Delphinium

Hairy delphinium Delphinium vestitum, from here.

Belongs within: Ranunculaceae.

Delphinium is a genus of perennial herbs bearing bilateral flowers with the upper sepals spurred. Many species are highly toxic and cause numerous deaths in livestock (Hickman 1993).

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Perennial; root generally <10 cm, more or less fibrous or fleshy; buds generally obscure. Stem generally 1, erect, generally unbranched; base generally more or less as wide as root, generally firmly attached to root, generally more or less reddish or purplish. Leaves simple, basal and cauline, petioled; blades generally palmately lobed, deep lobes generally 3–5, generally <6 mm wide, generally also lobed; lower leaves generally dry, often absent in flower; cauline merging into bracts upward. Inflorescence a raceme or somewhat branched, terminal; flowers generally 10–25; pedicels generally more or less spreading. Flower bilateral; sepals 5, petal-like, generally spreading, generally more or less dark blue, uppermost spurred; petals 4, smaller than sepals, upper 2 with nectar-secreting spurs enclosed in uppermost sepal, lower 2 clawed, with blades generally 4–8 mm, notched, generally more or less perpendicular to claws, generally colored like sepals, generally obviously hairy; pistils 3(–5). Fruit an aggregate of 3(–5) erect follicles, generally 2.5-4x longer than wide. Seed dark brown to black, often appearing white, generally winged when immature, generally without inflated collar; coat cell margins generally straight.

Delphinium
|--D. ajacisTG88
|--D. andersonii [incl. D. andersonii ssp. cognatum, D. decorum ssp. nevadense]H93
|--D. anthriscifoliumWC00
| |--D. a. var. anthriscifoliumWC00
| `--D. a. var. savatieri (Franch.) Munz. 1967WC00
|--D. antoninumH93
|--D. bakeriH93
|--D. brunonianumO88
|--D. caeruleumO88
|--D. californicumH93
| |--D. c. ssp. californicumH93
| `--D. c. ssp. interiusH93
|--D. cardinaleH93
|--D. carolinianumS72
|--D. consolidaC55
|--D. cooperiO88
|--D. decorumH93
| |--D. d. ssp. decorumH93
| `--D. d. ssp. tracyiH93
|--D. densiflorumO88
|--D. depauperatum [incl. D. diversifolium ssp. harneyense]H93
|--D. drepanocentrumO88
|--D. elatumR35
|--D. glacialeO88
|--D. glaucumH93
|--D. gracilentum [incl. D. patens ssp. greenei, D. pratense]H93
|--D. gypsophilumH93
| |--D. g. ssp. gypsophilumH93
| `--D. g. ssp. parviflorumH93
|--D. halteratumH90
|--D. hanseniiH93
| |--D. h. ssp. hansenii [incl. D. hansenii var. arcuatum]H93
| |--D. h. ssp. ewanianumH93
| `--D. h. ssp. kernenseH93
|--D. hesperiumH93
| |--D. h. ssp. hesperiumH93
| |--D. h. ssp. cuyamacaeH93
| `--D. h. ssp. pallescensH93
|--D. himalayaiO88
|--D. hutchinsoniaeH93
|--D. × inflexumH93
|--D. inopinumH93
|--D. kamaonenseO88
|--D. luteumH93
|--D. nepalenseO88
|--D. nortoniiO88
| |--D. n. var. nortoniiO88
| `--D. n. var. curvicalcaratumO88
|--D. nudicauleH93
|--D. nuttallianum [incl. D. sonnei]H93
|--D. parishiiH93
| |--D. p. ssp. parishiiH93
| |--D. p. ssp. pallidumH93
| `--D. p. ssp. subglobosumH93
|--D. parryiH93
| |--D. p. ssp. parryi [incl. D. parryi ssp. seditiosum]H93
| |--D. p. ssp. blochmaniaeH93
| |--D. p. ssp. eastwoodiaeH93
| |--D. p. ssp. maritimumH93
| `--D. p. ssp. purpureum [=D. parishii ssp. purpureum]H93
|--D. patensH93
| |--D. p. ssp. patensH93
| |--D. p. ssp. hepaticoideumH93
| `--D. p. ssp. montanumH93
|--D. polycladonH93
|--D. purpusiiH93
|--D. recurvatumH93
|--D. stachydeumH93
|--D. tricorneJ23
|--D. trolliifoliumH93
|--D. uliginosumH93
|--D. umbraculorumH93
|--D. variegatumH93
| |--D. v. ssp. variegatum [incl. D. variegatum f. superbum]H93
| |--D. v. ssp. kinkienseH93
| `--D. v. ssp. thorneiH93
|--D. vestitumO88
`--D. viscosumO88

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[S72] Shields, O. 1972. Flower visitation records for butterflies (Lepidoptera). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (3): 189–203.

[TG88] Tepfer, D., A. Goldmann, N. Pamboukdjian, M. Maille, A. Lepingle, D. Chevalier, J. Dénarié & C. Rosenberg. 1988. A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudate of Calystegium sepium. Journal of Bacteriology 170 (3): 1153–1161.

[WC00] Wang R.-J. & Chen Z.-Y. 2000. New data of some Ranunculaceae plants in China. Acta Botanica Yunnanica 22: 126–128.

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