Parasitic isopod Anilocra physodes, copyright Txomin Rivera.

Belongs within: Scuticoxifera.
Contains: Cirolaninae, Eurydicinae, Gnathiidae, Anthuroidea, Corallanidae, Aegidae, Epicaridea, Lironeca, Nerocila, Cymothoa, Anilocra.

The Cymothoida is a diverse group of mostly marine isopods, including both free-living and parasitic forms.

Characters (from Brandt & Poore 2003): Pleonites 1–5 free, pleonite 1 similar to others (some pleonites fused in some species). Pleotelson underside flat, without ventrolateral ridges; pleopods not enclosed laterally. Antenna 1 without scale (except in Bathynomus). Mandibular lacinia mobilis absent (present in some Anthuroidea as part of lacinia mobilis). Mandibular molar flat blade-like or conical process (sometimes absent). Maxillipedal endite, if present, rarely longer than palp article 1, distally tapering and with few setae. Dorsal coxal plate 7 similar to others. Pleopods 3–5 endopods more or less oval or rectangular, rounded dorsally. Uropodal rami ventral to pleotelson, articulating from side to side along vertical axis inside branchial spine.

    |--Cirolanidae [Cirolanoidea]BP03
    |    |  i. s.: CeratolanaBBN86
    |    |         Kensleylana Bruce & Herrando-Pérez 2005F05
    |    |           `--*K. briani Bruce & Herrando-Pérez 2005F05
    |    |         Palaega kunthi (Ammon 1882)BWW93, GH05
    |    |         Aatolana schioedtei (Miers 1884)HS15
    |    |         BooralanaHS15
    |    |         Limicolana dinjerra Bruce 1986HS15
    |    |         Plakolana mandorah Keable 1997HS15
    |    |--CirolaninaeBBN86
    |    |--EurydicinaeBBN86
    |    `--+--ConilorpheusBBN86
    |       |--OrphelanaBBN86
    |       |--Politolana concharumBBN86, M02
    |       |--Conilera Leach 1818BBN86, T08
    |       |    |--C. cylindracea Montagu 1804T08
    |       |    `--C. stygia Packard 1894BBN86
    |       `--Natatolana Bruce 1986BBN86, BP03
    |            |--N. albinotaBP03
    |            |--N. caecaBBN86
    |            |--N. californiensisBBN86
    |            |--N. pellucidaPG98
    |            |--N. taiti Keable 1997HS15
    |            |--N. vallidaPG98
    |            `--N. woodjonesi (Hale 1924)BP03
         |--Anuropus Beddard 1886 [Anuropidae]BP03
         |    |--A. kussakini Vasina 1998BP03
         |    `--A. pacificus Lincoln & Jones 1973BP03
         `--+--Protognathia Wägele & Brandt 1988 [Protognathiidae]BP03
            |    |--P. bathypelagica Wägele & Brandt 1988BP03
            |    `--P. waegeli Kussakin & Rybakov 1995BP03
               |  `--AnthuroideaBP03
                  `--+--Tridentella Richardson 1905 [Tridentellidae]BP03
                     |    |--T. benguela Brandt & Poore 2001BP03
                     |    `--T. namibia Brandt & Poore 2001BP03
                                |--Olencira praegustator (Latrobe 1802)MK83
                                |--Agarna cumulus (Haller 1880) [incl. A. carinata Schiödte & Meinert 1883]MK83
                                |--Telotha henselii (von Martens 1869)MK83
                                |    |--R. curtipinnata Bruce 1991HS15
                                |    `--R. ovata Bruce 1987BP03
                                |--Ourozeuktes Milne Edwards 1840T08
                                |    `--O. bopyroides (Lesueur 1814) [incl. O. owenii Milne Edwards 1840]T08
                                |--Cteatessa Schioedte & Meinert 1883T08
                                |    `--C. retusa (Schioedte & Meinert 1878)T08
                                |--Cterissa Schioedte & Meinert 1884T08
                                |    `--C. pterygota (Koelbel 1878)T08
                                |--Emetha Schioedte & Meinert 1883T08
                                |    `--E. audouini (Milne Edwards 1840)T08
                                |--Glossobius Schioedte & Meinert 1883T08
                                |    `--G. impressa (Say 1818)T08
                                |--Lobothorax Bleeker 1856T08
                                |    `--L. typus Bleeker 1857 [incl. Saophra aurita Schioedte & Meinert 1883, L. aurita]T08
                                |--Norileca Bruce 1990T08
                                |    `--N. indica (Milne Edwards 1840) [=Livoneca indica]T08
                                |    |--M. deplanata (Bovallius 1885)MK83
                                |    `--M. transversa Richardson 1900MK83
                                |--Elthusa Schioedte & Meinert 1884T08
                                |    |--E. raynaudii (Milne Edwards 1840)T08
                                |    `--E. vulgaris (Stimpson 1857) [=Livoneca vulgaris]T08
                                |--Ichthyoxenus Herklots 1870T08
                                |    |--I. fushanensis Tsai & Dai 1999TD03
                                |    `--I. jellinghausi Herklots 1870T08
                                |--Livoneca Leach 1818T08
                                |    |--L. californicaH47
                                |    |--L. redmanii Leach 1818T08
                                |    `--L. sinuata Koelbel 1878T08
                                |--Mothocya Costa 1851T08
                                |    |--M. epimerica Costa 1851T08
                                |    |--M. longicopaC02
                                |    |--M. nana (Schiödte & Meinert 1884) [=Irona nana]MK83
                                |    |--M. plagulophora (Haller 1880) [incl. Irona vatia Schioedte & Meinert 1884]T08
                                |    |--M. renardi (Bleeker 1857)T08
                                |    `--M. sajori Bruce 1986T08
                                `--Ceratothoa Dana 1852T08
                                     |--C. carinata Bianconi 1869T08
                                     |--C. imbricata (Fabricius 1775) [=Codonophilus imbricatus]T08
                                     |--C. impressa (Say 1818)MK83
                                     |--C. italica Schioedte & Meinert 1883T08
                                     |--C. oestroides (Risso 1826)T08
                                     |--C. oxyrrhynchaena Koelbel 1878T08
                                     `--C. parallela (Otto 1828)T08

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BBN86] Botosaneanu, L., N. Bruce & J. Notenboom. 1986. Isopoda: Cirolanidae. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 412–422. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[BP03] Brandt, A., & G. C. B. Poore. 2003. Higher classification of the flabelliferan and related Isopoda based on a reappraisal of relationships. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 893–923.

[BWW93] Briggs, D. E. G., M. J. Weedon & M. A. Whyte. 1993. Arthropoda (Crustacea excluding Ostracoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 321–342. Chapman & Hall: London.

[B78] Brusca, R. C. 1978. Studies on the cymothoid fish symbionts of the eastern Pacific (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) II. Systematics and biology of Lironeca vulgaris Stimpson 1857. Occasional Papers of the Allan Hancock Foundation New Series 2: 1–19.

[C02] Collette, B. B. 2002. Needlefishes. Family Belonidae. In: Collette, B. B. & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 287–289. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[GH05] Gaillard, C., P. Hantzpergue, J. Vannier, A.-L. Margerard & J.-M. Mazin. 2005. Isopod trackways from the Crayssac Lagerstätte, Upper Jurassic, France. Palaeontology 48 (5): 947–962.

[H47] Hatch, M. H. 1947. The Chelifera and Isopoda of Washington and adjacent regions. University of Washington Publications in Biology 10 (5): 155–274.

[HS15] Hosie, A. M., A. Sampey, P. J. F. Davie & D. S. Jones. 2015. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: crustaceans. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 247–285.

[MK83] Menzies, R. J., & W. L. Kruczynski. 1983. Isopod Crustacea (exclusive of Epicaridea). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 6 (1): 1–126.

[M02] Musick, J. A. 2002. Sturgeons. Family Acipenseridae. In: Collette, B. B. & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 83–88. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[PG98] Probert, P. K., & S. L. Grove. 1998. Macrobenthic assemblages of the continental shelf and upper slope off the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 28: 259–280.

[T08] Trilles, J.-P. 2008. Some marine isopods from the Senckenberg Research Institute (Frankfurt am Main, Germany) (Crustacea, Isopoda: Cymothoidae, Aegidae, Corallanidae, Cirolanidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 21–28.

[TD03] Tsai, M.-L., & C.-F. Dai. 2003. Cannibalism within mating pairs of the parasitic isopod, Ichthyoxenus fushanensis. Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (3): 662–668.

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