Deinopoidea

Garden centre spider Uloborus plumipes, copyright Olaf Leillinger.

Belongs within: Neocribellatae.

The Deinopoidea are the cribellate orb-weaving spiders, including the net-casting spiders of the Deinopidae and the triangle-web spiders of the Uloboridae. Members of the Deinopidae have the posterior median eyes greatly enlarged and remarkably long and slender fore legs; they construct a small, expandable web that they hold between the fore legs and cast over prey. The Uloboridae have rows of long trichobothria on the femora, and the fourth metatarsi dorsally compressed and curved under a uniseriate calamistrum; they also lack venom glands (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

Synapomorphies (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Tapeta absent; abdominal tubercles present; deinopoid tarsal comb present; numerous cylindrical gland spigots on posterior median and lateral spinnerets; resting position on web with anterior legs extended.

<==DeinopoideaBS09
    |  i. s.: Palaeouloborus lacasae Selden 1990S93
    |--DeinopidaePVD10
    |    |--Avella P.-Cambridge 1877JD-S07
    |    |--Avellopsis Purcell 1904JD-S07
    |    |--Eodeinopes longipes Wunderlich 2017W19
    |    |--Menneus Simon 1876JD-S07
    |    |    `--M. camelusJD-S07
    |    |--Deinopis MacLeay 1839PVD10
    |    |    |--D. bicornisB96
    |    |    |--D. kollari Doleschall 1859D59
    |    |    |--D. ravidusB96
    |    |    |--D. spinosa Marx 1889SC97
    |    |    `--D. subrufa (Koch 1879)PVD10
    |    `--Palaeomicromenneus lebanensisSC20
    `--Uloboridae [Uloboroidae, Uloboroidea]BS09
         |  i. s.: PhiloponellaE90
         |           |--P. congregabilisD95
         |           |--P. oweniWY88
         |           |--P. republican (Simon 1891)B11
         |           `--P. vicinaE90
         |         Philoponus Thorell 1887K92
         |           `--P. pinnipes (Thor. 1877) [=Uloborus pinnipes]K92
         |         Octonoba sybotides (Bösenberg & Strand 1906)GC99, B11
         |         Miagrammopinae [Miagrammopoidae]W76
         |           |--Miagrammopes Cambridge 1869W76
         |           |    `--M. candata Koch & Keyserling 1890KK90
         |           |--Miagrammopsidis Wunderlich 1976W76
         |           |    `--*M. flavus Wunderlich 1976W76
         |           `--Ranguma Lehtinen 1967W76
         |                |--R. bradleyi (Pickard-Cambridge 1874) [=Miagrammopes bradleyi]W76
         |                `--R. lehtineni Wunderlich 1976W76
         |         TangaroinaeJD-S07
         |         Conifaber guaraniR14
         |         AndrogeusP92
         |--+--Waitkera Opell 1979BS09, PVD10
         |  |    `--*W. waitakerensis (Chamberlain 1946)PVD10
         |  `--Hyptiotes [Hyptiotinae]BS09
         |       |--H. cavatusE90
         |       |--H. gertschiBS09
         |       `--H. paradoxusE90
         `--Uloborus Latreille 1806BS09, JD-S07 [Uloborinae]
              |--U. americanusB06
              |--U. congeregabilis Rainbow 1916M72
              |--U. diversusE90
              |--U. domesticus Doleschall 1859D59
              |--U. flavolineatus Rainbow 1898M72
              |--U. geniculatus Olivier 1789B06, Z02 [=Zosis geniculatusB96]
              |--U. glomosus (Walckenaer 1841)SC97
              |--U. pantherinus Koch & Keyserling 1890KK90
              |--U. plumipes Lucas 1846E12
              |--U. spinitarsis Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
              |--U. trilineatusE90
              |--U. variabilis Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
              `--U. walckenaeriusE95 [=Theridion (Uloborus) walkenariumG20]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B06] Banks, N. 1906. Arachnida from the Bahamas. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 22: 185–189.

[B11] Blackledge, T. A. 2011. Prey capture in orb weaving spiders: are we using the best metric? Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 205–210.

[BS09] Blackledge, T. A., N. Scharff, J. A. Coddington, T. Szüts, J. W. Wenzel, C. Y. Hayashi & I. Agnarsson. 2009. Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (13): 5229–5234.

[B96] Brunet, B. 1996. Spiderwatch: A Guide to Australian Spiders. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1–60, pls 1–18.

[D95] Downes, M. F. 1995. Australasian social spiders: what is meant by ‘social’? Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 25–32.

[E90] Eberhard, W. G. 1990. Early stages of orb construction by Philoponella vicinia, Leucauge mariana, and Nephila clavipes (Araneae, Uloboridae and Tetragnathidae), and their phylogenetic implications. Journal of Arachnology 18: 205–234.

[E95] Elgar, M. A. 1995. The duration of copulation in spiders: comparative patterns. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 1–11.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GC99] Griswold, C. E., J. A. Coddington, N. I. Platnick & R. R. Forster. 1999. Towards a phylogeny of entelegyne spiders (Araneae, Araneomorphae, Entelegynae). Journal of Arachnology 27: 53–63.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[KK90] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884–1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[M72] Monroe, R. 1972. Chelicerate type-specimens in the Queensland Museum. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 16 (2): 291–307.

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

[SC97] Scharff, N., & J. A. Coddington. 1997. A phylogenetic analysis of the orb-weaving spider family Araneidae (Arachnida, Araneae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 120: 355–434.

[SC20] Scharff, N., J. A. Coddington, T. A. Blackledge, I. Agnarsson, V. W. Framenau, T. Szűts, C. Y. Hayashi & D. Dimitrov. 2020. Phylogeny of the orb-weaving spider family Araneidae (Araneae: Araneoidea). Cladistics 36: 1–21.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WY88] Welbourn, W. C., & O. P. Young. 1988. Mites parasitic on spiders, with a description of a new species of Eutrombidium (Acari, Eutrombidiidae). Journal of Arachnology 16: 373–385.

[W76] Wunderlich, J. 1976. Spinnen aus Australien. 1. Uloboridae, Theridiosomatidae und Symphytognathidae (Arachnida: Araneida). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 113–124.

[W19] Wunderlich, J. 2019. What is a spider? Cretaceous fossils modify strongly phylogenetics as well as diagnoses of families, superfamilies and even suborders of spiders (Araneida) and other arthropods. Beiträge zur Araneologie 12: 1–32.

[Z02] Zschokke, S. 2002. Ultraviolet reflectance of spiders and their webs. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 246–254.

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