Likely individual of Eucypris virens, copyright Ukwildlifeo.

Belongs within: Cypridocopina.
Contains: Stenocypridini, Cypris.

The Cyprididae are a group of ostracods found in marine and fresh waters with a generally smooth carapace lacking interlocking teeth in the dorsal hinge. The furcal rami are typically well developed in the subfamily Cypridinae but are reduced to a base ending distally in a seta in the Cypridopsinae (Benson et al. 1961). The Disopontocypridinae of south-eastern Europe have a comparatively wide pore-canal zone with numerous straight canals, and the inner lamellae well developed anteriorly (Benson et al. 1961). Cyprettinae differ from other subfamilies in the presence of septae on the valve margins.

Characters (from Benson et al. 1961): Carapace variable in shape and size (to several mm in length), typically subovoid to subtriangular, with greatest height median to anteromedian, posterior end more pointed than anterior; left valve generally larger than right valve; surface commonly with tiny pits, pustules, or reticulations. Hinge line curved or rarely long and straight, consisting of groove in larger valve for reception of simple edge of smaller valve; muscle scars comprising rather compact median to anteromedian groups of four or five spots and one or two additional anteroventral spots.

<==Cyprididae [Cypridae]
    |  i. s.: Pseudostenocypria Schneider 1962M01
    |         PattersoncyprisM03
    |         Koencypris Meisch 2000K08
    |           `--*K. ornata (Müller 1776) [=Eucypris ornata]K08
    |         MytilocypridiniK08
    |         Djungarica yunnanensis Ye et al. 1977WSB93
    |--Megalocypris Sars 1898BB61 [MegalocypridinaeK08]
    |    `--*M. princeps Sars 1898BB61
    |--Scottia Brady & Norman 1889BB61 [=Scottiana Carus 1890BB61; ScottiinaeK08, Scottini]
    |    `--*S. browniana (Jones 1850) [=Cypris browniana, *Scottiana browniana]BB61
    |--Liocypris Sars 1924 [Liocypridinae]M03
    |    |--*L. grandis Sars 1924M03
    |    `--L. crassa Grekoff 1957M03
    |    |  i. s.: ‘Ilyodromus’ amplicollis de Deckker 1981M01
    |    |         ‘Ilyodromus’ dikrus de Deckker 1981M01
    |    `--Isocypris Müller 1909 [incl. Hyalocypris Brady 1913]BB61
    |         |--*I. priomena Müller 1909BB61
    |         `--I. perangustaM03
    |--Cyprettinae [Cyprettini]K08
    |    |--Batucypretta Victor & Fernando 1980DH86
    |    |    `--B. paradoxa Victor & Fernando 1980DH86
    |    `--Cypretta Vávra 1895DH86 [incl. Cypridella Vávra 1895 non De Koninck 1841BB61]
    |         |--*C. tenuicauda (Vávra 1895) [=Cypridopsis (*Cypretta) tenuicauda]BB61
    |         |--C. dubiosaBB61
    |         `--C. fontinalis Hartmann 1964DH86
    |--Disopontocypridinae [Disopontocyprinae]BB61
    |    |--Disopontocypris Mandelstam 1956BB61
    |    |    `--*D. oligocaenica (Zalanyi 1929) [=Pontocypris oligocaenica]BB61
    |    |--Caspiocypris Mandelstam 1956BB61
    |    |    `--*C. candida (Livental 1929) [=Bairdia candida]BB61
    |    |--Caspiolla Mandelstam 1960 [=Caspiella Mandelstam 1956 non Thiele 1928]BB61
    |    |    `--*C. acronasuta (Livental 1929) [=Bairdia acronasuta, *Caspiella acronasuta]BB61
    |    |--Pontoniella Mandelstam 1960 [=Pontonella Mandelstam 1956]BB61
    |    |    `--*P. acuminata (Zalanyi 1929) [=Paracypria acuminata, *Pontonella acuminata]BB61
    |    `--Reginacypris Schneider 1960M61
    |         `--*R. abcissa (Reuss 1850) [=Cytherina abcissa]BB61
    |--Herpetocypridinae [Herpetocyprinae]K08
    |    |--StenocypridiniM01
    |    |--Herpetocypridini [Erpetocypridina, Herpetocyprini]M01
    |    |    |--Candonocypris Sars 1896M01
    |    |    |    `--C. novaezelandiae (Baird 1843) [incl. Cypris candonioides King 1855, *Candonocypris candonioides]M01
    |    |    |--Herpetocypris Brady & Norman 1889M01 [=Erpetocypris Brady & Norman 1889BB61]
    |    |    |    `--*H. reptans (Baird 1835)M01 [=Cypris reptansM01, Candona reptansBB61, *Erpetocypris reptansBB61]
    |    |    `--Ilyodromus Sars 1894M01
    |    |         `--*I. stanleyana (King 1855) [=Candona stanleyana]M01
    |    `--PsychrodrominiM01
    |         |--Psychrodromus Danielopol & McKenzie 1977M01
    |         |    `--*P. olivacea (Brady & Norman 1889) [=Herpetocypris olivacea]M01
    |         |--Humphycypris Martens 1997M01
    |         |    `--‘Stenocypris’ condarensis Akatova 1950 [=S. subterranea Hartmann 1964, *Humphycypris subterranea]M01
    |         `--Somalicypris Martens 1997M01
    |              `--*S. uegitia (Masi 1925) [=Acocypris uegitia]M01
    |--Cypricercinae [Cypricercini]PF09
    |    |  i. s.: ‘Cyprinotus’ trispinosus Pinto & Purper 1965K08
    |    |--Astenocypris Müller 1912M01 [=Leptocypris Sars 1903 non Boulenger 1900BB61]
    |    |    `--*A. papyracea (Sars 1903) [=*Leptocypris papyracea]BB61
    |    |--Cypricercus Sars 1895BB61
    |    |    |--*C. cuneatus Sars 1895BB61
    |    |    `--C. reticulatusBB61
    |    |--Bradleystrandesia Broodbakker 1983PF09
    |    |    |--B. affinis (Fischer 1851) (see below for synonymy)PF09
    |    |    |--B. fuscata (Jurine 1820) (see below for synonymy)PF09
    |    |    `--B. hirsuta (Fischer 1851) [=Cypris hirsuta, Cypricercus hirsutus, Eucypris affinis hirsuta]PF09
    |    `--Strandesia Stuhlmann 1888DH86 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--*S. mercatorum (Vávra 1895) [=Cypris (*Strandesia) mercatorum]BB61
    |         |--S. bicuspis [=*Acanthocypris bicuspis]BB61
    |         |--S. botosaneanui Broodbakker 1983DH86
    |         |--S. cavernicola Broodbakker 1983DH86
    |         `--S. centruraBB61
    |--Cyprinotinae [Cyprinotini]K08
    |    |--Hemicypris Sars 1903K08
    |    |    `--*H. pyxidata (Moniez 1892) [=Cyprinotus pyxidata]BB61
    |    |--Homocypris Sars 1924K08
    |    |    `--*H. conoidea Sars 1924BB61
    |    |--Heterocypris Claus 1892K08
    |    |    |--*H. incongruens (Ramdohr 1808) [=Cypris incongruens]BB61
    |    |    |--H. rotundata (Bronstein 1928)F08
    |    |    `--H. salinaA99
    |    `--Cyprinotus Brady 1886K08 [incl. Cypridonotus Claus 1892BB61]
    |         |  i. s.: C. carinatus (King 1855)K08
    |         |         C. fuscus Henry 1919K08
    |         |         C. subtriangularisNG13
    |         |--C. (Cyprinotus)BB61
    |         |    |--*C. (Cyprinotus) cingalensis Brady 1886 (see below for synonymy)K08
    |         |    `--C. (C.) salinusBB61
    |         `--C. (Cyprinotoides Masi 1928)BB61
    |              `--C. (*C.) somalicus Masi 1928BB61
    |--Cypridopsinae [Cypridopsides, Cypridopsini]K08
    |    |--Cypridopsella Kaufmann 1900 [incl. Candonella Claus 1891]BB61
    |    |    `--*C. villosa (Jurine 1820) [=Monoculus villosus]BB61
    |    |--Cyprilla Sars 1924BB61
    |    |    `--*C. arcuata Sars 1924BB61
    |    |--Paracypridopsis Kaufmann 1900 [incl. Poracypridopsis Kaufmann 1900]BB61
    |    |    `--*P. zschokkei Kaufmann 1900BB61
    |    |--Cavernocypris Hartmann 1964F08
    |    |    |--C. lindbergi Hartmann 1964DH86
    |    |    `--C. subterranea (Wolf 1920)F08
    |    |--Neocypridopsis Klie 1940DH86
    |    |    |--*N. debilis Klie 1940BB61
    |    |    |--N. mexicana Furtos 1936DH86
    |    |    `--N. yucatanensis Furtos 1936DH86
    |    |--Potamocypris Brady 1870BB61
    |    |    |--*P. fulva (Brady 1868) [=Bairdia fulva]BB61
    |    |    |--P. gregariaD01
    |    |    `--P. newtoni [=Cypridopsis newtoni]D01
    |    `--Cypridopsis Brady 1868DH86 [=Pionocypris Brady & Norman 1896BB61; incl. Proteocypris Brady 1905BB61]
    |         |--*C. vidua (Müller 1776)BB61 [=Cypris viduaBB61, Monoculus viduatusL02, *Pionocypris viduaBB61]
    |         |--C. aculeataS61
    |         `--C. coreana McKenzie 1972DH86
    |              |--C. c. coreanaDH86
    |              `--C. c. elongata McKenzie 1972DH86
    |--Eucypridinae [Eucypridae, Eucyprinae, Eucyprini]K08
    |    |--Alboa De Deckker 1981K08
    |    |--Tonnacypris Diebel & Pietrzeniuk 1975K08
    |    |--Prionocypris Brady & Norman 1896K08
    |    |    `--*P. serrata (Norman 1862) [=Candona serrata]BB61
    |    |--Trajancypris Martens 1989K08
    |    |    `--T. laevis (Müller 1900)F08
    |    |--Amphicypris Sars 1901BB61, M03 [incl. Cypriconcha Sars 1926M03]
    |    |    `--‘Cypris’ barbata Forbes 1893 [=*Cypriconcha barbata]BB61
    |    |--Riocypris Klie 1935K08
    |    |    |--*R. uruguayensis Klie 1935K08
    |    |    |--R. fitzroyi (McKenzie 1966) [=Candonocypris fitzroyi]K08
    |    |    |--R. fontana (Graf 1931) [=Eucypris fontana]K08
    |    |    |--R. hinzeae Karanovic 2008 [=R. hinzei]K08
    |    |    `--R. oblonga (Sars 1896) [=Eucypris oblonga]K08
    |    `--Eucypris Vávra 1891K08
    |         |--*E. virens (Jurine 1820) [=Monoculus virens]BB61
    |         |--E. clavataD01
    |         |--E. conchaceaD01
    |         |--E. crassaBB61
    |         |--E. fasciataD01
    |         |--E. fischeriD01
    |         |--E. incongruensD01
    |         `--E. inflataF08
    `--Cypridinae [Advenocyprinae, Baturinellinae, Cypriformes, Cyprinae, Hungarocyprini, Mediocyprinae]K08
         |--Advenocypris Schneider 1956BB61
         |    `--*A. alpherovi Schneider 1956BB61
         |--Amplocypris Zalanyi 1944BB61
         |    `--*A. sinuosa Zalanyi 1944BB61
         |--Baturinella Schneider 1956BB61
         |    `--*B. kubanica Schneider 1956BB61
         |--Bradycypris Sars 1924BB61
         |    `--*B. intumescens (Brady 1907) [=Cypris intumescens]BB61
         |--Centrocypris Vávra 1895BB61
         |    `--*C. horrida Vávra 1895BB61
         |--Dogelinella Schneider in Mandelstam et al. 1957BB61
         |    `--*D. taeniata Schneider in Mandelstam et al. 1957BB61
         |--Dolerocypris Kaufmann 1900BB61
         |    `--*D. fasciata (Müller 1785)BB61 [=Cypris fasciataBB61, Monoculus fasciatusL02]
         |--Drieschia Brehm 1923BB61
         |    `--*D. mammillata Brehm 1923BB61
         |--Exuocypris Mandelstam 1956BB61
         |    `--*E. extorris Mandelstam 1956BB61
         |--Globocypris Klie 1939BB61
         |    `--*G. trisetosa Klie 1939BB61
         |--Hemicyprinotus Schneider in Mandelstam et al. 1957BB61
         |    `--*H. valvaetumidus Schneider in Mandelstam et al. 1957BB61
         |--Hungarocypris Vávra 1906BB61
         |    `--*H. madaraszi (Orley 1886) [=Notodromas madaraszi]BB61
         |--Kassinina Mandelstam 1960 [=Kassinia Mandelstem 1956 non Chabakov 1937]BB61
         |    `--*K. kassini (Mandelstam 1956) [=*Kassinia kassini]BB61
         |--Mediocypris Schneider 1956BB61
         |    `--*M. brodi Schneider 1956BB61
         |--Mesocypris Daday 1908BB61
         |    `--*M. pubescens Daday 1908BB61
         |--Moenocypris Triebel 1959BB61
         |    `--*M. francofurtana Triebel 1959BB61
         |--Mongolianella Mandelstam 1956BB61
         |    `--*M. palmosa Mandelstam 1956BB61
         |--Neozonocypris Klie 1944BB61
         |    `--*N. congensis Klie 1944BB61
         |--Oncocypria Daday 1908BB61
         |    `--*O. muelleri Daday 1908BB61
         |--Pachycypris Claus 1893BB61
         |    `--*P. incisa Claus 1893BB61
         |--Paracypretta Sars 1924BB61
         |    `--*P. ampullacea Sars 1924BB61
         |--Paracyprinotus Schneider in Mandelstam et al. 1957BB61
         |    `--*P. similis Schneider in Mandelstam et al. 1957BB61
         |--Pareucypris Schneider in Mandelstam et al. 1957BB61
         |    `--*P. tota Schneider in Mandelstam et al. 1957BB61
         |--Platycypris Herbst 1957BB61
         |    `--*P. baueri Herbst 1957BB61
         |--Protoargilloecia Mandelstam 1956BB61
         |    `--*P. minor (Jones & Hinde 1890) [=Bairdia silicula minor]BB61
         |--Pseudocypretta Klie 1932BB61
         |    `--*P. maculata Klie 1932BB61
         |--Pseudocypris Daday 1908BB61
         |    `--*P. bouvieri Daday 1908BB61
         |--Pseudoeucypris Schneider in Mandelstam et al. 1957BB61
         |    `--*P. eboris Schneider in Mandelstam et al. 1957BB61
         |--Rectocypris Schneider in Mandelstam et al. 1958BB61
         |    `--R. schwejeri Swain in Benson, Berdan et al. 1961 (see below for synonymy)BB61
         |--Sclerocypris Sars 1924BB61
         |    `--*S. clavularis Sars 1924BB61
         |--Suzinia Schneider 1956 [=Howaiskya Suzin 1956 non Vialov 1940]BB61
         |    `--*S. transcaucasica (Suzin 1956) [=*Howaiskya transcaucasica]BB61
         |--Ussuriocypris Mandelstam 1956BB61
         |    `--*U. ussurica Mandelstam 1956BB61
         |--Zonocypris Müller 1898BB61
         |    `--*Z. madagascarensis Müller 1898BB61
         |--Tanycypris Triebel 1959LH61
         |    `--*T. madagascarensis (Müller 1898) [=Cypris madagascarensis]LH61
         |--Afrocypris Sars 1924BB61
         |    |--*A. barnardi Sars 1924BB61
         |    `--A. biconicaBB61
         |--Chlamydotheca Saussure 1858BB61 [=Chlamidotheca (l. c.)M61]
         |    |--*C. azteca (Saussure 1858) [=Cypris (*Chlamydotheca) azteca]BB61
         |    `--C. rudolphiBB61
         |--Lycopterocypris Mandelstam 1956BB61
         |    |--*L. faba (Egger 1910) [=Cypris faba]BB61
         |    `--L. eggeriBB61
         |--Oncocypris Müller 1898BB61
         |    |--*O. voeltzkowi Müller 1898BB61
         |    `--O. omercooperiBB61
         `--Bennelongia De Deckker & McKenzie 1981K08
              |--*B. harpago De Deckker & McKenzie 1981K08
              |--B. australis (Brady 1886) [=Chlamydotheca australis]K08
              |--B. barangaroo De Deckker 1981K08
              |--B. nimala De Deckker 1981K08
              |--B. pinpi De Deckker 1981K08
              `--B. tunta De Deckker 1982K08

Bradleystrandesia affinis (Fischer 1851) [=Cypris affinis, Cypricercus affinis; incl. Cypris fuscata var. minor Müller 1900, Cypris reticulata Zaddach 1844 (n. d.), Bradleystrandesia reticulata]PF09

Bradleystrandesia fuscata (Jurine 1820) [=Monoculus fuscatus, Cypricercus fuscatus, Cypris fuscata; incl. Cypris fuscata var. major Müller 1900]PF09

*Cyprinotus (Cyprinotus) cingalensis Brady 1886 [incl. C. dahli Sars 1896, C. edwardi McKenzie 1978, C. kimberleyensis McKenzie 1966, C. uenoi Brehm 1936]K08

Rectocypris schwejeri Swain in Benson, Berdan et al. 1961 [=Bythocypris reniformis Schwejer 1949 non Brady 1880, *R. reniformis]BB61

Strandesia Stuhlmann 1888DH86 [incl. Acanthocypris Claus 1893BB61, Neocypris Sars 1901BB61, Spirocypris Sharpe 1903BB61]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (transl. 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[BB61] Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan, W. A. van den Bold, T. Hanai, I. Hessland, H. V. Howe, R. V. Kesling, S. A. Levinson, R. A. Reyment, R. C. Moore, H. W. Scott, R. H. Shaver, I. G. Sohn, L. E. Stover, F. M. Swain & P. C. Sylvester-Bradley. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99–Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[D01] Daday, E. 1901. Édesvizi mikroszkópi állatok [Mikroskopische Süsswasserthiere]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 375–470. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[DH86] Danielopol, D. L., & G. Hartmann. 1986. Ostracoda. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 265–294. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[F08] Fuhrmann, R. 2008. Die Ostrakoden- und Molluskenfauna des Auelehmprofils Zeitz (Landkreis Burgenland) und ihre Aussage zum Klima sowie zur Landnutzung im jüngeren Holozän Mitteldeutschlands. Mauritiana 20 (2): 253–281.

[K08] Karanovic, I. 2008. Three interesting Cyprididae (Ostracoda) from Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 267–287.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 4. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LH61] Levinson, S. A., & H. V. Howe. 1961. Addendum. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q421–Q422. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[M01] Martens, K. 2001. Taxonomy of the Herpetocypridinae (Ostracoda, Cyprididae). Crustaceana 74 (3): 295–308.

[M03] Martens, K. 2003. On a remarkable South African giant ostracod (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Cyprididae) from temporary pools, with additional appendages. Hydrobiologia 500: 115–130.

[M61] Moore, R. C. 1961. Supplement—USSR treatise on Ostracoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q422–Q429. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[NG13] Ni, X., D. L. Gebo, M. Dagosto, J. Meng, P. Tafforeau, J. J. Flynn & K. C. Beard. 2013. The oldest known primate skeleton and early haplorhine evolution. Nature 498: 60–64.

[PF09] Petkovski, T. & R. Fuhrmann. 2009. Die Gattung Bradleystrandesia Broodbakker (Crustacea, Ostracoda) in Europa. Mauritiana 20 (3): 587–600.

[S61] Scott, H. W. 1961. Shell morphology of Ostracoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q21–Q37. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[WSB93] Whatley, R. C., D. J. Siveter & I. D. Boomer. 1993. Arthropoda (Crustacea: Ostracoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 343–356. Chapman & Hall: London.


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