Globular chickpea cowry
Pustularia globulus, copyright In-Depth Images Kwajalein.

Belongs within: Cypraeoidea.
Contains: Erosariini, Zoila, Cypraeinae, Luriinae, Zonaria, Cypraeovulini, Bistolidini, Erroneini.

The Cypraeidae, cowries, are a cosmopolitan group of marine gastropods characterised by highly polished, involute shells with the aperture running almost the full length of the shell and borded in adults by raised transverse ridges or teeth. In life, the bilobed mantle extends on both sides of the animal to cover the shell (Wilson & Gillett 1971).

<==Cypraeidae [Cypraeacea, Cypraeadae]
|–Erosariinae [Staphylaeinae] M03
|    |  i. s.: Naria Gray 1837 [Nariinae, Nariini] BR05
|    |           `–*N. irrorata (Gray 1837) [=Cypraea irrorata] BR17
|    |–Ipsa childreni Gray 1825 M03
|    `–Erosariini M03
`–Gisortiinae [Bernayinae, Gisortiidae] BR05
|  i. s.: Gisortia Jousseaume 1884 [Gisortiini] BR05
|           `–*G. gisortiana (Passy 1859) [=Ovula gisortiana] BR17
|         Archicypraea Schilder 1926 [Archicypraeinae, Archicypraeini] BR05
|           `–*A. lioyi (Bayan 1870) [=Cypraea lioyi] BR17
|         Barycypraea M03
|           |–B. fultoni M03
|           `–B. teulerei M03
|         Bernaya Jousseaume 1884 [Bernayini] BR05
|           |–*B. media (Deshayes 1835) [=Cypraea media] BR17
|           |–B. depereti K96
|           |–B. tithonica (Di-Stefano 1882) [=Cypraea tithonica] K96
|           `–B. yunshanensis Yu & Zhu 1983 YZ83
|         Protocypraea BD12
|           |–P. gemmelaroi (Di-Stefano 1882) K96 (see below for synonymy)
|           `–P. mississippiensis (Groves 1990) [=Bernaya (Protocypraea) mississippiensis] BD12
|         Cypraeorbis Conrad 1865 [Cypraeorbinae, Cypraeorbini] BR05
|           `–*C. sphaeroides (Conrad 1848) [=Cypraea sphaeroides] BR17
|         Mandolina Bayle in Jousseaume 1884 [Mandolininae, Mandolinini] BR05
|           `–‘Cypraea’ polysarca Cossmann 1903 (see below for synonymy) BR17
|–Umbilia Jousseaume 1884 M03, BR05 [Umbiliidae, Umbiliinae, Umbiliini]
|    |–U. armeniaca Verco 1912 M03 [=Cypraea (Umbilia) armeniaca WG71, C. hesitata armeniaca D77]
|    `–+–U. capricornica Lorenz 1989 M03
|       `–U. hesitata Iredale 1916 M03 [=Cypraea (Umbilia) hesitata WG71]
|            |–U. h. hesitata M03
|            |–U. h. beddomi (Schilder 1930) M03, WG71 [=Cypraea hesitata beddomi WG71]
|            `–U. h. howelli (Iredale 1931) M03, WG71 [=Cypraea hesitata howelli WG71]
`–+–Zoila M03
`–+–Cypraeinae M03
`–+–Luriinae M03
`–Pustulariinae BR05
|–+–+–Zonaria M03
|  |  `–+–Cypraeovulini M03
|  |     `–Erroneinae M03
|  |          |–Bistolidini M03
|  |          `–Erroneini M03
|  `–+–Neobernaya spadicea Swainson 1823 M03
|     `–Pseudozonaria Schilder 1927 M03, BR17 [Pseudozonariinae, Pseudozonariini]
|          |  i. s.: P. aequinoctialis M03
|          |         P. nigropunctata M03
|          |         P. portelli (Petuch 1990) M03
|          |–P. annettae Dall 1909 M03
|          `–+–*P. arabicula (Lamarck 1810) BR17, M03 (see below for synonymy)
|             `–P. robertsi (Hildalgo 1906) M03
`–Pustularia Swainson 1840 M03, BR05 [Pustulariini]
|  i. s.: P. chiapponii M03
|         P. consobrina [=Trivia (Pustularia) consobrina] G79
|         P. granulata [=Trivia (Pustularia) granulata] G79
|         P. jandeprezi Poppe & Martin 1997 BC01
|         P. limacina [=Trivia (Pustularia) limacina] G79
|         P. mariae (Schilder 1927) K96
|         P. madagascarensis [=Trivia (Pustularia) madagascarensis] G79
|         P. nucleus [=Trivia (Pustularia) nucleus] G79
|–P. globulus (Linnaeus 1758) M03 [=Cypraea globulus WG71]
|    |–P. g. globulus M03
|    `–P. g. brevirostris Schilder & Schilder 1938 M03
`–+–+–*P. cicercula (Linnaeus 1758) BR17, M03 (see below for synonymy)
|  `–P. margarita Dillwyn 1817 M03
`–+–P. bistrinotata Schilder & Schilder 1937 M03 [=Cypraea bistrinotata WG71]
`–P. mauiensis (Burgess 1967) M03 [=Cypraea mauiensis BC01]

Cypraeidae incertae sedis:
Schilderia M03
|–S. achatidea M03
`–S. sakuraii Habe 1970 K96
Propustularia surinamensis M03
Conocypraea Oppenheim 1901 [Conocypraeini] BR05
`–*C. persona (Oppenheim 1901) [=Cypraea persona] BR17
Ravitrona caputserpentis (Linné 1758) S11
Vicetia ogormani Cossmann 1923 K96
Jousseaumea [incl. Fossacypraea Schilder 1939] K96
Prozonarina K96
Siphocypraea problematica Heilprin 1886 K96, HP04
Zonarina K96
Palaeocypraea K96
|  i. s.: P. tithonica Stefano 1882 TTE93
`–P. (Pustulariopsis Schilder 1941) K96
Proadusta K96
‘Janthina’ cimbrica Sorgenfrei 1958 TTE93

‘Cypraea’ polysarca Cossmann 1903 [=C. gibbosa Borson 1820 non Schroeter 1804, *Mandolina gibbosa] BR17

Protocypraea gemmelaroi (Di-Stefano 1882) K96 [=Cypraea gemmelaroi K96, Bernaya (Protocypraea) gemmellaroi YZ83]

*Pseudozonaria arabicula (Lamarck 1810) BR17, M03 [=Cypraea arabicula BR17, Aricia arabicula C64]

*Pustularia cicercula (Linnaeus 1758) BR17, M03 [=Cypraea cicercula WG71; incl. C. lienardi Jousseaume 1874 D77]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BD12] Bandel, K., & D. T. Dockery III. 2012. Protoconch characters of Late Cretaceous Latrogastropoda (Neogastropoda and Neomesogastropoda) as an aid in the reconstruction of the phylogeny of the Neogastropoda. Freiberger Forschungshefte C542 (psf 20): 93–128.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[D77] Donohue, J. 1977. Cypraea: a list of the species. III. Veliger 20 (2): 159–162.

[G79] Garrett, A. 1879. Annotated catalogue of the species of Cypraeidae collected in the S. Sea islands. Journal of Conchology 2: 105–128.

[HP04] Herbert, G. S., & R. W. Portell. 2004. First paleontological record of larval brooding in the calyptraeid gastropod genus Crepidula Lamarck, 1799. Journal of Paleontology 78 (2): 424–429.

[K96] Kay, E. A. 1996. Evolutionary radiations in the Cypraeidae. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 211–220. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[M03] Meyer, C. P. 2003. Molecular systematics of cowries (Gastropoda: Cypraeidae) and diversification patterns in the tropics. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 401–459.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

[YZ83] Yu W. & Zhu X.-G. 1983. Some Late Mesozoic gastropods from eastern Heilongjiang. In: Fossils from the Middle-Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous in Eastern Heilongjiang Province, China pp. 87–99. Heilongjiang Science and Technology Publishing House.

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