Cymatiinae

Triton Cymatium sp., copyright Jason Marks.

Belongs within: Tonnoidea.
Contains: Cymatium (Monoplex), Cymatium (Ranularia).

The Cymatiinae, tritons and trumpet shells, are a group of predatory marine snails with usually thick and strongly sculptured shells. The whorls often bear strong varices that rarely line up with those of adjacent whorls. Some members of this group are very large; the giant triton Charonia tritonis is the second-largest living gastropod. They lay egg capsules in cup-shaped clusters in crevices or on the underside of stones (Wilson & Gillett 1971). Members of the group attack a range of invertebrate prey, including ascidians, echinoderms and other molluscs.

Characters (from Wilson & Gillett 1971, as Cymatiidae): Shell usually thick, heavy, strongly sculptured with nodules and spiral ribs, strong varices, teeth on outer lip, folds or ridges on columellar side of aperture; periostracum hairy, scaly or bristly; operculum horny.

<==Cymatiinae [Aquillidae, Cymatiidae, Cymatioidea, Lampusidae, Lampusiidae, Lotoriidae, Nyctilochidae, Septidae]
    |--Lotorium Montfort 1810BR05
    |    `--‘Murex’ lotorium Linnaeus 1758BR17 [=Cymatium (Lotoria) lotoriumW93, *Lotorium lotor Montfort 1810BR17]
    |--Simpulum Mörch 1852BR17, BR05 [Simpulidae]
    |    `--*S. rubecula (Linnaeus 1758)BR17 [=Murex rubeculaBR17, Cymatium (Septa) rubeculumW93, Septa rubeculaWBS-S15]
    |--Cabestana Röding 1798WG71 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--*C. cutacea (Linnaeus 1767)W93, BR17 [=Murex cutaceusW93, *Aquillus cutaceusBR17, *Neptunella cutaceaBR17]
    |    |--C. spengleri Perry 1811W93 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--C. tabulata (Menke 1843)W93 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Lampusia Schumacher 1817BR05
    |    |--*L. pileare (Linnaeus 1758)BR17 [=Murex pileareL58, Cymatium (Septa) pileareMP65]
    |    |--L. antillarum [incl. L. tuberosum]G79
    |    |--L. martinianaG79
    |    |--L. nicobaricum Röding 1798WG71
    |    `--L. succincta [incl. Triton americanum]G79
    |--Septa Perry 1810BR05
    |    |--*S. scarlatina Perry 1810BR17
    |    |--S. aquatile (Reeve 1844) [=Triton aquatilis]H09
    |    |--S. gemmata (Reeve 1844)W93
    |    |--S. hepatica Röding 1798WG71 [=Cymatium hepaticumW93]
    |    |--S. intermedia (Crosse 1869)WBS-S15
    |    |--S. krebsii (Mörch 1877) [=Triton krebsii, Cymatium (Septa) krebsii]MP65
    |    `--S. occidentalis (Mörch 1877) (see below for synonymy)W93
    |--Austrotriton Cossmann 1903 [incl. Charoniella Thiele 1929, Negyrina Iredale 1929]W93
    |    |--*A. radialis [=Triton radialis, Sassia (*Austrotriton) radialis]W93
    |    |--A. bassi (Angas 1869) [=Sassia (Austrotriton) bassi]W93
    |    |--A. epitrema (Tenison Woods 1877) [=Sassia (Austrotriton) epitrema]W93
    |    |--A. garrardi (Beu 1970) [=Sassia (Austrotriton) garrardi]W93
    |    |--A. gibbusBRW98
    |    |--A. mimeticus (Tate 1893) [=Sassia (Austrotriton) mimetica]W93
    |    |--A. petulans (Hedley & May 1908) [=Sassia (Austrotriton) petulans]W93
    |    `--A. subdistorta (Lamarck 1822) (see below for synonymy)W93
    `--Cymatium Röding 1798BR05 [incl. Nyctilochus Gistel 1848BR05, Tritocurrus Lesson 1842W93]
         |  i. s.: C. acclive (Hutton 1873) [=Triton acclivis]F27
         |         C. chlorostoma (Lamarck 1822) [=Triton chlorostoma]H09
         |         C. corrugatumO27
         |           |--C. c. corrugatumO27
         |           `--C. c. tremperi Dall 1907O27
         |         ‘Rissoa’ cruzensis Usticke 1969BC01
         |         C. decagoniumA27
         |         C. elongatum (Reeve 1844) [=Triton elongatus]H09
         |         C. gemmatum (Reeve 1844)BW09 [=Triton gemmatusH09]
         |         C. gracile (Reeve 1844) [=Triton gracilis]H09
         |         C. marwickiA27
         |         C. moritinctum (Reeve 1844) [=Triton moritinctus]H09
         |         C. raderi D’Attilio & Myers 1984BC01
         |         C. ranzanii (Bianconi 1851)ES88
         |         C. spengleri (Chemnitz 1795) [=Murex spengleri]H09
         |         C. tetleyi Powell & Bartrum 1929PB29
         |         C. trigonumPP64
         |         C. vestitumEO64
         |         C. waterhousi Adams & Angas 1864PB29
         |--C. (Cymatium)BR17
         |    |--*C. (C.) femorale (Linnaeus 1758) [=Murex femorale]BR17
         |    `--C. (C.) tigrinum (Broderip 1833)O27, BR05 (see below for synonymy)
         |--C. (Gelagna Schaufuss 1869) (see below for synonymy)W93
         |    |--C. (*G.) succinctum (Linnaeus 1771)W93, H09 (see below for synonymy)
         |    `--‘Lagena’ wiegmanniF66
         |--C. (Gutturnium Mörch 1852)W93
         |    `--C. (G.) muricinum (Röding 1798)W93 [incl. Triton tuberosus Lamarck 1822H09, Cymatium (*G.) tuberosumW93]
         |--C. (Linatella Gray 1857)W93
         |    |--C. (*L.) cingulatum (Lmarack 1822)ZLK11, W93 [=Cassidaria cingulataW93]
         |    |--C. (L.) cutaceum (Lamarck 1816) (see below for synonymy)W93
         |    |    |--C. c. cutaceumHJ08
         |    |    `--C. c. africanum (Adams 1854)HJ08
         |    `--C. (L.) poulsenii (Mörch 1877) [=Triton (L.) poulsenii]MP65
         |--C. (Lotoria Emerson & Old 1963)BC01
         |    `--C. (*L.) perryi Emerson & Old 1963BC01
         |--C. (Monoplex)BC01
         |--C. (Ranularia)BC01
         |--C. (Reticutriton Habe & Kosuge 1966)W93
         |    `--C. (*R.) pfeifferianum (Reeve 1844) [=Triton pfeifferianum]W93
         `--C. (Turritriton Dall 1904) [=Tritoniscus Dall 1904; incl. Particymatium Iredale 1936]W93
              |--C. (*T.) gibbosum (Broderip 1833)W93, O27 [=Triton gibbosusO27, *Tritoniscus gibbosusW93]
              |--C. (T.) labiosum (Wood 1828)W93 (see below for synonymy)
              `--‘Turritriton’ tabulatus Menke 1843WG71

Austrotriton subdistorta (Lamarck 1822) [=*Charoniella subdistorta, *Negyrina subdistorta, Sassia (Austrotriton) subdistorta; incl. S. delecta Cotton 1945]W93

Cabestana Röding 1798WG71 [=Aquillus Montfort 1810BR05, Dolarium Schluter 1838W93, Neptunella Gray 1854BR05; incl. Cymatilesta Iredale 1936W93; Neptunellina, Neptunellinae]

Cabestana spengleri Perry 1811W93 [=C. (*Cymatilesta) spengleriP61; incl. C. barthelemyi Bernardi 1857W93, C. (Cy.) bolteniana Adams 1854P61, W93]

Cabestana tabulata (Menke 1843)W93 [incl. C. (Cymatilesta) otagoensis Powell 1954P61, W93, C. (Cy.) waterhousei segregata Powell 1933P61, W93, C. (Cy.) waterhousei Adams & Angas 1864P61, W93]

Cymatium (Cymatium) tigrinum (Broderip 1833)O27, BR05 [=Triton tigrinum BR05, *Nyctilochus tigrinus BR05; incl. *Tritocurrus amophiyridisW93]

Cymatium (Gelagna Schaufuss 1869) [incl. Lagena Mörch 1852 non Walker & Jacob in Kanmacher 1798, Paralagena Dall 1904]W93

Cymatium (*Gelagna) succinctum (Linnaeus 1771)W93, H09 [=Murex succinctaW93, Argobuccinum (Paralagena) succinctumH09, H08, Linatella (*Gelagna) succinctaW93; incl. M. clandestinus Lamarck 1816H08, W93, Cymatium clandestinumBW09, *Lagena clandestinaW93, *Paralagena clandestinaW93, Cymatium confinis Brancsik 1896W93, C. cynocephala Habe & Kosuge 1967 non C. cynocephalum (Lamarck 1816)W93, C. doliata Röding 1798W93]

Cymatium (Linatella) cutaceum (Lamarck 1816) [incl. Buccinum caudatum Gmelin 1791 non Murex caudatum Gmelin 1791, Linatella caudata, Cymatium neptunia Garrard 1963]W93

Cymatium (Turritriton) labiosum (Wood 1828)W93 [=Murex labiosusH09, Cabestana labiosaMP65, Cymatium (Cabestana) labiosumMP65, Particymatium labiosaP61, Turritriton labiosusWBS-S15; incl. Triton strangei Adams & Angas 1864H09, Cymatium strangeiH09, *Particymatium strangeiW93]

Septa occidentalis (Mörch 1877) [=Cymatium occidentale; incl. C. beui Garcia-Talavera 1985, C. blacketi Iredale 1936]W93

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A27] Allan, R. S. 1927. The geology and palaeontology of the Lower Waihao Basin, south Canterbury, New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 265–309.

[BRW98] Beesley, P. L., G. J. B. Ross & A. Wells (eds) 1998. Fauna of Australia vol. 5. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Part A. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[EO64] Emerson, W. K., & W. E. Old Jr. 1964. Additional records from Cocos Island. Nautilus 77 (3): 90–92.

[ES88] Emerson, W. K., & W. E. Sage III. 1988. A new species of Vasum (Gastropoda: Turbinellidae) from off Somalia. Nautilus 102 (1): 36–39.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F66] Fraser, L. 1866. Communication of a list of mollusks collected by R. Swinhoe, Esq., in Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 146.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[H08] Hedley, C. 1908. Studies on Australian Mollusca. Part X. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 456–489, pls 7–10.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis revised 10th ed. vol. 1. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MP65] Merrill, A. S., & R. E. Petit. 1965. Mollusks new to South Carolina. Nautilus 79 (2): 58–66.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 2. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[PB29] Powell, A. W. B., & J. A. Bartrum. 1929. The Tertiary (Waitematan) molluscan fauna of Oneroa, Waiheke Island. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 60: 395–447.

[WBS-S15] Willan, R. C., C. Bryce & S. M. Slack-Smith. 2015. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: molluscs. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 287–343.

[W93] Wilson, B. 1993. Australian Marine Shells vol. 1. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part One. Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

[ZLK11] Zou, S., Q. Li & L. Kong. 2011. Additional gene data and increased sampling give new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda, within the caenogastropod phylogenetic framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 425–435.

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