Dendroidea

Callograptus salteri, from here.

Belongs within: Graptolithina.
Contains: Dendrograptus, Dictyonema, Graptoloidea.

The Dendroidea are a group of upright sessile graptolites known from the Upper Cambrian to the Carboniferous. Dendroids are characterised by regular triad budding, in which the autothecae (major zooids) are always the central member of the triad, while the stolothecae (stem zooids) and bithecae (minor zooids) are each produced alternately on the left and right (Bulman 1970).

Characters (from Bulman 1970): Sessile, attached by apex of sicula, which is then generally more or less embedded in secondary cortical tissue forming a rootlike base, more rarely attached by a nema; stipes composed of stolothecae, autothecae and bithecae produced by regular triad budding; rhabdosome typically erect, dendroid in habit, developed by dichotomous or irregular branching, with anastomosis or disseptimental connection between adjacent stipes in many forms; pendent to horizontal (very rarely reclined) in forms with nema attachment.

<==Dendroidea [Axonolipa, Cladophora]
    |--Mastigograptidae [Mastigograptida]M14
    |    |--Micrograptus Eisenack 1974BU02
    |    `--Mastigograptus Ruedemann 1908MM13, BU02
    |         |--*M. tenuiramosus (Walcott 1879) [=Dendrograptus tenuiramosus]BU02
    |         |--M. gracillimus (Lesquereux 1878)BU02
    |         `--M. simplexMM13
    `--+--AcanthograptidaeB70
       |    |--Boiophyton Obrhel 1959M14
       |    |--Saxonia Roselt 1962M14
       |    |--Palaeodictyota Whitfield 1902B70
       |    |    |--P. anastomotica (Ringueberg 1888) (see below for synonymy)B70
       |    |    |--P. rotundatum Bouček 1957R93
       |    |    |--P. textorium (Počta 1894)R93
       |    |    `--P. undulatum (Počta 1894)R93
       |    |--Koremagraptus Bulman 1927M14 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |    |--*K. onniensis Bulman 1927B70
       |    |    |--*Archaeodictyota’ dragunovi Obut & Sobolevskaya 1967B70
       |    |    |--K. formosusB70
       |    |    |--*Trimerohydra’ glabra Kozłowski 1959B70
       |    |    `--K. kozlowskiiB70
       |    `--Acanthograptus Spencer 1878MM13, B70 [=AcanthograpsusB70]
       |         |--*A. granti Spencer 1878B70
       |         |--A. czarnockii Kozłowski 1948K48
       |         |--A. divergensB70
       |         |--A. imparB70
       |         |--A. jubatus Obut 1953 [=*Boucekocaulis jubatus]B70
       |         |--A. musciformisB70
       |         |--A. priscus Ruedemann 1947R93
       |         |--A. sinensisM14
       |         `--A. suecicusB70
       `--Dendrograptidae [Pseudodictyonemidae, Stelechocladiidae]B70
            |  i. s.: Aspidograptus Bulman 1934B70
            |           `--*A. implicatus (Hopkinson 1875) [=Clematograptus implicatus]B70
            |         Graptolodendrum Kozłowski 1966B70
            |           `--G. mutabile Kozłowski 1966B70
            |         Licnograptus Ruedemann 1947B70
            |           `--*L. elegans Ruedemann 1947B70
            |         Ptiograptus Ruedemann 1908B70
            |           `--*P. percorrugatus Ruedemann 1908B70
            |         Desmograptus Hopkinson in Hopkinson & Lapworth 1875 [incl. Rhizograpsus Spencer 1878, Rhizograptus]B70
            |           |--*D. cancellatus (Hopkinson 1875) [=Dictyograptus cancellatus]B70
            |           |--*Rhizograptus’ bulbosus Spencer 1878 [=Rhizograpsus bulbosus]B70
            |           |--D. formosusK48
            |           |--D. idoneusM14
            |           |--D. micronematoidesMM13
            |           |--*Syrrhipidograptus’ nathorsti Poulsen 1924B70
            |           |--D. quinquelateralis Sherrard 1956F71
            |           |--D. ruedemanni Kozłowski 1948K48
            |           `--D. spongiosus Sherrard 1956F71
            |         Callograptus Hall 1865 [incl. Capillograptus Bouček 1957, Odontocaulis Lapworth 1881]B70
            |           |--*C. elegans Hall 1865B70
            |           |--C. antiquus Ruedemann 1947R93
            |           |--C. arundinosus Sherrard 1956F71
            |           |--C. dichotomus Počta 1894 [=*Capillograptus dichotomus]B70
            |           |--C. disjectus Sherrard 1956F71
            |           |--C. epipterusCT83
            |           |--C. flabelliscusCT83
            |           |--C. infrabithecalis Kozłowski 1948K48
            |           |--‘*Odontocaulis’ keepingi Lapworth 1881B70
            |           |--C. obtortusCT83
            |           `--C. staufferiCT83
            |         Pseudocallograptus Skevington 1963M14
            |           `--*P. salteri (Hall 1865)B70, M14, B70 [=Callograptus (*Pseudocallograptus) salteriB70]
            |         Cactograptus Ruedemann 1908M14
            |           `--*C. crassus Ruedemann 1908B70
            |         Calyxdendrum Kozłowski 1960M14
            |           `--*C. graptoloides Kozłowski 1960B70
            |         Ptilograptus Hall 1865M14 [incl. Denticulograptus Schmidt 1939B14; Ptilograptidae]
            |           |--*P. plumosus Hall 1865B70
            |           |--P. acutus Hopkinson & Lapworth 1875 [=*Denticulograptus acutus]B70
            |           |--P. delicatulusB70
            |           |--P. pribyli Bouček 1957R93
            |           `--P. scalaris Sherrard 1956F71
            |         Ophigraptus Jaeger 1992M14
            |         Ruedemannograptus Termier & Termier 1948M14 [=Streptograptus Ruedemann 1947 non Yin 1937B70]
            |           `--*R. tenuis (Ruedemann 1947) [=*Streptograptus tenuis]B70
            |         Zigzagigraptus Yu 1962M14
            |--DendrograptusM14
            `--+--DictyonemaM14
               `--GraptoloideaM14

Koremagraptus Bulman 1927M14 [=Coremagraptus Bulman 1942M14; incl. Archaeodictyota Obut & Sobolevskaya 1967B70, Trimerohydra Kozłowski 1959B70]

Palaeodictyota anastomotica (Ringueberg 1888) [=Inocaulis anastomoticus; incl. I. ramulosus Whitfield 1902 non Spencer 1884, *Palaeodictyota ramulosa]B70

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BU02] Bates, D. E. B., & A. Urbanek. 2002. The ultrastructure, development, and systematic position of the graptolite genus Mastigograptus. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47 (3): 445–458.

[B70] Bulman, O. M. B. 1970. Graptolithina with sections on Enteropneusta and Pterobranchia. In: Teichert, C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt V 2nd ed. pp. V1–V149. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and the University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[CT83] Chen J.-Y. & C. Teichert. 1983. Cambrian Cephalopoda of China. Palaeontographica Abteilung A: Paläozoologie—Stratigraphie 181 (1–3): 1–102.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[K48] Kozłowski, R. 1948. Les graptolithes et quelques nouveaux groupes d’animaux du Tremadoc de la Pologne. Palaeontologica Polonica 3: i–xii, 1–235.

[M14] Maletz, J. 2014. The classification of the Pterobranchia (Cephalodiscida and Graptolithina). Bulletin of Geosciences 89 (3): 477–540.

[MCM09] Mitchell, C. E., M. J. Melchin, C. B. Cameron & J. Maletz. 2013. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Rhabdopleura is an extant graptolite. Lethaia 46: 34–56.

[R93] Rickards, R. B. 1993. Graptolithina. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 537–542. Chapman & Hall: London.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *