Howellella elegans, from Primitive Worlds.

Belongs within: Spiriferida.

The Delthyrididae are a group of spiriferid brachiopods known from the Lower Silurian to the Middle Devonian (Boucot et al. 1965).

Characters (from Boucot et al. 1965): Biconvex, weakly to strongly transverse; lateral slopes plicate or costate; fold and sulcus smooth or with median rib in sulcus and median groove on fold; micro-ornament typically consisting of distinct growth lamellae upon which are superposed capillae that become fimbriate at anterior margin of each growth lamella, more rarely consisting of capillae only or of teardrop-shaped granules; interior of pedicle valve generally with well-developed dental plates, some with distinct median septum but none with delthyrial plate; brachial-valve interior with area of diductor attachment deeply striate longitudinally, resulting in comblike cardinal process; crural plates absent or short; shell substance impunctate.

<==Delthyrididae [Delthyridae]M03
    |--Cyrtinopsis Scupin 1896 [Cyrtinopsidae, Cyrtinopsinae]BJ65
    |    `--*C. undosa (Schnur 1853) [=Spirifer undosus]BJ65
    |         |--C. u. undosaTC71
    |         `--C. u. maiderensisTC71
    |--Kozlowskiellina Boucot 1958 (see below for synonymy)BJ65
    |    |--*K. strawi (Boucot 1957) [=*Kozlowskiella strawi]BJ65
    |    |--‘Spirifer’ perlamellosus Hall 1857 [=*Megakozlowskiella perlamellosa]BJ65
    |    `--K. raricostaBJ65
    |--Delthyridinae [Delthyrinae]BJ65
    |    |--Howittia Talent 1956BJ65
    |    |    `--*H. howitti (Chapman 1905) [=Spirifer howitti]BJ65
    |    |--Ivanothyris Havlíček 1957BJ65
    |    |    `--*I. gibbosa (Barrande 1879) [=Spirifer gibbosus]BJ65
    |    |--Neodelthyris Hou 1963BJ65
    |    |    `--*N. sinensis Hou 1963BJ65
    |    |--Uralospirifer Havlíček 1959BJ65
    |    |    `--*U. mansy (Khodalevich 1951) [=Spirifer (Delthyris) mansy]BJ65
    |    |--Amoenospirifer Havlíček 1957B75, BJ65
    |    |    `--*A. thetidis (Barrande 1848) [=Spirifer thetidis]BJ65
    |    `--Delthyris Dalman 1828 [incl. Quadrifarius Fuchs 1929]BJ65
    |         |--*D. elevata Dalman 1828BJ65
    |         |--D. dumontianusH79
    |         `--D. loculata Fuchs 1923 [=*Quadrifarius loculatus]BJ65
         |--Antispirifer Williams 1916BJ65
         |    `--*A. harroldi Williams 1916BJ65
         |--Australospirifer Caster 1939BJ65
         |    `--*A. kayserianus (Clarke 1913) [=Spirifer kayserianus]BJ65
         |--Eospiriferina Grabau 1931BJ65
         |    `--*E. lachrymosa (Grabau 1931) [=Spiriferina (*Eospiriferina) lachrymosa]BJ65
         |--Mauispirifer Allan 1947BJ65
         |    `--*M. hectori Allan 1947BJ65
         |--Spinella Talent 1956BJ65
         |    |--*S. buchanensis Talent 1956BJ65
         |    `--S. yassensis [=Spirifer yassensis]TC71
         |--Vandercammenina Boucot 1975B75
         |    |--*V. trigeri (de Verneuil 1850) [=Spirifer trigeri]B75
         |    `--V. bischofi (Roemer in Giebel 1858) [=Spirifer bischofi]B75
         |         |--V. b. bischofiB75
         |         `--V. b. paucicosta (Scupin 1900) [=Spirifer bischofi var. paucicosta]B75
         |--Struveina Boucot 1975B75
         |    |--*S. daleidensis (Steininger 1853) [=Spirifer daleidensis]B75
         |    |--S. bifurcata (Kaplun 1961) [=Eospirifer (Multispirifer) bifurcatus]B75
         |    |    |--S. b. bifurcataB75
         |    |    `--S. b. plana (Kaplun 1961) [=Eospirifer (Multispirifer) bifurcatus var. plana]B75
         |    |--S. ferronensis (Comte 1938) [=Spirifer ferronensis]B75
         |    |--S. jouberti (Oehlert & Davoust 1879) [=Spirifer jouberti]B75
         |    `--S. parcefurcata (Spriestersbach 1915) [=Spirifer parcefurcatus]B75
         |--Acrospirifer Helmbrecht & Wedekind 1923XY86
         |    |--*A. primaevus (Steininger 1853) [=Spirifer primaeva]BJ65
         |    |--A. coxiC68
         |    |--A. hercyniaeH79
         |    |--A. kobehanaN79
         |    |--A. lilydalensisH79
         |    |--A. macrothyrisN79
         |    |--A. murchisoniN79
         |    |--A. pelticaH79
         |    `--A. tonkinensis (Mansuy 1908)WL04
         `--Howellella Kozlowski 1843BJ65, XY86 [=Crispella Kozlowski 1929 non Gray 1870BJ65]
              |--*H. elegans (Muir-Wood 1925) (see below for synonymy)BJ65
              |--H. anglicus Lamont & Gilbert 1945HB93
              |--H. angustiplicata (Kozlowski 1829) [=Spirifer (Crispella) angustiplicatus]XY86
              |--H. cyclopteraXY86
              |--H. fecunda Chen 1983XY86
              |--H. minoraXY86
              |--H. pauciplicata Waite 1956M03
              |--H. prima Alekseeva 1967M03
              |--H. subbragensis (Kulkov 1963)XY86
              |--H. vanuxemiN79
              `--H. yukiangensisXY86
Delthyrididae incertae sedis:
  Eohowellella Lopushinskaya 1976M03
    |--E. minimus Lopushinskaya 1976M03
    `--E. yadrenkinae Lopushinskaya 1976M03
  Tylothyris North 1920HB93, BJ65 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*T. laminosa M’Coy 1844 [=Cyrtia laminosa]BJ65
    |--‘Spirifer’ bouchardi Murchison 1840 [=*Bouchardopsis bouchardi]BJ65
    |--T. clarksvillensis (Winchell 1865)HB93
    `--T. mesacostalisZBB12

*Howellella elegans (Muir-Wood 1925) [=Delthyris elegans; incl. Terebratula crispus Hisinger 1826, D. crispa non Anomia crispa Linné 1758]BJ65

Kozlowskiellina Boucot 1958 [=Kozlowskiella Boucot 1957 non Přibyl 1953; incl. Megakozlowskiella Boucot 1957, Megakozlowskiellina Amsden & Ventress 1963; Kozlowskiellinae, Kozlowskiellininae]BJ65

Tylothyris North 1920HB93, BJ65 [incl. Bouchardopsis Maillieux 1933 (n. n.)BJ65, Welleria Maillieux 1931 (n. n.) nec Ulrich & Bassler 1923 nec Rotai 1941BJ65]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B75] Boucot, A. J. 1975. Evolution and Extinction Rate Controls. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company.

[BJ65] Boucot, A. J., J. G. Johnson, C. W. Pitrat & R. D. Staton. 1965. Spiriferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 2 pp. H632–H728. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

[C68] Cooper, R. A. 1968. Lower and Middle Paleozoic fossil localities of north-west Nelson. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Geology 6 (7): 75–89.

[HB93] Harper, D. A. T., C. H. C. Brunton, L. R. M. Cocks, P. Copper, E. N. Doyle, A. L. Jeffrey, E. F. Owen, M. A. Parkes, L. E. Popov & C. D. Prosser. 1993. Brachiopoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 427–462. Chapman & Hall: London.

[H79] House, M. R. 1979. Devonian in the Eastern Hemisphere. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A183–A217. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[M03] Modzalevskaya, T. L. 2003. Silurian and Devonian brachiopods from Severnaya Zemlya (Russian Arctic). Geodiversitas 25 (1): 73–107.

[N79] Norris, A. W. 1979. Devonian in the Western Hemisphere. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A218–A253. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[TC71] Thomson, K. S., & K. S. W. Campbell. 1971. The structure and relationships of the primitive Devonian lungfish—Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi (Etheridge). Yale University Peabody Museum of Natural History Bulletin 38: 1–109.

[WL04] Wang S.-Q. & R. F. Lundin. 2004. Sinoleperditiini (Ostracoda) from the Lower Emsian Shanglun Formation at the Shanglun village, central Guangxi, China. Journal of Paleontology 78 (2): 349–358.

[XY86] Xu H.-K. & Yao Z.-G. 1986. The Lower Devonian and its brachiopods from Lingshan, Guangxi. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 25 (2): 169–179.

[ZBB12] Zambito, J. J., IV, C. E. Brett & G. C. Baird. 2012. The Late Middle Devonian (Givetian) global Taghanic biocrisis in its type area (northern Appalachian Basin): geologically rapid faunal transitions driven by global and local environmental changes. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 677–703. Springer.

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