Dendrochirotacea

Brown psolus Psolus phantapus, copyright Anne Frijsinger.

Belongs within: Holothuroidea.
Contains: Cucumariidae.

The Dendrochirotacea are a group of sea cucumbers characterised by the presence of pharyngeal retractor muscles (Ubaghs 1978).

Characters (from Ubaghs 1978): Tentacles without ampullae; pharyngeal respirator muscles present; podia and respiratory trees usually present; madreporite free in body cavity.

<==Dendrochirotacea
    |  i. s.: Clavallus spicaudina (Gutschick et al. 1967)SG93
    |--DactylochirotidaU78
    |    |--VaneyellidaeP66
    |    |--RhopalodinidaeP66
    |    `--YpsilothuriidaeSG93
    |         |--Ypsilothuria bitentaculata (Ludwig 1893)MG-H11
    |         |--Palaeoypsilus liassicus Gilliland 1992SG93
    |         `--EchinocucumisMG-H11
    |              |--E. hispidaBK77
    |              `--E. typicaN79
    `--DendrochirotidaU78
         |  i. s.: Cladodactyla senegalensis Panning 1940B01
         |         PseudocnusP66
         |         ThyonidiumBK77 [ThyonidiinaeP66]
         |           `--T. pellucidumBK77
         |         Binoculites Deflandre-Rigaud 1952P66, B01 [incl. Cucumariopsis Frentzen 1964FE66]
         |           |--*B. terquemi Deflandre-Rigaud 1952FE66
         |           |--B. irregularisFE66
         |           |--B. issleriFE66
         |           |--B. jurassicusFE66
         |           `--B. perforatusFE66
         |--CucumariidaeB01
         |--Paracucumis [Paracucumidae]P66
         |--Placothuria [Placothuriidae]P66
         |--Sclerodactylidae [Sclerodactylinae]P66
         |    |--Afrocucumis africana (Semper 1868)SM15
         |    `--Cladolabes [Cladolabinae]SM15
         |         |--C. aciculus (Semper 1868)SM15
         |         |--C. hamatus (Sluiter 1914)SM15
         |         `--C. schmeltzii (Ludwig 1875)SM15
         |--LudwigiidaeSG93
         |--Exlinella Deflandre-Rigaud 1961FE66 [ExlinellidaeSG93]
         |    `--*E. frizzelli Deflandre-Rigaud 1961FE66
         |--Kuehnites [Spinitidae]SG93
         |    `--K. acanthotheelioides Mostler 1968SG93
         |--HeterothyonidaeSG93
         |    |--Strobilothyone rogenti Smith & Gallemí 1991SG93
         |    `--HeterothyonePG98
         |         |--H. albaPG98
         |         `--H. ocnoidesPG98
         |--SchlumbergeritidaeP66
         |    |--Schlumbergerites Deflandre-Rigaud 1961FE66
         |    |    `--*S. sievertsae Deflandre-Rigaud 1961FE66
         |    `--Amphitriodites Deflandre-Rigaud 1961FE66
         |         `--*A. insignis Deflandre-Rigaud 1961FE66
         `--PsolidaeMG-H11
              |--Psolidium mccallumae O’Loughlin & Maric 2008MG-H11
              |--ThyonepsolusF67
              |--Monilipsolus mirabile Smith & Gallemí 1991SG93
              `--PsolusMG-H11
                   |--P. chitonoidesWL00
                   |--P. parmatus (Sluiter 1901) [=Psolidium parmatum]MG-H11
                   |--P. phantapusBK77
                   `--P. squamosusG20

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[B01] Boczarowski, A. 2001. Isolated sclerites of Devonian non-pelmatozoan echinoderms. Palaeontologia Polonica 59: 1–219.

[F67] Fell, H. B. 1967. Echinoderm ontogeny. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt S. Echinodermata 1. General characters. Homalozoa—Crinozoa (except Crinoidea) vol. 1 pp. S60–S85. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[FE66] Frizzell, D. L., & H. Exline. 1966. Holothuroidea—fossil record. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U646–U672. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[P66] Pawson, D. L. 1966. Phylogeny and evolution of holothuroids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U641–U646. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[PG98] Probert, P. K., & S. L. Grove. 1998. Macrobenthic assemblages of the continental shelf and upper slope off the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 28: 259–280.

[SG93] Simms, M. J., A. S. Gale, P. Gilliland, E. P. F. Rose & G. D. Sevastopulo. 1993. Echinodermata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 491–528. Chapman & Hall: London.

[U78] Ubaghs, G. 1978. Classification of the echinoderms. In: Moore, R. C., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea vol. 1 pp. T359–T367. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[WL00] Wray, G. A., & C. J. Lowe. 2000. Developmental regulatory genes and echinoderm evolution. Systematic Biology 49 (1): 28–51.

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