Dentalium

 Dentalium elephantium, from here.

Belongs within: Scaphopoda.

Dentalium is a cosmopolitan genus of tusk shells known from the Middle Triassic to the present day. In members of the type subgenus, the shell is prismatic or strongly ribbed, with a polygonal cross-section toward the apex. The subgenus Antalis is less strongly ribbed than Dentalium sensu stricto, without a polygonal cross-section and often with a V-shaped notch on or near the convex side of the apex. Fissidentalium species are large and solid with many longitudinal ribs and often with a long slit at the apex. Coccodentalium have strongly granose longitudinal ribs and often a truncate apex with a small central pipe (Ludbrook 1960).

Characters (from Ludbrook 1960): Shell curved and tapering, longitudinally sculptured, smooth or annulated. Embryonic whorls minute, fragile, lost at an early growth stage. Apex commonly modified by slit or notch due to absorption. Anterior aperture circular or oblique, in many forms modified by longitudinal ribbing.

<==Dentalium Linnaeus 1758DK08
    |--D. (Dentalium)S98
    |    |--*D. (D.) elephantium Linnaeus 1758S98 [incl. D. rectumD26, D. recurvumD26]
    |    |--D. (D.) gouldiiE52
    |    |    |--D. g. gouldiiE52
    |    |    `--D. g. portoricense Henderson 1920E52
    |    `--D. (D.) tiwhana Dell 1953P61
    |--D. (Antalis Adams & Adams 1854)L60 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--D. (*A.) entalis Linnaeus 1758L60 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--D. (A.) bartletti Henderson 1920 [=D. (Dentale) bartletti]E52
    |    |--D. (A.) ceratum Dall 1881 [=D. (Dentale) ceratum; incl. D. ceratum tenax]E52
    |    |--D. (A.) diarrhox Watson 1879P61
    |    |--D. (A.) glaucarena Dell 1953P61
    |    |--‘Antalis’ inaequicostatumBRW98
    |    |--D. (A.) nanum Hutton 1873 [incl. D. huttoni Kirk 1880, D. marwicki Mestayer 1926]P61
    |    |--D. (A.) pilsbryiGD00, GO06
    |    |--‘Antalis’ pretiosumBRW98
    |    |--D. (A.) suteri Emerson 1954 [incl. D. arenarium Suter 1907]P61
    |    `--D. (A.) vulgare Da Costa 1778KC11, E52 [=Antalis vulgarisKC11]
    |--D. (Coccodentalium Sacco 1896)L60
    |    |--D. (*C.) radula Schröter 1784L60
    |    `--D. (C.) carduus Dall 1889E52
    |--D. (Fissidentalium Fischer 1885) [incl. Schizodentalium Sowerby 1894]L60
    |    |--D. (*F.) ergasticum Fischer 1885L60
    |    |--D. (F.) mawsoni Ludbrook 1956DK08
    |    |--‘Fissidentalium’ megathyrisBRW98
    |    |--‘Fissidentalium’ otatumeiAJH07
    |    |--‘Fissidentalium’ shirleyae Lamprell & Healy 1998MG-H11
    |    |--D. (F.) solidum Hutton 1873B70, F27b
    |    |--‘Fissidentalium’ yokoyamaiBRW98
    |    `--D. (F.) zelandicum (Sowerby 1860)D56, P61
    |--D. (Graptacme Pilsbry & Sharp 1897)L60
    |    |--D. (*G.) eboreum Conrad 1846L60 [=Graptacme eboreaWT06]
    |    |--‘Graptacme’ aciculumBRW98
    |    `--D. (G.) sectum Deshayes 1826PP78
    `--D. (Tesseracme Pilsbry & Sharp 1898)L60
         |--D. (*T.) quadrapicale Sowerby 1860L60
         `--D. (T.) tesseragonum Sowerby 1832PP78
Dentalium incertae sedis:
  D. abbreviatum Deshayes 1826D26
  D. acuminatum Deshayes 1826D26
  D. acuticosta Deshayes 1826D26
  D. aequatoriumO27
  D. agassizii Pilsbry & Sharp 1897O27
  D. annulosum Brazier 1877H09
  D. aprinum [incl. D. striatulum]D26
  D. arcuatumD26
  D. batheri Finlay 1927 [=D. huttoni Bather 1905 non Kirk 1880]F27b
  D. bicarinatum Deshayes 1826D26
  D. bisexangulatum Sowerby 1860H09
  D. bouei Deshayes 1826D26
  D. brevifissum Deshayes 1826D26
  D. candidum [incl. D. solidum Verrill 1884 non Hutton 1873]F27b
  D. canna White 1874W77
  D. cheverti Sharp & Pilsbry 1897H09
  D. clathratum Martens 1881H09
  D. clavaD26
  D. coarctatumD26
  D. collinsae Lamprell & Healy 1998MG-H11
  D. compressum d’Orbigny 1850F27b
  D. ‘compressum’ Watson 1879 non d’Orbigny 1850F27b
  D. conicumH86a
  D. conspicuumPR79
  D. crassum Deshayes 1826D26
  D. dalli Pilsbry & Sharp 1897O27
  D. dentalis Linnaeus 1758L58 [incl. D. attenuatumD26]
  D. dispar Sowerby 1860H09
  D. disparileG79
  D. dufresnii Deshayes 1826D26
  D. duodecimcostatum Brazier 1877H09
  D. eburneumD26
  D. fisheri Stearns in Pilsbry 1897O27
  D. fissuraD26
  D. fossile [incl. D. costatum]D26
  D. giganteumH86a
  D. grande Deshayes 1826D26
  D. hexagonum Gould 1859MG-H11
  D. inaequicostatumGO06
  D. inversum Deshayes 1826D26
  D. javanum Sowerby 1860H09
  D. lacteum Deshayes 1826D26
  D. laeve Turton 1819F27b
  D. ‘laevis’ Schlotheim 1820 non D. laeve Turton 1819F27b
  D. laqueatumBRW98
  D. lessoni Deshayes 1826D26
  D. liratumC64
  D. longitrorsum Reeve 1842H09
  D. majusH86a
  D. mantelliH86b [incl. D. irregulareH86a, Entalis texturatusH86b]
  D. minutum Linnaeus 1758L58
  D. multistriatum Deshayes 1826D26
  D. nebulosumD26
  D. neohexagonum Sharp & Pilsbry 1897O27
  D. novemcostatum [incl. D. fasciatum]D26
  D. numerosum Dall 1897 [=D. oerstedtii numerosum]O27
  D. octangulatum Donovan 1803H09
  D. octogonumD26
  D. oerstedtiiO27
  D. otamaringaensis Marwick 1926F27a
  D. pacificumH79
  D. panormumPP64
  D. pareoraensis Pilsbry & Sharp 1897 (see below for synonymy)F27b
  D. politumD26
  D. potteri Lamprell & Healy 1998MG-H11
  D. pretiosum Sowerby 1860O27 [incl. D. indianorumC64]
  D. priscumW77
  D. pseudoentalisD26
  D. pseudosexagonum Deshayes 1826D26
  D. quadrangulareC64
  D. quadricostatum Brazier 1877H09
  D. rectius Carpenter 1864C64
  D. semipolitum Broderip & Sowerby 1829O27 [incl. D. hyalinumC64]
  D. semistriatum Deshayes 1826D26
  D. sexangulareD26
  D. sexangulumBRW98
  D. splendidumC64
  D. strangulatum Deshayes 1826D26
  D. striatumD26
  D. substriatum Deshayes 1826D26
  D. sulcatumD26
  D. tenueH86a
  D. translucidum Deshayes 1826D26
  D. vallicolens Raymond 1904O27
  D. variabile Deshayes 1826D26
  D. vernedeiPR79
  D. watsoni Sharp & Pilsbry 1897O27

Dentalium pareoraensis Pilsbry & Sharp 1897 [=D. laevis Hutton 1873 nec D. laeve Turton 1819 nec D. laevis Schlotheim 1820]F27b

Dentalium (Antalis Adams & Adams 1854)L60 [incl. Dentale Da Costa 1778 (nom. rej.)E52, Entaliopsis Newton & Harris 1894L60, Entalis Gray 1847 non Sowerby 1839L60; Antalinae]

Dentalium (*Antalis) entalis Linnaeus 1758L60 [incl. D. abyssorum Sars 1865N79, D. agile Sars 1872N79, D. entalis var. agileN79, D. striolatum Stimpson 1851N79, D. entalis var. striolatumN79, D. tarentinumD26]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[BRW98] Beesley, P. L., G. J. B. Ross & A. Wells (eds) 1998. Fauna of Australia vol. 5. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Part A. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[B70] Beu, A. G. 1970. Bathyal Upper Miocene Mollusca from Wairarapa district, New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Earth Sciences 7 (12): 209–240.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[D56] Dell, R. K. 1956. The archibenthal Mollusca of New Zealand. Dominion Museum Bulletin 18: 1–235.

[D26] Deshayes, G.-P. 1826. Anatomie et monographe du genre Dentale. Mémoires de la Société d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris, ser. 2, 2 (2): 321–378, 4 pls.

[E52] Emerson, W. K. 1952. The scaphopod mollusks collected by the first Johnson-Smithsonian deep-sea expedition. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 117 (6): 1–14.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[GD00] Giribet, G., D. L. Distel, M. Polz, W. Sterrer & W. C. Wheeler. 2000. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: a combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology. Systematic Biology 49: 539–562.

[GO06] Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (20): 7723–7728.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[H79] Haast, J. von. 1879. Geology of the Provinces of Canterbury and Westland, New Zealand. A report comprising the results of official explorations. “Times” Office: Christchurch.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H86a] Hutton, F. W. 1886a. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[H86b] Hutton, F. W. 1886b. Notes on some Australian Tertiary fossils. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 481–482.

[KC11] Kocot, K. M., J. T. Cannon, C. Todt, M. R. Citarella, A. B. Kohn, A. Meyer, S. R. Santos, C. Schander, L. L. Moroz, B. Lieb & K. M. Halanych. 2011. Phylogenomics reveals deep molluscan relationships. Nature 477: 452–456.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[L60] Ludbrook, N. H. 1960. Scaphopoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I37–I41. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[PR79] Pojeta, J., Jr & B. Runnegar. 1979. Rhytiodentalium kentuckyensis, a new genus and new species of Ordovician scaphopod, and the early history of scaphopod mollusks. Journal of Paleontology 53 (3): 530–541.

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[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[WT06] Waeschenbach, A., M. J. Telford, J. S. Porter & D. T. J. Littlewood. 2006. The complete mitochondrial genome of Flustrellidra hispida and the phylogenetic position of Bryozoa among the Metazoa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 195–207.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

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