Dicellograptus forchammeri, from Ruedemann 1947.

Belongs within: Axonophora.

The Dicranograptidae are a group of graptoloids from the Upper Ordovician, characterised by a simple sicula with a dorsal sinus, and partial or complete monoseriality (Fortey & Cooper 1986).

The Nemagraptidae are a group of graptoloids known from the Ordovician, with slender stipes that may bear lateral branches (Bulman 1970).

<==Dicranograptidae [Dicellograpta, Dicranograptacae, Dicranograptacea, Dicranograptinae, Dicranograptoidea]
    |--Dicranograptus Hall 1865M14, B70 [incl. Cladograpsus Emmons 1855 non Geinitz 1852B70, Diceratograptus Mu 1963B70]
    |    |--*D. ramosus (Hall 1848)B70 [=Graptolithus ramosusB70, G. (Climacograptus) ramosusW77]
    |    |--D. clinganiB70
    |    |--*Cladograpsus’ dissimilis Emmons 1855B70
    |    |--D. furcatusB70
    |    |    |--D. f. furcatusB70
    |    |    `--D. f. bispiralisB70
    |    |--D. hians [incl. D. hians var. apertus Hall 1909]F71
    |    |--D. irregularisM14
    |    |--*Diceratograptus’ mirus Mu 1963B70
    |    |--D. nicholsoniB70
    |    |--D. pringleiB70
    |    |--D. rectusF71
    |    |--D. sextans [=Graptolithus sextans]W77
    |    `--D. ziczac [incl. D. ziczac var. minimus]F71
    `--+--Nemagraptinae [Nemagraptidae]M14
       |    |--Ordosograptus Lin 1980M14
       |    |--Pleurograptus Nicholson 1867 (see below for synonymy)B70
       |    |    `--*P. linearis (Carruthers 1858) [=*Cladograpsus linearis]B70
       |    `--Nemagraptus Emmons 1855 (see below for synonymy)B70
       |         |--*N. gracilis (Hall 1848) (see below for synonymy)B70
       |         |--N. explanatus [incl. N. explanatus var. pertenuis]F71
       |         |--N. linmassiae Finney 1985M14
       |         `--*Geitonograptus’ suni Obut & Zubtzov 1964B70
       `--Dicellograptus Hopkinson 1871M14, B70 [=DicellograpsusB70]
            |--*D. elegans (Carruthers 1868)B70 [=Didymograptus elegansB70; incl. D. affinis Hall 1902F71]
            |--D. anceps (Nicholson 1867)R93
            |--D. angulatusF71
            |--D. caduceusF71
            |--D. clinganiC68
            |--D. complanatusF71
            |    |--D. c. complanatusF71
            |    `--D. c. ornatusF71
            |--D. divaricatus [incl. D. divaricatus var. rigidis]F71
            |--D. forchammeriF71
            |--D. geniculatusB70
            |--D. gravisLM05
            |--D. moffatensis Carruthers 1858R93
            |--D. morrisiF71
            |--D. patulosusF71
            |--D. pumilusF71
            |--D. sextansF71
            |    |--D. s. sextansC68
            |    `--D. s. exilisC68
            |--D. smithiF71
            `--D. vagusM14
Dicranograptidae incertae sedis:
  Leptograptus Lapworth 1873FC86, B70
    |--*L. flaccidus (Hall 1865) [=Graptolithus flaccidus]B70
    |    |--L. f. flaccidusB70
    |    |--L. f. macilentusB70
    |    `--L. f. trentonensisB70
    `--L. capillarisF71
  Aclistograptus Ge in Mu et al. 2002M14
  Amphigraptus Lapworth 1873M14 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*A. divergens (Hall 1859)B70 (see below for synonymy)
    `--‘Graptolithus’ multifasciatus Hall 1859 [=*Clematograptus multifasciatus]B70
  Deflexigraptus Mu in Mu et al. 2002M14
  Dicaulograptus Rickards & Bulman 1965 [Dicaulograptidae]M14
    `--*D. hystrix (Bulman 1932) [=Lasiograptus hystrix]B70
  Incumbograptus Ge in Mu et al. 2002M14
  Jiangxigraptus Yu & Fang 1966M14
  Ningxiagraptus Ge in Mu et al. 2002M14
  Pseudazygograptus Mu, Lee & Geh 1960M14
    `--*P. incurvus (Ekström 1937)B70 [=Azygograptus incurvusFC86]
  Syndyograptus Ruedemann 1908M14 [incl. Tangyagraptus Mu 1963B70]
    |--*S. pecten Ruedemann 1908B70
    `--*Tangyagraptus’ typicus Mu 1963B70

Amphigraptus Lapworth 1873M14 [=Coenograptus Hall 1868B70; incl. Clematograptus Hopkinson in Hopkinson & Lapworth 1875B70]

*Amphigraptus divergens (Hall 1859)B70 [=Graptolithus divergensB70, *Coenograptus divergensB70; incl. Amphigraptus divergens var. radiatusF71]

Nemagraptus Emmons 1855 [=Nemagrapsus, Helicograpsus Nicholson 1868, Stephanograptus Geinitz 1866; incl. Geitonograptus Obut & Zubtzov 1964]B70

*Nemagraptus gracilis (Hall 1848) [=Graptolithus gracilis, *Helicograpsus gracilis, *Stephanograptus gracilis; incl. N. elegans Emmons 1855]B70

Pleurograptus Nicholson 1867 [=Pleurograpsus, Cladograpsus Carruthers 1858 nec Geinitz 1852 nec Emmons 1855]B70

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B70] Bulman, O. M. B. 1970. Graptolithina with sections on Enteropneusta and Pterobranchia. In: Teichert, C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt V 2nd ed. pp. V1–V149. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and the University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[C68] Cooper, R. A. 1968. Lower and Middle Paleozoic fossil localities of north-west Nelson. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Geology 6 (7): 75–89.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[FC86] Fortey, R. A., & R. A. Cooper. 1986. A phylogenetic classification of the graptoloids. Palaeontology 29: 631–654.

[LM05] Lehnert, O., J. F. Miller, S. A. Leslie, J. E. Repetski & R. L. Ethington. 2005. Cambro-Ordovician sea-level fluctuations and sequence boundaries: the missing record and the evolution of new taxa. Special Papers in Palaeontology 73: 117–134.

[M14] Maletz, J. 2014. The classification of the Pterobranchia (Cephalodiscida and Graptolithina). Bulletin of Geosciences 89 (3): 477–540.

[R93] Rickards, R. B. 1993. Graptolithina. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 537–542. Chapman & Hall: London.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

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