Cyclophoroidea

 Palaina waterhousei, from Stanisic et al. (2010).

Belongs within: Gastropoda.
Contains: Farcimen, Megalostomatinae, Neocyclotinae, Cyclophorinae, Signepupina, Liareinae, Pupinellinae.

The Cyclophoroidea are a group of terrestrial operculate snails. Members include the Diplommatinidae, a groupfound in southeast Asia and Australasia with minute shells (less than five millimetres in height) bearing a sculpture of fine to coarse axial ribs and fine spiral ribs. The Pupinidae are another terrestrial group in which the aperture of the generally ovately pupiform shell usually bears anterior and posterior breathing canals. The mostly arboreal Cyclophoridae, found in the Old World tropics, have a conical to turbinate shell (Stanisic et al. 2010).

Characters (from Simone 2011): Shell discoid, umbilicus ample. Operculum calcareous, rounded. Salivary glands separated from each other. Esophageal insertion in middle level of stomach. Exophalic penis with opened furrow. Pallial oviduct with bursa copulatrix located in its posterior region.

<==Cyclophoroidea
    |  i. s.: Maillardinus Bandel 1991B91
    |           `--*M. sanctusclaudius Bandel 1991 [=M. sanctusclaudia]B91
    |         Diplommoptychia Maillard 1884B91
    |         Loriolina Huckriede 1967B91
    |           `--L. loryana (de Loriol 1865) [=Valvata loryana, Megalomastoma loryi]B91
    |--MaizaniidaeS11
    |    |--Maizaniella (Spiruloziana) lilliputiana (Morelet 1873)FGN07
    |    `--Maizania Bourguignat 1889BR05
    |         |--*M. olivacea Bourguignat 1889BR17
    |         `--M. preussiG78
    |--Ferussinidae [Ferussinae, Ferussininae, Strophostomatidae, Strophostomatinae]BR05
    |    |--Ferussina Grateloup 1827BR05
    |    |    `--*F. anostomaeformis Grateloup 1827BR17
    |    `--Strophostoma Deshayes 1828BR05
    |         `--*S. laevigata Deshayes 1828BR17
    |--Aciculidae [Aciculadae, Aciculoidea, Acmeidae, Acmidae, Acmeinae, Opisophthalma]BR05
    |    |--Pseudotruncatella microceras (Braun 1843)TTE93
    |    `--Acicula Hartmann 1821 [=Acme Hartmann 1821]BR05
    |         |--*A. lineata (Draparnaud 1801)BR17 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--‘Acme’ fusca [=Turbo fuscus, Carychium fuscum; incl. C. cochlea]G40
    |         `--‘Acme’ simonianaS79
    |--Megalomastomatidae [Neopupidae]S11
    |    |  i. s.: FarcimenBC01
    |    |         Acroptychia Crosse & Fischer 1877TTE93
    |    |--MegalomastomatinaeBR17
    |    `--Cochlostoma Jan 1830BR05 [Cochlostomatidae, CochlostomatinaeBR17]
    |         `--*C. maculatum (Draparnaud 1805) [=Cyclostoma maculatum]BR17
    |--Craspedopomatidae [Craspedopomatoidea]BR05
    |    |--Bolania Wenz 1914 [Bolaniidae]BR05
    |    |    `--*B. utriculosa (Sandberger 1858) [=Cyclostoma utriculosum]BR17
    |    `--Craspedopoma Pfeiffer 1847 [Craspedopomatinae]BR05
    |         |--*C. lucidum (Lowe 1831) [=Cyclostoma lucidum]BR17
    |         |--C. conoideum (Boissy 1848)TTE93
    |         |--C. insuetum (Deshayes 1863)TTE93
    |         `--C. mucronatumCC06
    |--Neocyclotidae [Neocyclotoidea]BR17
    |    |--NeocyclotinaeS11
    |    `--Amphicyclotinae [Amphicyclotidae]BR17
    |         |--Amphicyclotus Crosse & Fischer 1879 [Amphicycloteae]BR05
    |         |    `--*A. boucardi (Pfeiffer 1857) [=Cyclostoma boucardi]BR17
    |         `--Aperostoma Troschel 1847BR05 [incl. Cyrtotoma Mörch 1852G78; Aperostomatidae, Aperostomatinae, Aperostomidae]
    |              |--*A. mexicanum (Menke 1830) [=Cyclostoma mexicanum]BR17
    |              |--A. blanchetiana (Moricand 1826)S11
    |              |--A. connivens Adams 1866A66b
    |              |--A. palmeriGO06
    |              `--A. perdistinctumA66b
    |--Cyclophoridae [Holopelmata]S11
    |    |  i. s.: Hybocystis gravida (Benson 1856) [=Megalostoma gravidum, Pollicaria gravida; incl. Otopoma blennus]TC89
    |    |         ‘Calliostoma’ pollex Gould 1836TC89
    |    |         Rhaphaulus chrysalis (Pfeiffer 1852) (see below for synonymy)TC89
    |    |         Leptopoma Pfeiffer 1847 [incl. Dermatocera Adams & Adams 1855]SS10
    |    |           |--*L. vitreum (Lesson 1830) [=Cyclostoma vitreum]SS10
    |    |           |--L. minus von Martens 1867 (see below for synonymy)S88
    |    |           `--L. perlucida (Grateloup 1840) (see below for synonymy)SS10
    |    |         Montanopoma Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |    |           |--*M. bellendenker Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |    |           |--M. agniceps Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |    |           |--M. carbine Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |    |           |--M. monteithi Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |    |           `--M. walterhill Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |    |         Incidostoma tupy Simone 2004S11
    |    |         PseudariniaTTE93
    |    |         ChondrocyclusPB27
    |    |         ElectreaP92
    |    |--CyclophorinaeBR05
    |    |--Spirostoma Heude 1885 [Spirostomatidae, Spirostomatinae]BR05
    |    |    `--*S. frinianum Heude 1885BR17
    |    `--Alycaeus Baird 1850 [Alycaeidae, Alycaeinae]BR05
    |         |--*A. (Alycaeus) ‘gibbus’ (Eydoux 1838) [=Cyclostoma gibbum non Drapanarnaud 1805]BR17
    |         `--A. (Dioryx) swinhoei Adams 1866A66a
    |--Diplommatinidae [Diplommatinacea, Diplommatininae]S11
    |    |--ClostophisB66
    |    |--Diplommatoptychia conulus Maillard 1885TTE93
    |    |--Eclogarinia Iredale 1933SS10
    |    |    `--*E. gowllandi (Brazier 1875) [=Diplommatina gowllandi]SS10
    |    |--Palmatina Iredale 1944SS10
    |    |    |--*P. coxi (Adams 1868) (see below for synonymy)SS10
    |    |    `--P. quintali Iredale 1945 [incl. P. addenda Iredale 1945]SS10
    |    |--Opisthostoma Blanford 1860B66
    |    |    |--*O. nilgiricum Blanford 1860B66
    |    |    |--O. decrespigniiA66c
    |    |    |--O. fairbanki Blanford 1866B66
    |    |    `--O. retrovertens Tomlin 1938AA88
    |    |--Velepalaina Iredale 1937SS10
    |    |    |--V. beddomei (Möllendorff 1897) [incl. Diplommatina oreadis Hedley 1900. *V. oreadis]SS10
    |    |    |--V. dunkensis Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |    |    |--V. kirrama Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |    |    |--V. ravenshoe Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |    |    `--V. strangei (Benson 1853) [incl. Diplommatina australiae Benson 1855, D. bensoni Adams 1854]SS10
    |    |--Diplommatina Benson 1849SS10
    |    |    |  i. s.: D. angulata Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |    |    |         D. hypipamee Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |    |    |         D. kingiana [=Arinia kingiana]B66
    |    |    |         D. nilgirica [=Arinia nilgirica]B66
    |    |    |         D. pachycheilusB66
    |    |    |--*D. (Diplommatina) folliculus (Pfeiffer 1846) [=Bulimus folliculus]SS10
    |    |    `--D. (Diancta) martensi Adams 1866A66c
    |    |--Palaina Semper 1865SS10
    |    |    |--*P. macgillivrayi (Pfeiffer 1855) (see below for synonymy)SS10
    |    |    |--P. arborfumosa Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |    |    |--P. capillacea (Pfeiffer 1855) (see below for synonymy)SS10
    |    |    |--P. deliciosa Iredale 1944 [incl. P. padda Iredale 1944]SS10
    |    |    |--P. intercollis Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |    |    |--P. levicostulata Iredale 1944SS10
    |    |    |--P. taeniolata Quadras & Moellendorff 1894SH64
    |    |    `--P. waterhousei Iredale 1944 [incl. P. reta Iredale 1944]SS10
    |    `--Adelopoma costaricense Bartsch & Morrison 1942SH64
    `--PupinidaeS11
         |  i. s.: SignepupinaSS10
         |         Hildapina Iredale 1940SS10
         |           |--*H. subpolita (Fulton 1906) [=Pupina subpolita]SS10
         |           `--H. kenilworth Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |         Necopupina Iredale 1937 [incl. Ambipupina Iredale 1937, Estopupina Iredale 1937]SS10
         |           |--*N. densecostata (Fulton 1906) [=Pupinella densecostata; incl. Pupina coxi Morelet 1864]SS10
         |           |--N. costata (Hedley & Musson 1892)SS10
         |           |--N. jonesae Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--N. monticula Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--N. patcouperi Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--N. percyensis Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--N. pettardi (Crosse 1874) [incl. Pupina macleayi Brazier 1875]SS10
         |           |--N. planilabris (Pfeiffer 1864) [incl. Pupinella whartoni Cox 1864]SS10
         |           `--N. simplex (Fulton 1906)SS10
         |         Cordillerapina Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           `--*C. aguatropica Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |         Hedleya Cox 1892SS10
         |           |--*H. macleayi Cox 1892 [incl. H. shafferyi Iredale 1940]SS10
         |           |--H. agnimontana Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--H. cylindrica Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--H. montlewis Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--H. multivolva Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--H. tribula Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           `--H. umbilicata Odhner 1917SS10
         |         Alpinipupina Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           `--*A. griffithsi Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |         Suavocallia Iredale 1933SS10
         |           |--*S. splendens (Dohrn 1862) [=Callia splendens]SS10
         |           |--S. finnegan Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--S. minuta Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           `--S. thorntoniana Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |         Cyclomastoma pachygaster Hrubesch 1965TTE93
         |         Rognacia abbreviata (Matheron 1842)TTE93
         |--LiareinaeBR05
         |--PupinellinaeBR05
         `--PupininaeBR05
              |--*Arinia minor (Sowerby 1843)B66, S43 [=Cyclostoma minusB66]
              `--Pupina Vignard 1829 [Operculaceae, Pupiniana, Pupinini]BR05
                   |--*P. keradrini Vignard 1829BR17
                   |--P. antiquataS41
                   |--P. artataB66
                   |--P. exiguaS41
                   |--P. humilisS41
                   |--P. lubricaS41
                   |--P. nunezii (Grateloup 1840) [=Moulinsia nunezii]S41
                   |--P. pellucidaS41
                   |--P. pineticola Cox 1866C66
                   |--P. similisS41
                   `--P. vitreaS41

*Acicula lineata (Draparnaud 1801)BR17 [=Bulimus lineatusBR17, *Acme lineataBR17, Auricula lineataG40, Carychium lineatumG40, Cyclostoma lineatumG40]

Leptopoma minus von Martens 1867 [=L. vitreum minus, L. pellucidum minor (l. c.), L. perlucidum minus; incl. L. bicolor Tapparone-Canefri 1883 non Pfeiffer 1852]S88

Leptopoma perlucida (Grateloup 1840) [incl. Cyclostoma nitidum Sowerby 1843, L. nitidum ultra Iredale 1937]SS10

Palaina capillacea (Pfeiffer 1855) [incl. P. capillacea definita Iredale 1944, P. howeinsulae Iredale 1944, P. nicholsae Iredale 1944]SS10

*Palaina macgillivrayi (Pfeiffer 1855) [=Diplommatina macgillivrayi; incl. P. macgillivrayi pusillior Iredale 1944, P. macgillivrayi semilevis Iredale 1944]SS10

*Palmatina coxi (Adams 1868) [=Palaina coxi; incl. Palm. norfolkensis Preston 1913, Diplommatina wisemani Brazier 1870]SS10

Rhaphaulus chrysalis (Pfeiffer 1852) [=Cyclostoma chrysalis, Anaulus chrysalis, Megalostoma chrysalis, Pollicaria chrysalis, Raphaulus chrysalis]TC89

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A66a] Adams, H. 1866a. Descriptions of fifteen new species of land and freshwater shells from Formosa, collected by Robert Swinhoe, Esq., consul at Taiwan in that island. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 316–319.

[A66b] Adams, H. 1866b. List of land and freshwater shells collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the Upper Amazons, and on the River Ucayali, eastern Peru, with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 440–445.

[A66c] Adams, H. 1866c. Descriptions of six new species of shells, and note on Opisthostoma de-Crespignii. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 445–447.

[AA88] Auffenberg, K., & T. Auffenberg. 1988. Density, spatial distribution, activity patterns, and biomass of the land snail, Geophorus bothropoma Moellendorff (Prosobranchia: Helicinidae). Nautilus 102 (1): 40–45.

[B91] Bandel, K. 1991. Gastropods from brackish and fresh water of the Jurassic–Cretaceous transition (a systematic reevaluation). Berliner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, Reihe A 134: 9–55.

[B66] Blanford, W. T. 1866. On Opisthostoma, H. Blanford, with the description of a new species from the neighbourhood of Bombay, and of the animal and operculum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 447–450.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[CC06] Cameron, R. A. D., L. M. Cook, G. A. Goodfriend & M. B. Seddon. 2006. Fossil land snails of Porto Santo, Madeiran archipelago: change and stasis in Pleistocene to Recent times. Malacologia 49 (1): 25–59.

[C66] Cox, J. C. 1866. Characters of six new Australian land-shells. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 373–375.

[FGN07] Fontaine, B., O. Gargominy & E. Neubert. 2007. Land snail diversity of the savanna/forest mosaic in Lopé National Park, Gabon. Malacologia 49 (2): 313–338.

[G78] Girardi, E.-L. 1978. The Samoan land snail genus Ostodes (Mollusca: Prosobranchia: Poteriidae). Veliger 20 (3): 191–250.

[GO06] Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (20): 7723–7728.

[G40] Gray, J. E. 1840. A Manual of the Land and Fresh-water Shells of the British Islands, with figures of each of the kinds. By William Turton, M.D. A new edition, thoroughly revised and much enlarged. Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans: London.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[S79] Scharff, R. 1879. The conchological fauna in the alluvium of rivers; how to procure the various species and their comparative numbers. Journal of Conchology 2: 322–325.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[S88] Solem, A. 1988. Non-camaenid land snails of the Kimberley and Northern Territory, Australia. I. Systematics, affinities and ranges. Invertebrate Taxonomy 4: 455–604.

[SH64] Solem, A., & F. Haas. 1964. Adelopoma costaricense Bartsch and Morrison, 1942, not an inhabitant of the United States. Nautilus 78 (2): 68–69.

[S41] Sowerby, G. B., Jr. 1841. Descriptions of nine species of the genus Pupina. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 9: 101–103.

[S43] Sowerby, G. B. 1843. Descriptions of new species of Cyclostoma. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 59–66.

[SS10] Stanisic, J., M. Shea, D. Potter & O. Griffiths. 2010. Australian Land Snails vol. 1. A. field guide to eastern Australian species. Bioculture Press: Mauritius.

[TC89] Tapparone Canefri, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVIII.—Molluschi terrestri e d’acqua dolce. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 295–359.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

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