Cyclopidae

Selected features of Metacyclops subdolus, from Pesce (1978).

Belongs within: Podoplea.
Contains: Halicyclops, Neocyclops, Eucyclops, Acanthocyclops, Diacyclops, Graeteriella, Bryocyclops, Speocyclops, Mesocyclops, Cyclops, Thermocyclops.

The Cyclopidae are a group of copepods, most diverse in fresh water, in which both mandibular and maxillary palps are rudimentary (Sars 1913).

Characters (from Sars 1913): General form of the body with anterior division more or less dilated, posterior much narrower and attenuated. Head confluent with first pedigerous segment, rostrum bent in against ventral face. Anterior antennae more or less elongated and strongly hinged in male. Posterior antennae generally four-segmented, with an elongated seta at the end of the first segment posteriorly. Anterior lip with terminal edge finely denticulate. Mandibles with palp reduced to small knob-like process carrying two or three ciliated setae. Maxillae with palp likewise imperfectly developed, without any distinctly-defined outer appendages. Natatory legs well developed, with subequal triarticulate rami, though in some instances the number of segments in the rami may be reduced. Last pair of legs generally small and of the same appearance in the two sexes.

<==Cyclopidae
    |--HalicyclopinaeKT09
    |    |--HalicyclopsS-MR03
    |    `--NeocyclopsH86
    |--Euryte Philippi 1843H86 [EuryteinaeKT09]
    |    |--E. curticornis Sars 1913S13
    |    |--E. longicauda Philippi 1843 [incl. Thorellia brunnea, Cyclopina clausi, Cyclops nigricauda]S13
    |    |--E. pseudorobusta Vervoort 1964H86
    |    `--E. robustaS13
    |--EucyclopinaeKT09
    |    |--EucyclopsKT09
    |    |--Ectocyclops Brady 1904KT09
    |    |--Ochridacyclops Kiefer 1937KT09
    |    |--Macrocyclops Claus 1893KT09
    |    |    `--M. albidus (Jurine 1820)S-MR03
    |    |--Homocyclops Forbes 1897KT09
    |    |    `--H. ater Herrick 1882S-MR03
    |    |--Austriocyclops Kiefer 1964KT09
    |    |    `--*A. vindobonae Kiefer 1964L-M86
    |    |--Thaumasiocyclops Kiefer 1930KT09
    |    |    `--T. insulanus Kiefer 1930KT09
    |    |--Afrocyclops Sars 1927KT09
    |    |    `--A. gibsoniKT09
    |    |         |--A. g. gibsoniKT09
    |    |         `--A. g. abbreviatus (Kiefer 1933)KT09
    |    |--Paracyclops Claus 1893KT09
    |    |    |--P. aioiensis Ito 1957L-M86
    |    |    |--P. chiltoni (Thompson 1882)S-MR03
    |    |    |--P. fimbriatus (Fischer 1853)S-MR03
    |    |    |--P. imminutus Kiefer 1929FS14
    |    |    `--P. uenoi Ito 1962L-M86
    |    |--Australoeucyclops Karanovic 2006KT09
    |    |    |--*A. karaytugi Karanovic 2006KT09
    |    |    |--A. darwini Karanovic & Tang 2009KT09
    |    |    |--A. eucyclopoides (Kiefer 1929) [=Paracyclops eucyclopoides]KT09
    |    |    |--A. linderi (Lindberg 1948) [=Eucyclops linderi, Paracyclops linderi]KT09
    |    |    |--A. timmsi (Kiefer 1969) [=Paracyclops timmsi]KT09
    |    |    `--A. waiariki (Lewis 1974) [=Paracyclops waiariki]KT09
    |    `--Tropocyclops Kiefer 1927KT09
    |         |--T. jamaicensis Reid & Janetzky 1996KT09
    |         |--T. matanoensis Defaye 2007KT09
    |         `--T. prasinus (Fischer 1860)S-MR03
    |              |--T. p. prasinusS-MR03
    |              |--T. p. aztequei Lindberg 1955S-MR03
    |              `--T. p. mexicanus (Kiefer 1938)S-MR03
    `--CyclopinaeKT09
         |--AcanthocyclopsL-M86
         |--DiacyclopsL-M86
         |--GraeteriellaL-M86
         |--BryocyclopsL-M86
         |--SpeocyclopsL-M86
         |--MesocyclopsG-AS-M03
         |--CyclopsE75
         |--ThermocyclopsL-M86
         |--Kieferiella Lescher-Moutoué 1976L-M86
         |    `--*K. delamarei (Lescher-Moutoué 1971)L-M86
         |--Psammocyclops Kiefer 1955L-M86
         |    `--*P. excellens Kiefer 1955L-M86
         |--Cochlacocyclops Kiefer 1955L-M86
         |    `--*C. ateles Kiefer 1955L-M86
         |--Teratocyclops Plesa 1981L-M86
         |    `--T. cubensis Plesa 1981L-M86
         |--Cryptocyclops Sars 1927L-M86
         |    `--C. uviranus Kiefer 1958L-M86
         |--Psammophilocyclops Fryer 1956L-M86
         |    |--P. bispinosus Shen & Tai 1964L-M86
         |    |--P. boccaroi Fryer 1956L-M86
         |    `--P. trispinosus Shen & Tai 1964L-M86
         |--Microcylops Claus 1893L-M86
         |    |--M. arenicola Kiefer 1960L-M86
         |    |--M. obscuratus Fryer 1956L-M86
         |    |--M. operculatus (Chappuis 1917)L-M86
         |    `--M. sanfilippoi Brian 1951L-M86
         |--Megacyclops Kiefer 1927L-M86
         |    |--M. brachypus Kiefer 1954L-M86
         |    |--M. donnaldsoni (Chappuis 1929)L-M86
         |    |    |--M. d. donnaldsoniL-M86
         |    |    `--M. d. algericus Kiefer 1930L-M86
         |    `--M. dussarti Pesce & Maggi 1977L-M86
         |--Allocyclops Kiefer 1933L-M86
         |    |--*A. chappuisi Kiefer 1933L-M86
         |    |--A. botosaneanui Plesa 1981L-M86
         |    |--A. cavicola Chappuis 1951L-M86
         |    |--A. kieferi Petkovski 1971L-M86
         |    |--A. minutissimus (Kiefer 1933)L-M86
         |    `--A. ritae Dumont & Lamoot 1978L-M86
         |--Metacyclops Kiefer 1927L-M86
         |    |--M. gasparoi Stoch 1987B01
         |    |--M. paludicolaL-M86
         |    |    |--M. p. paludicolaL-M86
         |    |    `--M. p. dentatus Plesa 1981L-M86
         |    |--M. postojnae Brancelj 1987B01
         |    |--M. rudis Plesa 1981L-M86
         |    |--M. stammeri Kiefer 1938L-M86
         |    |--M. subdolus Kiefer 1938L-M86
         |    `--M. trisetosus Herbst 1957L-M86
         `--MicrocyclopsB50
              |--M. ceibaensis (Marsh 1919)S-MR03
              |--M. dubitabilis Kiefer 1934S-MR03
              |--M. echinatus Fiers & Ghenne 2000S-MR03
              |--M. rubellus (Lilljeborg 1901)S-MR03
              `--M. varicans (Sars 1863)FS14
Cyclopidae incertae sedis:
  MuscocyclopsL-M86
  GoniocyclopsL-M86
    |--G. alterL-M86
    |--G. primusL-M86
    |--G. silvestris Harding 1958L-M86
    `--G. uniarticulatus Karanovic 2004HA13
  ApocyclopsS-RM03
    |--A. dengizicus Lepeshkin 1900HA13
    `--A. panamensis (Marsh 1919)S-MR03
  Neutrocyclops brevifurca (Lowndes 1934)S-MR03
  Prehendocyclops Rocha 1999S-MR03
    |--P. abbreviatus Rocha 1999S-MR03
    |--P. boxshalli Rocha 1999S-MR03
    `--P. monchenkoi Rocha 1999S-MR03
  FierscyclopsEHH05
  Platycyclops Sars 1914S14
    |--P. affinis [=Cyclops affinis; incl. C. pygmaeus]S14
    |--P. compactus [=Cyclops compactus]S14
    |--P. fimbriatusS14 [=Cyclops fimbriatusS14; incl. Monoculus crassicornisL02, C. crassicornisS15]
    |--P. oligarthrus [=Cyclops oligarthrus]S14
    |--P. phaleratus [=Cyclops phaleratus; incl. C. canthocarpoides, C. lascivus]S14
    `--P. poppei [=Cyclops poppei]S14
  Pachycyclops Sars 1914S14
    |--P. annulicornis [=Cyclops annulicornis; incl. C. quadricornis albidus, C. gyrinus, C. tenuicornis]S14
    |--P. ater [=Cyclops ater]S14
    |--P. bistriatus [=Cyclops bistriatus; incl. C. distinctus, C. gracilicornis]S14
    `--P. signatus [=Cyclops signatus; incl. C. coronatus, C. quadricornis fuscus]S14
  Leptocyclops Sars 1914S14
    |--*L. agilis [=Cyclops agilis; incl. C. varius var. brachyura, C. proximus, C. serrulatus, C. varius]S14
    |--L. elegans [=Cyclops elegans]S14
    |--L. lilljeborgi Sars 1914S14
    |--L. macruroides [=Cyclops macruroides]S14
    |--L. macrurus [=Cyclops macrurus; incl. C. maarensis]S14
    |--L. pectinifer [=Cyclops pectinifer]S14
    |--L. prasinus [=Cyclops prasinus]S14
    `--L. speratus [=Cyclops varius var. sperata]S14

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B01] Brancelj, A. 2001. Male of Moraria radovnae Brancelj, 1988 (Copepoda: Crustacea), and notes on endemic and rare copepod species from Slovenia and neighbouring countries. Hydrobiologia 453/454: 513–524.

[B50] Brooks, J. L. 1950. Speciation in ancient lakes (concluded). Quarterly Review of Biology 25: 131–176.

[EHH05] Eberhard, S. M., S. A. Halse & W. F. Humphreys. 2005. Stygofauna in the Pilbara region, north-west Western Australia: a review. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 167–176.

[E75] Einsle, U. 1975. Revision der Gattuung Cyclops s. str. speziell der abyssorum-Gruppe. Memorie dell’Istituto Italiano di Idrobiologia 32: 57–219.

[FS14] Fiasca, B., F. Stoch, M.-J. Olivier, C. Maazouzi, M. Petitta, A. Di Cioccio & D. M. P. Galassi. 2014. The dark side of springs: what drives small-scale spatial patterns of subsurface meiofaunal assemblages? J. Limnol. 73 (1): 71–80.

[G-AS-M03] Gutiérrez-Aguirre, M. A., & E. Suárez-Morales. 2003. On the taxonomic status of two Neotropical Mesocyclops (Copepoda, Cyclopoida): evidence from upgraded descriptions. Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (3): 595–622.

[H86] Herbst, H.-V. 1986. Copepoda: Cyclopoida aus dem meeres- und brackwasser-interstitial. In: Botosaneanu, L, (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 313–320. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[HA13] Humphreys, G., J. Alexander, M. S. Harvey & W. F. Humphreys. 2013. The subterranean fauna of Barrow Island, north-western Australia: 10 years on. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 145–158.

[KT09] Karanovic, T., & D. Tang. 2009. A new species of the copepod genus Australoeucyclops (Crustacea: Cyclopoida: Eucyclopinae) from Western Australia shows the role of aridity in habitat shift and colonisation of ground water. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (3): 247–263.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 4. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L-M86] Lescher-Moutoué, F. 1986. Copepoda Cyclopoida Cyclopidae des eaux douces souterraines continentales. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 299–312. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[S13] Sars, G. O. 1913. An Account of the Crustacea of Norway with short descriptions and figures of all the species vol. 6. Copepoda. Cyclopoida pts 1–2. Oithonidae, Cyclopinidae, Cyclopidae (part). Bergen Museum: Bergen.

[S14] Sars, G. O. 1914. An Account of the Crustacea of Norway with short descriptions and figures of all the species vol. 6. Copepoda. Cyclopoida pts 5–6. Cyclopidae (continued). Bergen Museum: Bergen.

[S15] Sars, G. O. 1915. An Account of the Crustacea of Norway with short descriptions and figures of all the species vol. 6. Copepoda. Cyclopoida pts 7–8. Cyclopidae (concluded), Ascomyzontidae. Bergen Museum: Bergen.

[S-MR03] Suárez-Morales, E., & J. W. Reid. 2003. An updated checklist of the continental copepod fauna of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, with notes on its regional associations. Crustaceana 76 (8): 977–991.

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