâ (Katunskij Gorst). In: Selâtickij, G. A., I. P. Maksimov, Û. K. Mironov, I. M. Mârkov, N. G. Rožok, M. G. Rusakov, Û. D. Skobelev, L. D. Staroverov & A. N. Suharina (eds) Novye Dannye po Geologii i Poleznym Iskopaemym Zapadnoj Sibiri vol. 3 pp.70–76 . Izdatel’stvo Tomskogo Universiteta: Tomsk.

[C01] Castenholz, R. W. 2001. Phylum BX. Cyanobacteria: oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 473–599. Springer.

[C-S02] Cavalier-Smith, T. 2002. The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52: 7–76.

[CD21] Coleman, G. A., A. A. Davín, T. A. Mahendrarajah, L. L. Szánthó, A. Spang, P. Hugenholtz, G. J. Szöllősi & T. A. Williams. 2021. A rooted phylogeny resolves early bacterial evolution. Science 372: 588.

[E93] Edwards, D. 1993. Monera (bacteria, blue-green algae). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 3–7. Chapman & Hall: London.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[GH01] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001. The road map to the Manual. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 119–166. Springer.

[G79] Glaessner, M. F. 1979. Precambrian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A79–A118. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[H62] Häntzschel, W. 1962. Trace fossils and problematica. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W177–W245. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[HS02] Höfling, R., & R. W. Scott. 2002. Early and Mid-Cretaceous buildups. SEPM Special Publication 72: 521–548.

[H85] Hofmann, H. J. 1985. The mid-Proterozoic Little Dal macrobiota, Mackenzzie Mountains, north-west Canada. Palaeontology 28 (2): 332–354.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[KS92] Kumar, S., & P. Srivastava. 1992. Middle to late Proterozoic microbiota from the Deoban Limestone, Garhwal Himalaya, India. Precambrian Research 56: 291–318.

[LT64a] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964a. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LT64b] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964b. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[M70] Meel, L. van. 1970. Etudes limnologiques en Belgique. VI.—Les méandres de la Durme à Hamme (Province de Flandre Orientale). Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (13): 1–56.

[MN03] Moffitt, M. C., & B. A. Neilan. 2003. Evolutionary affiliations within the superfamily of ketosynthases reflect complex pathway associations. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56: 446–457.

[MSV00] Munnecke, A., T. Servais & D. Vachard. 2000. A new family of calcareous microfossils from the Silurian of Gotland, Sweden. Palaeontology 43 (6): 1153–1172.

[MSV01] Munnecke, A., T. Servais & D. Vachard. 2001. Halysis Høeg, 1932—a problematic Cyanophyceae: new evidence from the Silurian of Gotland (Sweden). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie—Monatshefte 2001 (1): 21–42.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R-EB05] Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, N., H. Brinkmann, S. C. Burey, B. Roure, G. Burger, W. Löffelhardt, H. J. Bohnert, H. Philippe & B. F. Lang. 2005. Monophyly of primary photosynthetic eukaryotes: green plants, red algae, and glaucophytes. Current Biology 15: 1325–1330.

[SG05] Sau, A., & R. K. Gupta. 2005. Algal flora of Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1–4): 63–86.

[TP87] Taylor, F. J. R., & U. Pollingher. 1987. Ecology of dinoflagellates. In: Taylor, F. J. R. (ed.) The Biology of Dinoflagellates pp. 398–529. Blackwell Scientific.

[T84] Tewari, V. C. 1984. Stromatolites and Precambrian-Lower Cambrian biostratigraphy of the Lesser Himalaya. Proc. Vth India Geophytol. Conf., Lucknow (1983), Spec. Publ. 1984: 71–97.

[VH01] Vachard, D., M. Hauser, R. Martini, L. Zaninetti, A. Matter & T. Peters. 2001. New algae and problematica of algal affinity from the Permian of the Aseelah Unit of the Batain Plain (East Oman). Geobios 34 (4): 375–404.

[W04] Webby, B. D. 2004. Introduction. In: Webby, B. D., F. Paris, M. L. Droser & I. G. Percival (eds) The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event pp. 1–37. Columbia University Press.

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