Dicranaceae

 Dichodontium pellucidum, photographed by Hermann Schachner.

Belongs within: Dicranideae.
Contains: Dicranoloma, Campylopus, Dicranum, Dicranella.

The Dicranaceae are a large family of mosses that generally have erect, often tomentose stems and narrow, lanceolate or falcate leaves (R. R. Ireland Jr). The circumscription of the family has varied somewhat between authors, with some groups such as Trematodontoideae sometimes treated as separate families. Within the Dicranaceae, members of the Dicranoideae are usually tall, branched mosses with leaves bearing enlarged, often inflated cells at angles. Dicranelloideae are mostly small and scarcely branched, without special angular cells in the leaves (Dixon 1924).

Characters (from Moss Flora of China): Plants small to robust, green to yellowish green or brownish green, in loose or dense, usually radiculose tufts. Stems often erect, simple or forked, rounded, rarely triangular, usually with central strand. Leaves in many rows, usually falcate-secund, mostly narrowly oblong-lanceolate, often broader at base, subulate in the upper half; margins plane or recurved, entire or serrulate to serrate; costa single, usually strong and long, ending near the leaf apex or excurrent, in cross section mostly with a row of median central guide cells; upper leaf cells variable in shape, smooth, rarely mammillose or papillose, lower laminal cells often elongate, alar cells often clearly differentiated. Dioicous or autoicous. Perichaetial leaves usually differentiated, sheathing at base. Setae mostly elongate, rarely very short, straight, flexuose or cygneous; capsules often exserted, erect, curved or inclined, ovoid, cylindric or pyriform, sometimes strumose at base; opercula generally differentiated, obliquely rostrate from a conic base; annuli present or absent, simple to complex; stomata present or absent; peristome teeth rarely lacking, usually present, well developed, 16, often reddish, dicranate to the middle, mostly lanceolate, deeply split into 2(–3) divisions, sometimes entire, vertically striate or smooth below, smooth or papillose above. Calyptrae cucullate, entire, smooth or sometimes fringed at base.

<==Dicranaceae [Dicraneae]
    |--Mesotus Mitt. 1867SK02 [MesotoideaeO02]
    |    `--M. celatus Mitt. 1867 [incl. M. acutus Mitt. 1882]SK02
    |--Dicnemonoideae [Dicnemonaceae]O02
    |    |--Synodontia aneitensis Brotherus & Watts 1915BW15
    |    `--Dicnemon Schwägr. 1824SK02
    |         `--D. calycinum (Hooker) Schwägr. 1824 [=Dicnemos calycinus (l. c.)]SK02
    |--Campylopoideae [Brotheroideae]O02
    |    |--CampylopusO02
    |    |--MetzleriaO02
    |    |--Pilopogon blumiiO02, BW15
    |    |--SphaerotheciumO02
    |    |--Bryohumbertia filifoliaO02, J87
    |    |--Brothera leanaO02, N02
    |    `--Dicranodontium Bruch & Schimp. in Bruch, Schimp. & Gümbel 1847O02, S04
    |         |--D. asperulum (Mitt.) Broth. 1901S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--D. caespitosumN02
    |         |--D. capillifoliumN02
    |         |--D. denudatum (Brid.) Britton 1913S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--D. didictyonN02
    |         |--D. tapes (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900 [=Dicranum tapes]SK02
    |         `--D. uncinatum (Harv.) Jaeger 1880S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Dicranoideae [Paraleucobryoideae]O02
    |    |--DicranumO02
    |    |--Arctoa Bruch & Schimp. in Bruch, Schimp. & Gümbel 1846S04
    |    |    `--A. fulvella (Dicks.) Bruch & Schimp. in Bruch et al. 1846S04 [=Bryum fulvellumD24, Dicranum fulvellumS04]
    |    |--Paraleucobryum (Limpr.) Loeske 1908O02, S04
    |    |    |--P. enerve (Thed.) Loeske 1908 [=Dicranum enerve; incl. D. albicans]OZB-O03
    |    |    |--P. longifolium (Ehrh. ex Hedw.) Loeske 1908S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |    |--P. l. var. longifoliumOZB-O03
    |    |    |    `--P. l. var. subalpinum (Milde) Casares-Gil 1932 [=Dicranum longifolium var. subalpinum]OZB-O03
    |    |    `--P. sauteri (Bruch & Schimp.) Loeske 1908 [=Dicranum longifolium var. sauteri]OZB-O03
    |    `--Kiaeria Hagen 1915S04
    |         |--K. blyttii (Bruch & Schimp.) Broth. 1923 [=Dicranum blyttii]S04
    |         |--K. falcata (Hedw.) Hagen 1915S04 [=Dicranum falcatumS04, Oncophorus falcatusOZB-O03; incl. D. mediellumD24]
    |         |--K. glacialis (Berggr.) Hagen 1915 [=Dicranum glaciale]S04
    |         |--K. pumila (Mitt.) Ochyra 1993 [incl. Holodontium falcatum (R.Br.bis) Wijk & Margad. 1960]SK02
    |         `--K. starkei (Weber & Mohr) Hagen 1915SK02 [=Dicranum starkeiSK02, Oncophorus starkeiOZB-O03]
    `--Dicranelloideae [Anisothecioideae, Campylopodioideae, Dicranelleae]O02
         |--DicranellaO02
         |--AongstroemiopsisO02
         |--PolymerodonO02
         |--MicrocampylopusO02
         |--CampylopodiellaO02
         |--Microdus Schimp. 1872O02, SK02
         |--Aongstroemia Bruch & Schimp. in Bruch et al. 1846S04
         |    |--A. longipes (Sommerf.) Bruch & Schimp. in Bruch et al. 1846S04
         |    `--A. orientalisN02
         |--Campylopodium (Müll.Hal.) Besch. 1873O02, SK02
         |    |--C. integrumB57
         |    |--C. lineare (Mitt.) Dixon 1914 [incl. Cynodontium tasmanicum]SK02
         |    `--C. medium (Duby) Giese & Grahm 1985 [incl. C. euphorocladum, C. flexipes]SK02
         `--Leptotrichella (Müll.Hal.) Lindb. 1865SK02
              |--L. sinensisB-OO10
              `--L. tenax (Müll.Hal.) Ochyra 1997 (see below for synonymy)SK02
                   |--L. t. var. tenaxSK02
                   `--L. t. var. longipes (Müll.Hal.) Ochyra 1997 (see below for synonymy)SK02
Dicranaceae incertae sedis:
  Cladophascum gymnomitrioidesFHH01
  SymblepharisFHH01
    |--S. oncophoroidesB-OO10
    `--S. vaginataFHH01
  AtractylocarpusN02
    |--A. longisetusJ87
    `--A. sinensisN02
  DicranolomaSK02
  Eucamptodon Montagne 1845SK02
    |--E. inflatusM49
    |--E. muelleri Hampe & Müll. Hal. 1870 [=Encamptodon (l. c.) muelleri]SK02
    |    |--E. m. var. muelleri (see below for synonymy)SK02
    |    `--E. m. var. norrisii Allen 1987SK02
    `--E. scalarirete (Dixon) Tan, Ramsay & Schofield 1996 [=Acroporium scalarirete Dixon 1942]SK02
  Holomitrium Brid. 1826SK02
    |--H. calycinumJ87
    |--H. dietrichiae Müll.Hal. 1872 (n. d.)SK02
    |--H. perichaetiale (Hooker) Brid. 1826 (see below for synonymy)SK02
    |    |--H. p. var. perichaetiale (see below for synonymy)SK02
    |    `--H. p. var. robustum Broth. & Watts 1915SK02
    `--H. vaginatum [incl. H. cylindraceum]SK02
  Sclerodontium Schwägr. 1824SK02
    |--S. clavinerve (Müll.Hal.) Crum 1986 (see below for synonymy)SK02
    `--S. pallidum (Hooker) Schwägr. 1823 (see below for synonymy)SK02
  Dicnemoloma (Renauld) Renauld 1901SK02
  Hollia Sieber 1826SK02
  Leucoloma Brid. 1827 (nom. cons.)SK02
    |--L. bauerae (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900 [=Dicranum bauerae]SK02
    |--L. circinatulum Bartram 1952SK02
    |--L. molle (Müll.Hal.) Mitt. 1859 [incl. L. subintegrum Broth. 1891]SK02
    |--L. serrulatumJ87
    |--L. subtenuifolium Brotherus & Watts 1915 [=L. (Subvittata) subtenuifolium]BW15
    `--L. tenuifoliumB57
Nomina nuda: Holomitrium corticola Broth. ex Müll.Hal. 1901 [=H. corticolum]SK02
             Holomitrium novae-valesiae Müll.Hal. ex Geh. 1876SK02

Dicranodontium asperulum (Mitt.) Broth. 1901S04 [=Dicranum asperulumS04; incl. Dicranodontium aristatumOZB-O03, Dicranum aristatumD24, Dicranodontium asperulum var. falcatumOZB-O03]

Dicranodontium denudatum (Brid.) Britton 1913S04 [=Didymodon denudatusS04; incl. Campylopus alpinusD24, Dicranodontium denudatum var. alpinumOZB-O03, Dicranodontium longirostre var. alpinumD24, Dicranodontium denudatum var. fulgidumOZB-O03, Dicranodontium longirostre var. fulgidumOZB-O03, Dicranodontium longirostreS04, Didymodon longirostrisOZB-O03, Dicranodontium longirostre var. montanumOZB-O03, Dicranum notabileD24, Dicranodontium longirostre var. subalpinumOZB-O03]

Dicranodontium uncinatum (Harv.) Jaeger 1880S04 [=Dicranum uncinatumS04, Thysanomitrium uncinatumD24; incl. Dicranum capnodesD24, Dicranodontium circinatumD24, Dicranum circinatumOZB-O03]

Eucamptodon muelleri Hampe & Müll. Hal. 1870 var. muelleri [incl. Dicnemon enerve (n. n.), Eucamptodon hampeanus Müll.Hal. 1901 (n. n.), Dicnemon muellerianum Watts & Whitel. 1902 (nom. inv.), Dicnemos muelerianus, Hollia myrmecoa Sieber 1826 (n. n.), Leucodon perichaetialis Hampe ex Müll.Hal. 1901, Eucamptodon squarrosus Besch. 1873]SK02

Holomitrium perichaetiale (Hooker) Brid. 1826 [=Trichostomum perichaetiale, Sprucea perichaetialis, Symblepharis perichaetialis]SK02

Holomitrium perichaetiale (Hooker) Brid. 1826 var. perichaetiale [incl. Sclerodontium fraseri, Dicnemoloma fraseri (Mitt.) Renauld 1909, Dicnemonella fraseri (n. n.), Leucoloma fraseri, Holomitrium hodgkinsoniae, H. muelleri, H. hodgkinsoniae var. virescens, H. whiteleggei (nom. inv.)]SK02

Leptotrichella tenax (Müll.Hal.) Ochyra 1997 [=Angstroemia tenax, Dicranella tenax, Microdus tenax (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900]SK02

Leptotrichella tenax var. longipes (Müll.Hal.) Ochyra 1997 [=Angstroemia tenax var. longipes, Dicranella tenax var. longipes, Microdus tenax var. longipes (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900]SK02

Paraleucobryum longifolium (Ehrh. ex Hedw.) Loeske 1908S04 [=Dicranum longifoliumS04; incl. D. longifolium f. hamatumOZB-O03, D. longifolium var. orthophyllum non D. scoparium var. orthophyllum Brid. 1806OZB-O03]

Sclerodontium clavinerve (Müll.Hal.) Crum 1986 [=Dicnemoloma clavinerve (Müll.Hal.) Renauld 1909, Leucoloma clavinerve]SK02

Sclerodontium pallidum (Hooker) Schwägr. 1823 [=Leucodon pallidus, Dicnemoloma pallidum (Hooker) Wijk & Margad. 1960, Dicnemon pallidum, Dicnemonella pallida, Neckera pallida, Trematodon pallidus; incl. Leucoloma brachypelmatum (n. n.), Sclerodontium brachypelmatum Watts & Whitel. 1902 (n. n.), Dicranum hypnoides (nom. inv.), Leucoloma imbricatum, Dicnemoloma imbricatum (Broth. & Geh.) Renauld 1909, Dicnemoloma incanum, Leucoloma incanum, Leucoloma sieberianum f. longipila, Leucoloma sieberi f. rigida Bailey 1888 (n. n.), Leucoloma sieberianum f. rigida Broth. ex Bailey 1913 (n. n.), Dicnemoloma sieberi (nom. illeg.), Leucoloma sieberi (nom. illeg.), Dicranum sieberianum, Dicnemoloma sieberianum, Leucoloma sieberianum, Dicnemoloma strictipilum (Müll.Hal.) Renauld 1909]SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B57] Bartram, E. B. 1957. Additional Fijian mosses, III. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (12): 392–396.

[B-OO10] Bednarek-Ochyra, H., & R. Ochyra. 2010. Bucklandiella shevockii (Bryophyta, Grimmiaceae), an exquisite new species from Yunnan, China. Polish Botanical Journal 55 (2): 499–506.

[BW15] Brotherus, V. F., & W. W. Watts. 1915. The mosses of the New Hebrides [part 1]. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (1): 127–144.

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student’s Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431–445.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[M49] Martin, W. 1949. Distribution of the mosses indigenous to New Zealand (supplement no. 1). Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 355–360.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418–433.

[O02] Ochyra, R. 2002. Nomenclatural changes in subfamilies of the Dicranaceae. Cryptogamie, Bryologie 23 (4): 345–349.

[OZB-O03] Ochyra, R., J. Żarnowiec & H. Bednarek-Ochyra. 2003. Census Catalogue of Polish Mosses. Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences: Cracow.

[S04] Smith, A. J. E. 2004. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

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