Cycloneuralia

Mansonella ozzardi in blood smear, from the Center for Disease Control.

Belongs within: Ecdysozoa.
Contains: Nematomorpha, Kinorhyncha, Priapozoa, Dorylaimia, Enoplia, Desmoscolecida, Monhysterida, Chromadorida, Desmodorida, Araeolaimida, Plectida, Secernentea.

The Cycloneuralia are a clade of worm-like animals in which the brain neuropil forms a ring around the anterior part of the intestinal system. Members include the Nematoda, roundworms, a hyperdiverse group of mostly minute species, though some parasitic forms may reach large sizes. Free-living nematodes have a characteristically eel-like mode of swimming, as the body wall contains longitudinal muscles only and movement is by dorsoventral flexure of these muscles against the outer cuticle and internal hydrostatic pressure. The dorsoventral plane of flexure also means that most nematodes are unusual among animals in characteristically lying on one side during movement (Lorenzen 1986). An early influential classification divided the nematodes between the Secernentea, possessing sensory structures called phasmids, and the Adenophorea, lacking such structures. However, the Secernentea represent a nested clade within the ‘Adenophorea’, which is no longer recognised as a valid taxon. Instead, molecular analyses strongly support three primarily clades within the nematodes, Dorylaimia, Enoplia and Chromadorea, with the Secernentea a subgroup of the last (Ley & Blaxter 2002).

<==Cycloneuralia [Nematoida]B01
|--+--NematomorphaOH17
| `--+--KinorhynchaOH17
| `--PriapozoaOH17
`--Nematoda [Adenophorea, Aphasmidia, Ascaridatina, Nemata, Nematelmia, Nematelminthes, Nemates, Nemathelminthes]OH17
| i. s.: PelodermaG01
| Caballeronema pseudoargumentosusMus02
| Truttaedacnitis sphaerocephalaMus02
| ThynnascarisN02
| |--T. aduncum [=Contracaecum aduncum]N02
| `--T. habena [=Contracaecum habena]C02a
| HysterothylaciumK-M02
| |--H. aduncumK-M02
| `--H. pelagicumC02b
| Contracaecum osculatumMun02
| Spinitectus cristatusK-M02
| Benthimermithidae [Benthimermithida]LB02
| Rhaptothyreidae [Rhaptothyreida]LB02
| Mazamastrongylus odocoileiLB02
| Placentonema gigantissimum Gubanov 1951L86
| Histiocephalus bucorviGi02
| Tanqua tiaraGi02
| Cylicodontostomum purvisiGi02
| AgriostomumGi02
| Allodapa suctoriaGi02
| StegophorusGi02
| StriatofilariaGi02
| Setaria digitataB02
| Cyathospirura seuratiGi02
| Ternidens deminutusGi02
| Streptopharagus pigmentatusGi02
| Gyalocephalus capitatusGi02
| Bunostomum Railliet 1902C92
| `--B. trigonocephalumMM02
| HexametraGi02
| Hyostrongylus rubidusGi02
| Parostertagia heterospiculumGi02
| Ashworthius pattoniGi02
| Hoplodontophorus flagellumGi02
| ParacooperiaGi02
| RhabditolaimusL02a
| Ollulanus tricuspisL02a
| Probstmayria viviparaMM02
| MesodiplogasterL02a
| |--M. biformisGe02
| `--M. lheritieriL02a
| Labronema vulvapapillatumL02a
| Metadasynemoides cristatusL02b
| Acanthonchus duplicatusL02b
| Laxus oneistusL02b
| ProoncholaimusL02b
| ChromadorinaL02c
| |--C. bioculataL02b
| `--C. viridisL02c
| Oswaldocruzia leidyiL02b
| Paracanthonchus caecusL02b, MV04
| Halichoanolaimus sonorusL02b
| AporcellaimellusL02b
| TachygonetriaMM02
| |--T. robustaMM02
| `--T. stylosaMM02
| BrumptaemiliusMM02
| Oxyspirura mansoniMM02
| DiscolaimusMM02
| Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilusMM02
| Folyella dolichopteraL02c
| MansonellaGe02
| |--M. ozzardiA71
| `--M. perstansGe02
| Pseudorhabdolaimus Soos 1937E86
| `--P. limnophilus Soos 1937E86
| Zeldia punctataGR98
| Aduncospiculum halictiGR98
| Austronema Cobb 1914BR05
| Longistrongylus curvispiculumKC07
| Spiroptera brevisubulataP89
| Controtylenchus brevicomiA-B91
| Stomachus marinusR59
| Ackertia marmotae Webster 1967MW69
| Acarincola hirsutus Warren 1941S69
| Nemavermes mackeei Schram 1973G88
| Cyathostomum Molin 1861 [incl. Trichonema Cobbold 1874 non Ker Gawl. 1802 (ICBN)]C-SCL16
| Dorylaimopsis rabalaisiWXH10
| Vasostoma longispiculaWXH10
| Stenolaimus lepturusPP64
| Scorpiophagus Størmer 1963W93
| |--S. baculiformis Størmer 1963W93
| `--S. latus Størmer 1963W93
| PulmostrongylusGC72
| |--P. fengi Hsü 1935GC72
| `--P. herpestis (Khera 1956)GC72
| Arthrocephalus herpestis Khera 1956GC72
| Diserratosomus mungoosii Mirza 1938GC72
| Sulcascaris sulcataBRW98
| Agamospirura muscarumP73
| Agamonema fanniaeP73
|--Enoplea [Penetrantia]LB02
| |--DorylaimiaLB02
| `--EnopliaLB02
`--Chromadorea [Chromadoria, Torquentia]LB02
| i. s.: DesmoscolecidaLB02
|--MonhysteridaLB02
`--+--ChromadoridaLB02
`--+--DesmodoridaLB02
`--+--AraeolaimidaLB02
`--+--PlectidaLB02
`--SecernenteaLB02

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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