Dendrasteridae

Diagrammatic oral view of Scutellaster interlineatus, from Durham (1955).

Belongs within: Clypeasteroida.

The Dendrasteridae are a group of sand dollars known from the Pliocene to the present (Durham 1966b).

Characters (from Durham 1966b): Medium-sized to large; petals well developed; anterior petal more widely open than paired petals; interambulacrum 5 discontinuous; interambulacra nearly as wide as ambulacra at ambitus; four genital pores; food grooves bifurcating or trifurcating; periproct inframarginal to supramarginal.

<==DendrasteridaeD66b
    |--Scaphechinus Agassiz 1863 [=Chaetodiscus Lütken 1864]D66b
    |    `--*S. mirabilis Agassiz 1863M89 [incl. Chaetodiscus scutella Lütken 1864D66b]
    |--Dendraster Agassiz 1847M89
    |    |--*D. excentricus (Eschscholtz 1831)M89 [=Scutella excentricusM89, Echinarachnius excentricusD66b]
    |    |--D. ashleyiAD84
    |    `--D. laevisD66a
    |--Merriamaster Lambert 1911 [incl. Orchophorus Lambert & Thiéry 1914, Twitchellia Lambert 1916]D66b
    |    |--*M. perrini (Weaver 1908)M89 [=Scutella perriniM89; incl. Orchophorus koehleri Lambert & Thiéry 1914D66b]
    |    `--M. lamberti (Grant & Hertlein 1938)SG93
    `--Scutellaster Cragin 1895 [=Anorthoscutum Lambert & Thiéry 1914, Calaster Kew 1920]D66b
         |--*S. interlineatus (Stimpson 1856)M89 (see below for synonymy)
         `--S. oregonensisM89
              |--S. o. oregonensisM89
              `--S. o. majorM89

*Scutellaster interlineatus (Stimpson 1856)M89 [=Scutella interlineataM89, *Anorthoscutum interlineatumD66b, *Calaster interlineatusD66b; incl. Scutellaster cretaceus Cragin 1895D66b]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AD84] Axelrod, D. I., & T. A. Deméré. 1984. A Pliocene flora from Chula Vista, San Diego County, California. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 20 (15): 277–300.

[D66a] Durham, J. W. 1966a. Echinoids—ecology and paleoecology. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 1 pp. U257–U265. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[D66b] Durham, J. D. 1966b. Clypeasteroids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U450–U491. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[M89] Mooi, R. 1989. Living and fossil genera of the Clypeasteroida (Echinoidea: Echinodermata): an illustrated key and annotated checklist. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 488: 1–51.

[SG93] Simms, M. J., A. S. Gale, P. Gilliland, E. P. F. Rose & G. D. Sevastopulo. 1993. Echinodermata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 491–528. Chapman & Hall: London.

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