Diatomeae

Girdle view of Corethron criophilum, copyright Wendy Kozlowski.

Belongs within: Diatomista.
Contains: Nitzschiella, MelosiraceaeRhizosolenia, Mediophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Biddulphioideae, Heliopeltaceae, Hemidiscaceae, Coscinodiscus.

The Diatomeae, diatoms, are a group of mostly photosynthetic protists with a cell wall composed of a pair of siliceous valves.

The Eucentricophycidae is a group containing the majority of radial centric diatoms.

The Rhizosoleniaceae are a group of centric diatoms in which the cylindrical cells are united in chains.

Characters (from Adl et al. 2012): Vegetative cells cylindrical with a circular, elongate or multipolar cross-section, lacking any trace of cilia except as the sperm of centric lineages; cell wall complete, composed of tightly integrated silicified elements and comprised of two valves, one at each end of cell, with several girdle bands as hoops or segments covering cylindrical ‘girdle’ lying between valves; chloroplasts usually present, bounded by four membranes, and with lamellae of three thylakoids and a ring nucleoid (rarely multiple nucleoids); ciliated sperm cells bearing a single anterior cilium with a 9 + 0 axoneme and mastigonemes; life cycle diplontic and of unique pattern with slow size reduction over several years during the phase, caused by an unusual internal wall morphogenesis, alternating with rapid size restitution via a growth phase (auxospore) over several days.

<==Diatomeae (see below for synonymy)C-S18
|--Ellerbeckia [Ellerbeckiophytina]AB19
|--Arachnoidiscus [Arachnoidiscophytina]AB19
| |--A. ehrenbergiiM01c
| `--A. ornatusM01c
|--MelosirophytinaAB19
| | i. s.: Paralia sulcataAB19, B26
| | Aulacoseira distansAB19, C-SC06
| `--MelosiraceaeC-SC06
|--Probosciaceae [Probosciophytina]AB19
| |--KreagraJL04
| `--Proboscia Sundström 1986 [incl. Simonseniella]JL04
| |--*P. alata [=Rhizosolenia alata, Simonseniella alata; incl. R. alata f. genuina, R. alata f. gracillima]JL04
| |--P. indica (Peragallo) Hernández-Becerril 1995 (see below for synonymy)JL04
| `--P. subarctica [incl. Rhizosolenia alata f. curvirostris]JL04
|--Rhizosoleniaceae [Rhizosoleniales, Rhizosoleniophycidae, Rhizosoleniophytina]RA05
| |--PseudosoleniaJL04
| |--RhizosoleniaKI02
| `--GuinardiaRA05
| |--G. flaccidaRA05
| `--G. striataSS10
|--Bacillariophytina [Biddulphieae]AB19
| |--MediophyceaeAB19
| |--BacillariophyceaeC-SC06
| `--BiddulphiophyceaeAB19
| |--BiddulphioideaeEB93
| `--Attheya West 1860AB19
| `--A. decoraG64
|--LeptocylindrophytinaAB19
| |--Corethron [Corethrales, Corethrophyceae, Corethrophycidae]C-SC06
| | |--C. criophilumC-SC06
| | `--C. valdiviaeB26
| `--LeptocylindrophyceaeAB19
| |--TenuicylindrusAB19
| `--Leptocylindrus [Leptocylindraceae]EB93
| `--*L. danicusJL04
`--Coscinodiscophytina [Coscinodisceae]AB19
| i. s.: StellarimaAB19
| Systephania anglicaG64
|--HeliopeltaceaeAB19
|--HemidiscaceaeAB19
|--Coscinodiscaceae [Coscinodiscales, Coscinodisceae]C-SC06
| |--CoscinodiscusG75
| |--BenethorasEB93
| |--GossleriellaEB93
| |--IsodiscusEB93
| |--KozloviellaEB93
| |--PomphodiscusEB93
| `--PseudotriceratiumEB93
`--AsterolampraceaeEB93
|--Asterolampra eximiaH04
|--Bergonia primitivaEB93
|--BrightwelliaEB93
|--RylandsiaEB93
`--AsteromphalusAB19
|--A. elegansM01c
|--A. flabellatusM01c
|--A. heptactis [incl. Spatangidium ralfsianum]M01c
`--A. imbricatusH04

Diatomeae incertae sedis:
Planothidium quadripunctatum (Oppenheim) Sabbe in Sabbe, Verleyen et al. 2003 (see below for synonymy)SV03
Nanofrustulum shiloi (Lee, Reimer & McEnery) Round, Hallenstein & Paasche 1999 (see below for synonymy)SV03
Chamaepinnularia krookii [=Pinnularia krookii]SV03
Eucocconeis austriaca [=Achnanthes austriaca]SV03
Pseudostaurosira perminutaSV03
Staurophora (nom. cons.)C03
Alveus marinusP98
Dictyopyxis Ehrenberg 1844FT93
StauroformaSV03
|--S. exiguiformisSV03
`--S. inermis Flower, Jones & Round 1996SV03
MuelleriaSV03
|--M. gibbula [=Navicula gibbula]SV03
`--M. peraustralis (West & West) Spaulding & Stoermer 1997SV03
CraspedostaurosSV03
|--C. britannicusSV03
|--C. indubitabilisSV03
`--C. laevissimus (West & West) Sabbe in Sabbe, Verleyen et al. 2003 (see below for synonymy)SV03
PsammothidiumSV03
|--P. abundans (Manguin) Bukhtiyarova & Round 1996SV03
|--P. chlidanosSV03
|--P. daonenseSV03
|--P. germainii (Manguin) Sabbe in Sabbe, Verleyen et al. 2003 [=Achnanthes germainii]SV03
|--P. helveticumSV03
|--P. marginulatumSV03
|--P. metakryophilum (Lange-Bertalot & Schmidt) Sabbe in Sabbe, Verleyen et al. 2003 (see below for synonymy)SV03
|--P. stauroneioides (Manguin) Bukhtiyarova 1996 [=P. stauroneioideum (l. c.)]SV03
`--P. subatomoidesSV03
BrachysiraThJ06
|--B. aponinaTaJ06
`--B. brebissoniiThJ06
Ctenophora pulchellaTaJ06
Fallacia pygmaeaTaJ06
Glyphodesmis Greville 1862G75
|--G. distansG75
`--G. marginataCFW59
Scolioneis tumidaUPS98
Coscinosira polychordaB26
Stictodesmis Grev. 1863CFW59
`--S. australis Grev. 1863CFW59
Denticella regiaH04
Pyrgodiscus armatusH04
GephyriaM01c
|--G. constrictaH04
`--G. mediaM01c
Amphithetras elegansH04
PyxillaceaeEB93
|--GyrodiscusEB93
|--PyxillaEB93
`--GladiusEB93
|--G. antiquusEB93
`--G. perfectusEB93
ProtoraphidaceaeEB93
|--ProtoraphisEB93
`--PseudohimantidiumEB93
AuriculaceaeEB93
|--HustedtiaEB93
`--Auricula Castrac. 1873 (nom. cons.) non Lamarck 1799 (ICZN)KC01
|--A. cholnokyi Giffen 1963G63
`--A. minuta Cleve 1895G63
Amblypyrgus campanellusEB93
Ancylopyrgus reticulatusEB93
Archepyrgus melosiroidesEB93
Basilicostephanus ornatusEB93
Bilingua rossiiEB93
Gladiopsis lagenoidesEB93
Kerkis bispinosaEB93
Keagra bifaclcataEB93
Microorbic convexusEB93
Praethallssiosiropsis hasleaeEB93
Rhynchopyxis siphonoidesEB93
Calyptosporium carinatumEB93
Cypellachaetes intricatusEB93
Hyalotrochuis imcompositusEB93
Dasyangea dactylethraEB93
BaxteriopsisEB93
ClimacodiumEB93
GoniotheciumEB93
MonobrachiaEB93
OdonotropisEB93
PseudostictodiscusEB93
Brebissonia boeckiiM01a
NitzschiellaM01b
Clavicula recensM01c
Porpeia quadrataM01c
PodosiraM01c
|--P. febigeriiM01c
|--P. fuscaM01c
|--P. hormoidesG64
|--P. laevisG64
|--P. maculataG64
`--P. montagneiG63
Cavinula pseudoscutiformisVVZ11
Druridgia geminataG64
OrthosiraG64
|--O. angulataG64
|--O. arenariaG64
|--O. dickieiiG64
|--O. italica [incl. O. orichalcea]G64
|--O. mirabilisG64
|--O. oceanica [=Endictya oceanica]G64
|--O. punctataG64
|--O. roseana [incl. O. spinosa]G64
`--O. sulcata [incl. O. marina]G64
Syndendrium diademaG64

Craspedostauros laevissimus (West & West) Sabbe in Sabbe, Verleyen et al. 2003 [=Tropidoneis laevissima West & West 1911]SV03

Diatomeae [Araphidineae, Bacillariophyta, Biddulphiaceae, Biddulphiales, Centrales, Centricophyceae, Chaetocereae, Coscinophytina, Coscinopiscophyceae, Diatomea, Discineae, Eucentricophycidae, Hemiauloideae, Melosireae, Pennales]C-S18

Nanofrustulum shiloi (Lee, Reimer & McEnery) Round, Hallenstein & Paasche 1999 [=Fragilaria shiloi Lee, Reimer & McEnery 1980, Pseudostaurosira shiloi (Lee, Reimer & McEnery) Hallegraeff & Burford 1996; incl. Opephora krumbeinii Witkowski, Witak & Stachura 1999, Fragilaria sopotensis Witkowski 1994]SV03

Planothidium quadripunctatum (Oppenheim) Sabbe in Sabbe, Verleyen et al. 2003 [=Achnanthes quadripunctata Oppenheim 1994]SV03

Proboscia indica (Peragallo) Hernández-Becerril 1995 [=Rhizosolenia indica Peragallo 1892, R. alata f. indica (Peragallo) Gran 1908, R. alata var. indica (Peragallo) Ostenfeld & Schmidt 1901; incl. R. arafurensis, R. alata var. corpulenta Cleve 1897, R. alata f. corpulenta (Cleve) Peragallo & Peragallo 1897–1908, R. corpulenta (Cleve) Cleve 1901, R. quadriiuncta, R. quadrijuncta]JL04

Psammothidium metakryophilum (Lange-Bertalot & Schmidt) Sabbe in Sabbe, Verleyen et al. 2003 [=Achnanthes metakryophila Lange-Bertalot & Schmidt in Schmidt et al. 1990]SV03

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AB19] Adl, S. M., D. Bass, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov, S. Agatha, C. Berney, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, P. Cárdenas, I. Čepička, L. Chistyakova, J. del Campo, M. Dunthorn, B. Edvardsen, Y. Eglit, L. Guillou, V. Hampl, A. A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, T. Y. James, A. Karnkowska, S. Karpov, E. Kim, M. Kolisko, A. Kudryavtsev, D. J. G. Lahr, E. Lara, L. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, D. G. Mann, R. Massana, E. A. D. Mitchell, C. Morrow, J. S. Park, J. W. Pawlowski, M. J. Powell, D. J. Richter, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, S. Shimano, F. W. Spiegel, G. Torruella, N. Youssef, V. Zlatogursky & Q. Zhang. 2019. Revisions to the classification, nomenclature, and diversity of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 66: 4–119.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[C-S18] Cavalier-Smith, T. 2018. Kingdom Chromista and its eight phyla: a new synthesis emphasising periplastid protein targeting, cytoskeletal and periplastid evolution, and ancient divergences. Protoplasma 255: 297–357.

[C-SC06] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2006. Phylogeny and megasystematics of phagotrophic heterokonts (kingdom Chromista). Journal of Molecular Evolution 62: 388–420.

[C03] Compère, P. 2003. Report of the Committee for Algae: 7. Taxon 52: 339–340.

[CFW59] Crosby, L. H., & E. J. Ferguson Wood. 1959. Studies on Australian and New Zealand diatoms. II.—Normally epontic and benthic genera. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 1–58, pls 1–9.

[EB93] Edwards, D., J. G. Baldauf, P. R. Brown, K. J. Dorning, M. Feist, L. T. Gallagher, N. Grambast-Fessard, M. B. Hart, A. J. Powell & R. Riding. 1993. ‘Algae’. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 15–40. Chapman & Hall: London.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[G63] Giffen, M. H. 1963. Contributions to the diatom flora of South Africa. I. Diatoms of the estuaries of the eastern Cape Province. Hydrobiologia 21: 201–265.

[G75] Giffen, M. H. 1975. An account of the littoral diatoms from Langebaan, Saldanha Bay, Cape Province, South Africa. Botanica Marina 18: 71–95.

[G64] Gray, J. E. 1864. Handbook of British Water-weeds or Algae. R. Hardwicke: London.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[JL04] Jordan, R. W., & R. Ligowski. 2004. New observations on Proboscia auxospores and validation of the family Probosciaceae fam. nov. Vie et Milieu 54 (2–3): 91–103.

[KI02] Kawachi, M., I. Inouye, D. Honda, C. J. O’Kelly, J. C. Bailey, R. R. Bidigare & R. A. Andersen. 2002. The Pinguiophyceae classis nova, a new class of photosynthetic stramenopiles whose members produce large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids. Phycological Research 50: 31–47.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[M01a] Mereschkowsky, C. 1901a. A list of Californian diatoms. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 292–300.

[M01b] Mereschkowsky, C. 1901b. A list of Californian diatoms (continued). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 474–480.

[M01c] Mereschkowsky, C. 1901c. A list of Californian diatoms (concluded). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 505–520, pls 4–5.

[P98] Prothero, D. R. 1998. Bringing Fossils to Life: An introduction to paleobiology. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[RA05] Rath, J., & S. P. Adhikary. 2005. A check list of algae from Chilika Lake, Orissa. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1–4): 101–114.

[SV03] Sabbe, K., E. Verleyen, D. A. Hodgson, K. Vanhoutte & W. Vyverman. 2003. Benthic diatom flora of freshwater and saline lakes in the Larsemann Hills and Rauer Islands, East Antarctica. Antarctic Science 15 (2): 227–248.

[SS10] Sun, X., & S. Sun. 2010. Long term changes in the ecosystem of Jiaozhou Bay, China. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 131–133. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

[TaJ06] Taukulis, F. E., & J. John. 2006. Diatoms as ecological indicators in lakes and streams of varying salinity from the wheatbelt region of Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (1): 17–25.

[ThJ06] Thomas, E. J., & J. John. 2006. Diatoms and macroinvertebrates as biomonitors of mine-lakes in Collie, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (3): 109–117.

[UPS98] Underwood, G. J. C., J. Phillips & K. Saunders. 1998. Distribution of estuarine benthic diatom species along salinity and nutrient gradients. European Journal of Phycology 33: 173–183.

[VVZ11] Van de Vijver, B., R. Zidarova, M. Sterken, E. Verleyen, M. de Haan, W. Vyverman, F. Hinz & K. Sabbe. 2011. Revision of the genus Navicula s.s. (Bacillariophyceae) in inland waters of the sub-Antarctic and Antarctic with the description of five new species. Phycologia 50 (3): 281–297.

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