Phitymophora hypoglossum, from Baldock (2005).

Belongs within: Ceramiales.
Contains: Schizoserideae, Cryptopleureae, Phycodryeae, Myriogrammeae, Nitophyllum, Delesserieae, Membranoptereae, Hypoglossum.

The Delesseriaceae are mostly foliose red algae with blades forming wings of tissue constructed of laterally coherent, apically growing filaments or as a result of diffuse marginal growth. They are divided between Delesserioideae, in which procarps are borne along the primary axial row, and Nitophylloideae, in which they are randomly distributed over the blade surface (Choi et al. 2002).

Characters (from Womersley 2003): Thallus mostly epilithic or epiphytic, occasionally minute and parasitic, fronds strongly compressed to flat or foliose, almost entire to much branched from midrib or blade margins. Branching endogenous or exogenous, sometimes adventitious. Blades monostromatic to polystromatic, entire to lobed or divided, occasionally forming a network. Midrib and veins present or absent. Older axes usually stipe-like by loss of lateral blade or wings, attached by a discoid or fibrous rhizoidal holdfast. Growth by means of dome-shaped or obconical apical cell segmenting to give an axial filament and 2 lateral pericentral cells followed by 2 transverse pericentral cells, the lateral pericentral cells developing second-order cell rows from which third-order cell rows (and often some fourth-order rows) arise abaxially, all or not all cells forming cell rows and all or not all rows reaching the blade margin, or growth by apical cells at branch apices or on margins or by means of marginal cells at branch apices dividing by oblique divisions with 2 cutting faces, forming a flat membrane one or a few cells thick, with frequent intercalary divisions. Midrib and lateral veins present or absent, midrib corticated or not, primary cells of blades corticated or not. Cortical cells equivalent to primary cells in dimensions, or half or less (dimidiate) of primary cells. Mature cells usually multinucleate. Rhodoplasts discoid, sometimes becoming elongate or ribbon-like in larger cells. Reproductive organs formed on or in the blades or bladelets. Gametophytes dioecious. Procarps produced on transverse pericentral cells near apices or scattered over the blades, with or without an anterior pericentral (cover) cell and with supporting cell (pericentral or surface cell) forming 1 or 2 sterile groups and one or two 4-celled carpogonial branches. Post-fertilization auxiliary cell diploidised via connecting cell or process from carpogonium, carposporophyte develops usually a basal fusion cell, much branched gonimoblast filaments and single or chains of terminal carposporangia. Cystocarps ovoid and stipitate to immersed in thallus, ostiolate, pericarp 1–5 cells thick with cells of blade cortex occasionally forming erect filaments which may cut off outer cortical cells. Spermatangia develop in sori on blade, often in linear patches on elongate blades, or irregularly scattered, with primary or cortical cells cutting off initials by periclinal then anticlinal divisions, which then produce several spermatangia. Tetrasporangia produced in sori usually on both sides of blades, cut off from primary or inner cortical cells and lying in a single layer or 2 irregular layers, covered by small-celled cortex, subspherical and tetrahedrally divided.

<==Delesseriaceae [Delesseriae]
    |--Nitophylloideae [Phycodryoideae]W03
    |    |  i. s.: Nitospinosa Womersley 2003W03
    |    |           |--*N. pristoidea (Harvey) Womersley 2003 (see below for synonymy)W03
    |    |           |--N. littledipensis Womersley 2003W03
    |    |           `--N. tasmanica Womersley 2003W03
    |    |         Robea Womersley 2003W03
    |    |           `--*R. costata Womersley 2003W03
    |    |         MartensieaeW01
    |    |           |--OpephyllumW01
    |    |           |--Neomartensia Yoshida & Mikami 1996W01, W03
    |    |           |    `--N. flabelliformis (Harvey) Yoshida & Mikami 1996W03
    |    |           `--Martensia Hering 1841 (nom. cons.)W03
    |    |                |--*M. elegans Hering 1841W03
    |    |                |--M. australis Harvey 1855 (see below for synonymy)W03
    |    |                |--M. denticulataW03
    |    |                |--M. fragilis Harvey 1854HS14
    |    |                `--M. pavonia (Agardh) Agardh 1863HS14
    |    |         SchizoserideaeW03
    |    |         Papenfussia Kylin 1938W03 [PapenfussieaeW01]
    |    |           |--P. japonica (Yoshida & Mikami) Wynne 2001W01 [=Pollexfenia japonica Yoshida & Mikami 1990W03]
    |    |           `--P. laciniata [=Pollexfenia laciniata Harvey 1844]W03
    |    |         PseudophycodryeaeW01
    |    |           |--Pseudophycodrys Skottsberg 1923W01
    |    |           `--PseudonitophyllaW01
    |    |         ValeriemayeaeW01
    |    |           |--PolyneuropsisW01
    |    |           |--CalonitophyllumW01
    |    |           |--RadicilinguaW01
    |    |           |--PolyneurellaW01
    |    |           `--Valeriemaya Millar & Wynne 1992W01
    |    |                `--‘Hemineura’ cruenta Harvey 1855LHK01
    |    |         CryptopleureaeW01
    |    |--PhycodryeaeCK02
    |    `--+--MyriogrammeaeCK02
    |       `--NitophyllumCK02
         |--Grinnellia Harvey 1853 [Grinnellieae]W01
         |--Botryocarpa Greville 1830 [Botryocarpaceae, Botryocarpeae]W01
         |--Dicroglossum Millar & Huisman 1996 [Dicroglosseae]W03
         |    `--*D. crispatulum (Harvey) Millar & Huisman 1996 (see below for synonymy)W03
         |--Sympodophyllum Shepley & Womersley 1960W03 [SympodophylleaeW01]
         |    `--*S. reinboldii Shepley & Womersley 1960W03
         |--Cumathamnion Wynne & Daniels 1966 [Cumathamnieae]W01
         |    `--C. sympodophyllumLHK01
         |    |--Kurogia pulchraW01, CK02
         |    `--Zinovaea Wynne 1970W01
         |         `--Z. acanthocarpaCK02
         |    |--Congregatocarpus Mikami 1971W01
         |    |--TokidadendronW01
         |    `--NeohypophyllumW01
         |    |--Hemineura Harvey 1849W03
         |    |    `--*H. frondosa (Hooker & Harvey) Harvey 1849 (see below for synonymy)W03
         |    `--MarionellaW03
         |         `--‘Hemineura’ schmitziana de Toni & Okamura 1898W03
         |    |--VanvoorstiaW01
         |    |    |--V. coccinea Agardh 1863HS14
         |    |    `--V. spectabilis Harvey 1854HS14
         |    `--Claudea Lamouroux 1813W03
         |         |--*C. elegans Lamouroux 1813 (see below for synonymy)W03
         |         |--C. batanensis Tanaka 1967W03
         |         `--C. multifida Harvey 1854W03
         |    |--Caloglossa (Harvey) Martens 1869W03
         |    |    |--*C. leprieurii (Montagne) Martens 1869 [=Delesseria leprieurii Montagne 1840]W03
         |    |    `--C. ogasawaraensis Okamura 1897 [incl. C. bombayensis Børgesen 1933]W03
         |    `--Taenioma Agardh 1863W01, W03
         |         |--*T. perpusillum (Agardh) Agardh 1863 [=Polysiphonia perpusilla Agardh 1847]W03
         |         |--T. dotyi Hollenberg 1967W03
         |         `--T. nanum (Kützing) Papenfuss 1952W03
              |--Branchioglossum woodii (Agardh) Kylin 1924W01, S57 [=Erythroglossum woodiiS57]
              |--Zellera Martens 1866W01, HL09
              |    `--Z. tawallina Martens 1866HL09
              |--Chauviniella Papenfuss 1956W01, W03
              |    |--*C. coriifolia (Harvey) Papenfuss 1956 (see below for synonymy)W03
              |    `--C. jadinii (Børgesen) Papenfuss 1956W03
              `--Phitymophora Agardh 1898W01, W03
                   |--P. amansioides (Sonder) Womersley 1965 (see below for synonymy)W03
                   |--P. hypoglossum (Agardh) Womersley & Phillips in Phillips 2002 [=Lenormandia hypoglossum Agardh 1890]W03
                   `--P. linearis (Laing) Kylin 1924W03 [=Delesseria linearisL27; incl. P. laingii Agardh 1898L27]
Delesseriaceae incertae sedis:
    |--S. davisii (Hooker & Harvey) Agardh 1898L27
    |--S. dichotoma (Hooker & Harvey) Agardh 1898L27
    |--S. hookeri (Hooker & Harvey) Agardh 1898L27
    `--S. laurifolia Agardh 1898L27
    |--*D. lacerata [=Delesseria lacerata]BS-V28
    |--D. durvillaei Bory de Saint-Vincent 1828BS-V28
    |--D. gmelini [=Delesseria gmelini]BS-V28
    `--D. lobata [=Delesseria lobata]BS-V28

*Chauviniella coriifolia (Harvey) Papenfuss 1956 [=Delesseria coriifolia Harvey 1855, Chauvinia coriifolia (Harvey) Harvey 1862, Hydrolapatha coriifolia (Harvey) Kuntze 1898, Membranoptera coriifolia (Harvey) Kuntze 1891, Vinassaella coriifolia (Harvey) de Toni 1936]W03

*Claudea elegans Lamouroux 1813 [=Oneillia elegans (Lamouroux) Agardh 1822; incl. Fucus claudei Turner 1819 (nom. illeg.), Lamourouxia elegans Agardh 1817]W03

*Dicroglossum crispatulum (Harvey) Millar & Huisman 1996 [=Delesseria crispatula Harvey 1855, Branchioglossum crispatulum (Harvey) Kylin 1924, Hydrolapatha crispatula (Harvey) Kuntze 1898, Hypoglossum cripatulum (Harvey) Agardh 1898, Membranoptera crispatula (Harvey) Kuntze 1891]W03

*Hemineura frondosa (Hooker & Harvey) Harvey 1849 [=Delesseria frondosa Hooker & Harvey 1847, Hypoglossum frondosum (Hooker & Harvey) Kützing 1849; incl. Hemineura crispata Harvey 1855, He. wilsonis Agardh 1898]W03

Martensia australis Harvey 1855 [=Capraella australis (Harvey) de Toni 1936, Mesotrema australis (Harvey) Papenfuss 1942; incl. Martensia gigas Harvey 1863, Mesotrema gigas (Harvey) Papenfuss ex Guiler 1952 (nom. inv.)]W03

*Nitospinosa pristoidea (Harvey) Womersley 2003 [=Nitophyllum pristoideum Harvey 1862, Aglaophyllum pristoideum (Harvey) Kützing 1869, Myriogramme pristoidea (Harvey) Kylin 1924; incl. Nitophyllum serrulatum Agardh 1898, M. serrulata (Agardh) Kylin 1924]W03

Phitymophora amansioides (Sonder) Womersley 1965 [=Delesseria amansioides Sonder 1853; incl. D. imbricata Areschoug 1854, Chauvinia imbricata (Areschoug) Harvey 1862, *Phitymophora imbricata (Areschoug) Agardh 1898, Delesseria rigida Kützing 1869]W03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BS-V28] Bory de Saint-Vincent, J. B. 1828. Voyage Autour du Monde, Exécuté par Ordre du Roi, Sur la Corvette de Sa Majesté, La Coquille, pendant les années 1822, 1823, 1824 et 1825. Botanique. Cryptogamie. Arthus Bertrand: Paris.

[CK02] Choi, H.-G., G. T. Kraft, I. K. Lee & G. W. Saunders. 2002. Phylogenetic analyses of anatomical and nuclear SSU rDNA sequence data indicate that the Dasyaceae and Delesseriaceae (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) are polyphyletic. European Journal of Phycology 37: 551–569.

[HL09] Huisman, J. M., F. Leliaert, H. Veerbruggen & R. A. Townsend. 2009. Marine benthic plants of Western Australia’s shelf-edge atolls. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 50–87.

[HS14] Huisman, J. M., & A. Sampey. 2014. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: marine plants. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 45–67.

[L27] Laing, R. M. 1927. A reference list of New Zealand marine algae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 126–185.

[LHK01] Lin, S. M., M. H. Hommersand & G. T. Kraft. 2001. Characterization of Hemineura frondosa and the Hemineureae trib. nov. (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta) from southern Australia. Phycologia 40 (2): 135–146.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

[W03] Womersley, H. B. S. 2003. The Marine Benthic Flora of southern Australia. Rhodophyta—part IIID. Ceramiales—Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 18. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra, and the State Herbarium of South Australia: Adelaide.

[W01] Wynne, M. J. 2001. The tribes of the Delesseriaceae (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta). Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium 23: 407–417.

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