Dendrobium

Dendrobium thyrsiflorum, copyright Stefano.

Belongs within: Dendrobieae.
Contains: Dendrobium section Dendrocoryne, Dendrobium section Distichophyllum, Anisopetala, Eurycaulis, Aporum, Ceraia.

Dendrobium is a diverse Indo-Australian genus of orchids typically bearing large, showy flowers.

Characters (from Moore & Edgar 1970): Plants epiphytic or rupestral; growth sympodial; stems more or less elongated, sometimes swollen into fleshy pseudobulbs. Leaves variously shaped, jointed to sheath. Inflorescence usually lateral, one- to many-flowered; floral bracts often very small. Perianth usually large and showy; dorsal sepal uppermost, free; lateral sepals adnate to column-foot, forming a mentum; petals larger or smaller than sepals, usually thinner. Labellum more or less three-lobed, claw attached to end of column-foot, disc often longitudinally lamellate but rarely with calli. Column short, more or less winged, foot long; anther terminal, operculate, incumbent, narrowly joined to column just below apex, caducous, pollinia 4, more or less waxy, without caudicles; stigma deeply concave, separated from anther by narrow transverse flap.

<==Dendrobium Swartz 1799 (nom. cons.) (see below for synonymy)C03
    |--+--D. cunninghamii Lindl. 1835A11, ME70 [=*Winika cunninghamiiC03; incl. D. lessonii Col. 1883ME70]
    |  `--+--Cannaeorchis Clements & Jones 1998C03
    |     |    `--*C. fractiflexa [=Dendrobium fractiflexum]C03
    |     `--+--Cadetia Gaud. in Freycinet 1829A11, C03
    |        |    |--*C. umbellatumC03
    |        |    `--C. maidenianaC03
    |        |--+--Diplocaulobium (Reichenb.) Kraenzlin 1910A11, C03
    |        |  |    |--*D. nitidissimum [=Dendrobium nitidissimum]C03
    |        |  |    `--D. ischnopetalumA11
    |        |  |--D. sect. GrastidiumA11 [=Grastidium Blume 1825C03]
    |        |  |    |--*Grastidium’ salaccenseC03
    |        |  |    `--D. baileyiA11 [=Grastidium baileyiC03]
    |        |  |--D. bifalceA11
    |        |  |--D. macrophyllumA11 [=Diplocaulobium macrophyllumC03]
    |        |  `--+--D. canaliculatum [=*Cepobaculum canaliculatum]C03
    |        |     `--D. nindii A11 [=Diplocaulobium nindiiC03]
    |        `--+--Flickingeria Hawkes 1961A11, C03 (see below for synonymy)
    |           |    |--*F. angulata [=Desmotrichum angulatum]C03
    |           |    |--F. angustifoliaP03
    |           |    `--F. comataA11
    |           |--D. sect. DendrocoryneA11
    |           |--+--D. carriiA11
    |           |  `--D. sect. AustralorchisA11 [=Australorchis Brieger in Schlechter 1981C03]
    |           |       `--D. monophyllum [=*Australorchis monophylla]C03
    |           |--D. adaeA11
    |           |--D. falcorostrumA11
    |           |--D. finniganenseA11
    |           |--D. fleckeriA11
    |           |--D. gracilicauleA11
    |           |--+--D. pugioniformeA11
    |           |  `--+--D. calamiformeA11 [=Dockrillia calamiformisC03]
    |           |     `--D. schoeninumA11
    |           `--+--D. linguiformeA11 [=*Dockrillia linguiformisC03]
    |              `--D. racemosumA11
    `--+--D. (sect. Formosae) formosumC03, A11
       `--+--D. sect. DistichophyllumC03
          `--+--D. sect. DendrobiumC03
             |    |--D. moschatumC03
             |    `--+--*D. moniliformeC03 (see below for synonymy)
             |       `--D. macrostachyumA11 [incl. D. stuartiiC03]
             `--+--+--+--AnisopetalaC03
                |  |  `--EurycaulisC03
                |  `--Pedilonum (Blume) Blume 1825 [=Dendrobium sect. Pedilonum Blume 1825]C03
                |       |--*P. secundum Blume 1825 [=Dendrobium secundum (Blume) Lindley 1829]C03
                |       |--P. amethystoglossum (Reichenb.) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium amethystoglossum Reichenb. 1872]C03
                |       |--P. erosumC03
                |       |--P. hasseltiiC03
                |       `--P. kuhliiC03
                `--+--D. sect. Callista (see below for synonymy)C03
                   |    |--D. amabile [=*Callista amabilis Loureiro 1790]C03
                   |    |--D. densiflorum (see below for synonymy)C03
                   |    |--‘Callista’ farmeri (Paxt.) Kuntze 1891C03
                   |    |--D. griffithianum [=Callista griffithiana (Lindley) Kuntze 1891]C03
                   |    |--D. guibertii Carriere 1876 [=Callista guibertii (Carriere) Clements 2003]C03
                   |    |--D. palpebrae [=Callista palpebrae (Lindley) Kuntze 1891]C03
                   |    `--D. thyrsiflorum Reichenb. in Andre 1875 [=Callista thyrsiflora (Reichenb.) Clements 2003]C03
                   `--+--+--AporumC03
                      |  `--CeraiaC03
                      `--+--+--+--D. (sect. Holochrysa) lancifoliumC03
                         |  |  `--D. smiliae A11
                         |  `--+--D. rarumC03
                         |     `--+--D. violaceumC03
                         |        `--+--D. (sect. *Oxyglossum) cyanocentrumC03
                         |           `--D. subuliferumC03
                         `--+--+--+--D. fairchildaeA11
                            |  |  `--D. sect. DolichocentrumC03
                            |  |       |--D. (sect. *D.) furcatumC03
                            |  |       |--D. auriculatumC03
                            |  |       |--D. miyasakiiC03
                            |  |       `--D. papilioC03
                            |  `--+--+--D. goldschmidtianumC03
                            |     |  `--D. serratilabiumC03
                            |     `--+--D. chameleonC03
                            |        `--+--D. ceraulaC03
                            |           |--D. victoriae-reginaeC03
                            |           `--D. yeageriC03
                            `--+--+--D. capituliflorumC03
                               |  `--+--D. cauliculimentumC03
                               |     `--D. rhododioidesC03
                               `--+--D. morrisoniiC03
                                  `--+--+--D. sect. CalyptrochilusC03
                                     |  |    |--D. lawesiiC03
                                     |  |    `--D. mohlianumC03
                                     |  `--+--D. fulgidumC03
                                     |     `--+--D. nothofagicolaC03
                                     |        `--+--D. bracteosumC03
                                     |           `--+--D. agathodaemonisC03
                                     |              `--D. sophronitesC03
                                     `--Coelandria Fitzgerald 1882C03
                                          |--*C. smillieae (von Mueller) Fitzgerald 1882 (see below for synonymy)C03
                                          |--C. andreemillariae (Reeve) Clements 2003 (see below for synonymy)C03
                                          |--C. chrysoglossa (Schlechter) Clements 2003 (see below for synonymy)C03
                                          |--C. coccinea (Kraenzlin) Clements 2003 (see below for synonymy)C03
                                          |--C. concavissima (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium concavissimum Smith 1911]C03
                                          |--C. fornicata (Schlechter) Clements 2003 (see below for synonymy)C03
                                          |--C. fracta (Reeve) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium fractum Reeve 1982]C03
                                          |--C. glomerata (Rolfe) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium glomeratum Rolfe 1894]C03
                                          `--C. obtusa (Schlechter) Clements 2003 (see below for synonymy)C03
Dendrobium incertae sedis:
  D. acuminatissimumP03
  D. affineLK14
  D. alpestreSS72
  D. amoenumSS72
  D. anosmumP88
  D. aphyllum (Roxburgh) Fischer in Gamble 1928GS03
  D. biflorumC06
  D. bigibbumA11 [=*Vappodes bigibbusC03]
  D. brevicaudumA11
  D. carroniiA11
  D. discolorA11
  D. linawianum [incl. *Ormostema purpurea]C03
  D. nobileA11
  D. phalaenopsisP88
  D. pierardii [incl. *Pierardia bicolor]C03
  D. tenellumP03
  D. teretifoliumH86
  D. umbellatomK03
  D. winikaphyllumA11

Coelandria andreemillariae (Reeve) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium andreemillariae Reeve 1982]C03

Coelandria chrysoglossa (Schlechter) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium chrysoglossum Schlechter 1912]C03

Coelandria coccinea (Kraenzlin) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium coccineum Kraenzlin in Engl. 1910]C03

Coelandria fornicata (Schlechter) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium fornicatum Schlechter 1912]C03

Coelandria obtusa (Schlechter) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium obtusum Schlechter in Schumann & Lauterb. 1905 non Reichenb. 1861]C03

*Coelandria smillieae (von Mueller) Fitzgerald 1882 [=Dendrobium smillieae von Mueller 1867, Callista smillieae (von Mueller) Kuntze 1891, Pedilonum smillieae (von Mueller) Rauschert 1983]C03

Dendrobium Swartz 1799 (nom. cons.) [=De. sect. Eudendrobium Lindley & Paxton in Paxton 1850–51; incl. Cepobaculum Clements & Jones 2002, Dockrillia Brieger 1981, Dendrobium sect. Eugenanthe Schlechter 1912, Ormostema Rafinesque-Schmaltz 1836, Peirardia Rafinesque-Schmaltz 1836, Vappodes Clements & Jones 2002, Winika Clements, Jones & Molloy 1997]C03

Dendrobium densiflorum [=Callista densiflora (Lindley) Kuntze 1891, D. (sect. *Densiflora) densiflorum; incl. *Endeisa flava]C03

*Dendrobium moniliformeC03 [=Epidendrum moniliforme Linnaeus 1753A11; incl. Ormostema albifloraC03, Epidendrum monileC03, Dendrobium monileC03]

Dendrobium sect. Callista [=Callista Loureiro 1790; incl. D. sect. Densiflora Finet 1903, Endeisa Rafinesque 1837]C03

Flickingeria Hawkes 1961A11, C03 [=Desmotrichum Blume 1825 (nom. rej.) non Kützing 1845 (nom. cons.)C03; incl. EphemeranthaC03]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A11] Adams, P. B. 2011. Systematics of Dendrobiinae (Orchidaceae), with special reference to Australian taxa. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 166: 105–126.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[C03] Clements, M. A. 2003. Molecular phylogenetic systematics in the Dendrobiinae (Orchidaceae), with emphasis on Dendrobium section Pedilonum. Telopea 10 (1): 247–298.

[GS03] Ghoshal, P. P., & S. Saha. 2003. A plea for the conservation of Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb.) Fischer (Orchidaceae). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 201–202.

[H86] Hamilton, A. G. 1886. List of the Orchideae of the Mudgee district. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (3): 865–878.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[P03] Partomihardjo, T. 2003. Colonisation of orchids on the Krakatau Islands. Telopea 10 (1): 299–310.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SS72] Singh, V., & H. Singh. 1972. A contribution to the flora of Gangolihat block in Pithoragarh District. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (2): 352–368.

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