Dasycladales

Mermaid’s wine glass Acetabularia acetabulum, copyright Falk Viczian Solarboot-Projekte gGmbH.

Belongs within: Tetraphytae.
Contains: Anthracoporella, Luliporeae.

The Dasycladales are a group of macroscopic but unicellular green algae, many species of which develop a calcareous skeleton. Thalli are radially symmetrical with whorls of simple or divided laterals branching from a central axis or stalk (Norris 2010).

Characters (from Womersley 1984): Thallus diplontic, coenocytic (often with constricted segments but end walls always perforate apart from plug formation), radially symmetrical with an erect axis bearing whorls of lateral branches which are simple or (usually) di- to polychotomously branched, free or with the ultimate segments united laterally to form an outer cortex; vegetative thallus usually at first with a single, giant nucleus in the rhizoidal base, becoming multinucleate later before cyst formation; cell wall of mannan; chloroplasts usually small, without a pyrenoid. Reproduction by iso- or anisogmates formed in cysts (with a cellulose wall) or freely in gametangia borne on the lateral branches or as gametangial rays, becoming separated by a plug; position of meiosis not fully established, probably before or during fragmentation of the giant primary nucleus.

<==Dasycladales [Dasycladophyceae]
    |--Diplopora [Diploporaceae, Diploporeae]VH01
    |    |--D. americana Kordé 1965VH01
    |    `--D. bellerophontisG31
    |--Dasyporelleae [Seletonellaceae]VH01
    |    |--Dasyporella Stolley 1893VH01 [incl. TexturataNW04, VillosoporellaNW04]
    |    `--AnthracoporellaVH01
    |--MoniliporellaceaeEB93
    |    |--Contexta binata Gnilovskaya 1972EB93
    |    |--Ansoporella ansa Gnilovskaya 1972EB93
    |    `--Moniliporella halysitoides Gnilovskaya 1972NW04, EB93
    |--Salpingoporelleae [Triploporellaceae]KV06
    |    |--SalpingoporellaHS02
    |    `--Chaetocladus Whitfield 1894 [Chaetocladinae]KV06
    |         |--C. capillatus (Høeg & Kiaer 1926)KV06
    |         |--C. dubius (Spencer 1884)KV06
    |         |--C. gracilis Kenrick & Vinther 2006KV06
    |         `--C. ruedemanni (LoDuca 1997)KV06
    |--Polyphysaceae [Acetabulariaceae]N10
    |    |  i. s.: Parvocaulis Berger, Fettweiss et al. 2003N10
    |    |           |--P. clavatusTT10
    |    |           |--P. parvulus (Solms-Laubach) Berger et al. 2003 [=Acetabularia parvula Solms-Laubach 1895]N10
    |    |           `--P. pusilla (Howe) Berger et al. 2003 [=Acetabularia pusilla (Howe) Collins 1909]N10
    |    |--PolyphysaL-BC03
    |    |    |--P. aspergillosaG20
    |    |    |--P. mediterranea [=P. (Acetabulum) mediterranea; incl. Tubularia acetabulum]G20
    |    |    |--P. parvulaL-BC03
    |    |    `--P. peniculusHK90
    |    `--+--Acicularia schenkiiL-BC03
    |       `--Acetabularia Lamouroux 1812L-BC03, N10
    |            |--A. acetabulumKG03
    |            |--A. antillanaKG03
    |            |--A. caliculus Lamouroux in Quoy & Gaimard 1824 [=A. calyculus]N10
    |            |--A. crenulata Lamouroux 1816N10
    |            |--A. farlowii Solms-Laubach 1895N10
    |            |--A. majorL-BC03
    |            |--A. mediterraneaKG03
    |            `--A. schenckii Möbius 1889N10
    `--DasycladaceaeN10
         |  i. s.: Papillomembrana Spjeldnaes 1963G79
         |           `--*P. compta Spjeldnaes 1963G79
         |         Timanella Vologdin in Vologdin & Kochetkov 1966 non Egorov 1950 (ICZN)G79
         |           `--*T. gigas Vologdin in Vologdin & Kochetkov 1966G79
         |         Coscinoconus Leupold in Leupold & Bigler 1935LT64
         |           `--*C. alpinus Leupold & Bigler 1935LT64
         |         MasloviporellaVH01
         |         LuliporeaeVH01
         |         Dasycladus clavaeformisPP64
         |         BornetellaHS14
         |           |--B. capitataH04
         |           |--B. oligospora Solms-Laubach 1892HS14
         |           `--B. sphaerica (Zanardini) Solms-Laubach 1892HS14
         |--+--Chlorocladus australasicusL-BC03
         |  `--Batophora Agardh 1854L-BC03, N10
         |       |--B. occidentalisL-BC03
         |       `--B. oerstedii Agardh 1854N10
         `--+--Cymopolia vanbosseaL-BC03
            `--Neomeris Lamouroux 1816L-BC03, HL09
                 |--N. annulata Dickie 1874N10
                 |--N. bilimbata Koster 1937HL09
                 |--N. dumentosaL-BC03
                 |--N. kelleriH04
                 `--N. vanbosseae Howe 1909HS14

Dasycladales incertae sedis:
  Mellporella Racz 1965VH01
    `--M. anthracoporellaeformis Racz 1965VH01
  Ningbingellina Mamet 1998M98
    `--*N. veeversi Mamet 1998M98
  Atractyliopsis Pia 1937 [Aciculelleae]M98
    `--*A. lastensis Accordi 1956M98
  Dasycladophycus Elliott 1982M98
  Medusaegraptus Ruedemann 1925KV06, B70
    `--*M. mirabilis Ruedemann 1925B70
  Diplospirograptus Ruedemann 1925KV06, B70
    `--*D. goldringae Ruedemann 1925B70
  Yakutina aciculata [=Siberiella aciculata Korde 1957]EB93
  Rhabdoporella bacillum Stolley 1893EB93
  Primicorallina trentonensis Whitfield 1894EB93
  Archaeobatophora typa Nitecki 1976EB93
  AphroporellaNW04
  Intermurella [incl. Plexa]NW04
  Heteroporella lusitanicaCC02

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B70] Bulman, O. M. B. 1970. Graptolithina with sections on Enteropneusta and Pterobranchia. In: Teichert, C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt V 2nd ed. pp. V1–V149. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and the University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[CC02] Cabral, M. C., & J.-P. Colin. 2002. Taxonomie et paléoécologie de nouveaux ostracodes limniques Candonidae dans l’Oxfordien (Jurassique supérieur) du Portugal. Geodiversitas 24: 61–76.

[EB93] Edwards, D., J. G. Baldauf, P. R. Brown, K. J. Dorning, M. Feist, L. T. Gallagher, N. Grambast-Fessard, M. B. Hart, A. J. Powell & R. Riding. 1993. ‘Algae’. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 15–40. Chapman & Hall: London.

[G79] Glaessner, M. F. 1979. Precambrian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A79–A118. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[HS02] Höfling, R., & R. W. Scott. 2002. Early and Mid-Cretaceous buildups. SEPM Special Publication 72: 521–548.

[HK90] Huisman, J. M., G. A. Kendrick, D. I. Walker & A. Couté. 1990. The marine algae of Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 89–100. Western Australian Museum.

[HL09] Huisman, J. M., F. Leliaert, H. Veerbruggen & R. A. Townsend. 2009. Marine benthic plants of Western Australia’s shelf-edge atolls. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 50–87.

[HS14] Huisman, J. M., & A. Sampey. 2014. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: marine plants. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 45–67.

[KV06] Kenrick, P., & J. Vinther. 2006. Chaetocladus gracilis n. sp., a non-calcified Dasycladales from the Upper Silurian of Skåne, Sweden. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 142: 153–160.

[KG03] Kingsley, R. J., R. van Gilder, R. Z. LeGros & N. Watabe. 2003. Multimineral calcareous deposits in the marine alga Acetabularia acetabulum (Chlorophyta; Dasycladaceae). Journal of Phycology 39: 937–947.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[L-BC03] López-Bautista, J. M., & R. L. Chapman. 2003. Phylogenetic affinities of the Trentepohliales inferred from small-subunit rDNA. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 2099–2106.

[M98] Mamet, B. 1998. A Late Devonian microfossil with dasyclad algae affinities from northwestern Australia. Alcheringa 22 (1): 21–28.

[NW04] Nitecki, M. H., B. D. Webby, N. Spjeldnaes & Zhen Y.-Y. 2004. Receptaculitids and algae. In: Webby, B. D., F. Paris, M. L. Droser & I. G. Percival (eds) The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event pp. 336–347. Columbia University Press.

[N10] Norris, J. N. 2010. Marine algae of the northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: 1–276.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[TT10] Titlyanov, E. A., T. V. Titlyanova, I. Bartsch, B. Xia, L. X. Bao & H. Hui. 2010. Floristic changes of marine benthic green algal species (Chlorophyta) at the subtropical island of Hainan (PR China) between 1933 and 2009 reflect environmental degradation. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 80–81. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

[VH01] Vachard, D., M. Hauser, R. Martini, L. Zaninetti, A. Matter & T. Peters. 2001. New algae and problematica of algal affinity from the Permian of the Aseelah Unit of the Batain Plain (East Oman). Geobios 34 (4): 375–404.

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