Cyperaceae

 Saw-sedge Cladium mariscus, copyright Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz.

Belongs within: Poales.
Contains: Kobresia, Chrysitricheae, Hypolytreae, Bisboeckelereae, Scleria, Cryptangieae, Schoeneae, Carpheae, Rhynchospora, Scirpeae, Eleocharis, Abildgaardieae, Fuireneae.

The Cyperaceae, sedges, are a cosmopolitan group of grass-like plants commonly found in damp, open habitats. Phylogenetic analysis supports a basal division between the subfamilies Mapanioideae and Cyperoideae. Members of the Mapanioideae produce flowers in a ‘pseudanthium’ that is believed to be derived from numerous reduced, unisexual flowers grouped tightly together to simulate a single flower. The Cyperoideae produce hermaphroditic or unisexual flowers arranged in spikelets.

Within the Cyperoideae, the Rhynchosporeae possess both hermaphroditic and unisexual flowers, with only one or two glumes (rarely more) in the middle of a spike producing flowers (Moore & Edgar 1970). Cladium, the twig rushes, has flowers lacking perianth bristles with the uppermost flowers bisexual while others are staminate (Hickman 1993). The Trilepideae have a distinctive embryo structure with a flattened scutellum and a prominent invagination over the coleoptile (Semmouri et al. 2019). The Dulichieae are a Holarctic tribe with multiple fertile flowers per spikelet, fertile spikelet prophylls and perianth bristles.

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Annual or perennial, often rhizomed, often of wet open places, generally monoecious; roots fibrous, hairy. Stem generally three-sided. Leaves often 3-ranked; sheath generally closed; ligule generally absent; blade various (rarely absent), parallel-veined. Inflorescence with spikelets variously clustered, flowers generally sessile in axil of flower bract. Flower small, generaly wind-pollinated; perianth absent or bristle-like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4-chambered; ovary superior, 1-chambered, 1-ovuled, style 2–3-branched. Fruit an achene, generally three-sided.

<==Cyperaceae [Cyperales]
    |--MapanioideaeSB19
    |    |--ChrysitricheaeSB19
    |    `--HypolytreaeSB19
    `--CyperoideaeSB19
         |--TrilepideaeSB19
         |    |--Afrotrilepis pilosaSB19
         |    `--+--Microdracoides squamosaSB19
         |       |--Trilepis lhotzkianaSB19
         |       `--ColeochloaSB19
         |            |--C. abyssinicaSB19
         |            `--C. setiferaSB19
         `--+--Cladium [Cladieae]SB19
            |    |--C. californicum [=C. mariscus var. californicum]H93
            |    |--C. costatumSB19
            |    |--C. gunnii Hook. f. 1858ME70 [incl. C. laxiflorumC06, C. nudumB78, Schoenus nudusB78, Gahnia sulcataB78]
            |    |--C. jamaicenseRJ11
            |    |--C. mariscoidesV72
            |    |--C. mariscusB78
            |    |--C. procerumB00
            |    `--C. undulatum [incl. Lepidosperma zeylanicum]B78
            `--+--+--BisboeckelereaeSB19
               |  `--ScleriaSB19
               `--+--CryptangieaeSB19
                  |--SchoeneaeSB19
                  `--+--CarpheaeSB19
                     `--+--RhynchosporeaeSB19
                        |    |--RhynchosporaCS77
                        |    |--Vincentia Gaud. 1829ME70
                        |    |    `--*V. angustifoliaME70
                        |    |--Morelotia Gaud. 1829ME70
                        |    |    |--*M. gahniaeformis [=Gahnia gahniaeformis]ME70
                        |    |    `--M. affinis (Brong.) Blake 1969 (see below for synonymy)ME70
                        |    |--Remirea maritima [incl. R. wightiana]B78
                        |    |    |--R. m. var. maritimaB78
                        |    |    `--R. m. var. pedunculataB78
                        |    `--ElynanthusB78
                        |         |--E. octandrus [=Schoenus octandrus]B78
                        |         `--E. revolutusB78
                        `--+--+--Khoosokia caricoidesSB19
                           |  `--+--DulichieaeSB19
                           |     |    |--Dulichium arundinaceumSB19
                           |     |    `--+--Blysmopsis rufaSB19
                           |     |       `--BlysmusSB19
                           |     |            |--B. compressusO88
                           |     |            `--B. sinocompressusSB19
                           |     `--ScirpeaeSB19
                           `--+--+--EleocharisSB19
                              |  `--AbildgaardieaeSB19
                              `--FuireneaeSB19
Cyperaceae incertae sedis:
  CephalocarpusYY22
  Elyna spicataYY22, C55
  FintelmanniaYY22
  HoppiaYY22
  MicroschoenusYY22
  PteroscleriaYY22
  SchoenoxiphiumYY22
  DidymiaYY22
  CohesiaYY22
  HemicarexYY22
  KobresiaO88
  VolkiellaCV06
  Cladiocarya europaeaJD05
  Caricoidea nitensJD05
  PsilocaryaV72
    |--P. nitensV72
    `--P. scirpoidesV72
  Caricopsis laxa Samylina 1960CBH93
  Cyperaceapollis Krutzsch 1970CBH93
  Asterochaete Nees 1834KC01
  Chaetospora Br. 1918KC01
  Durandia Boeck. 1896KC01
  Vaginaria Rich. ex Pers. 1805KC01
  Chaetodiscus gilberti (n. d.)B78
  RhynchocladiumSB19

Morelotia affinis (Brong.) Blake 1969 [=Lampocarya affinis Brong. 1829, Gahnia affinis (Brong.) Steud. 1855, Machaerina affinis (Brong.) Kern 1962, Mariscus affinis (Brong.) Kuntze 1891, Gahnia arenaria Hook. f. 1864; incl. Morelotia gahniaeformis var. minor Rich. 1832]ME70

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B78] Bentham, G. 1878. Flora Australiensis: A description of the plants of the Australian Territory vol. 7. Roxburghiaceae to Filices. L. Reeve & Co.: London.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185–273.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[SB19] Semmouri, I., K. Bauters, É. Léveillé-Bourret, J. R. Starr, P. Goetghebeur & I. Larridon. 2019. Phylogeny and systematics of Cyperaceae, the evolution and importance of embryo morphology. Botanical Review 85: 1–39.

[V72] Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

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